Abstract

To demonstrate that eye movements have profound effects on the sine-wave contrast threshold, the author uses a new method of stabilizing the retinal image, in which the Purkinje reflections from the eye move the stimulus pattern displayed on a CRT screen. Calibration of this compensatory motion is very critical; a gain error greater than 1% may produce significant destabilization. Under optimum conditions, image stabilization elevates the subject’s contrast threshold by a factor of about 20; it also produces after-images with resolution greater than 12 c/deg. These results compare favorably with those obtained by other methods.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. W. Ditchburn, Eye-movements and Visual Perception (Clarendon, Oxford, 1973), p. 142.
  2. J. Krauskopf, "Effect of retinal image motion on contrast thresholds for maintained vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 740–744 (1957).
  3. R. W. Ditchburn, D. H. Fender, and Stella Mayne, "Vision with controlled movements of the retinal image," J. Physiol. (London) 145, 98–107 (1959).
  4. Ü. Tulunay-Keesey and L. A. Riggs, "Visibility of Mach bands with imposed motions of the retinal image," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52,719–720 (1962).
  5. A. L. Yarbus, Eye-movements and Vision (Plenum, New York, 1967), p. 86.
  6. R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, "The effect of retinal image movements on vision. II. Oscillatory movements," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 197, 385–406 (1977).
  7. R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, "Vision with a stabilized retinal image," Nature (Lond.) 170, 36–37 (1952).
  8. L. A. Riggs, F. Ratliff, J. C. Cornsweet, and T. N. Cornsweet, "Disappearance of steadily fixated test objects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495–501 (1953).
  9. L. A. Riggs, personal communication.
  10. H. D. Crane and C. M. Steele, "Accurate three-dimensional eyetracker," Appl. Opt. 17, 691–705 (1978).
  11. T. N. Cornsweet and H. D. Crane, "Accurate two-dimensional eye tracker using first and fourth Purkinje images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 921–928 (1973).
  12. D. H. Kelly, "Visual contrast sensitivity," Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).
  13. J. G. Robson, "Spatial and temporal contrast-sensitivity functions of the visual system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141–1142 (1966).
  14. D. H. Kelly, "Frequency doubling in visual responses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1628–1633 (1966).
  15. F. L. van Nes, J. J. Koenderink, H. Nas, and M. A. Bouman, "Spatiotemporal modulation transfer in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1082–1088 (1967).
  16. D. H. Kelly, "Adaptation effects on spatio-temporal sine-wave thresholds," Vision Res. 12, 89–101 (1972).
  17. J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, A. E. Bueno de Mesquita, S. Slappendel, "Perimetry of contrast detection thresholds of moving spatial sine wave patterns," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 845–865 (1978).
  18. H. D. Crane and T. N. Cornsweet, "Ocular focus stimulator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 577 (1970).
  19. D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, "A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods," Percept. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).
  20. See, for example, L. A. Riggs and S. U. Tulunay, "Visual effects of varying the extent of compensation for eye movements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 741–745 (1959).
  21. Ref. 1, p. 129.
  22. In subsequent papers of this series, we will consider other evidence that contrast thresholds are controlled by retinal receptive fields.
  23. H. D. Crane and T. P. Piantanida, unpublished communication (1978).
  24. H. D. Crane and M. R. Clark, "Three dimensional visual stimulus deflector," Appl. Opt. 17, 706–714 (1978).
  25. Ü. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, "The effect of micromovements of the eye and exposure duration on contrast sensitivity," Vision Res. 16, 481–488 (1976).
  26. D. S. Gilbert and D. H. Fender, "Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings," Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).
  27. A. Watanabe, T. Mori, S. Nagata, and K. Hiwatashi, "Spatial sine-wave responses of the human visual system," Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).
  28. L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, unpublished communication (1977).
  29. The form of the normal contrast sensitivity curve, and the effects of various parameters upon it, are discussed extensively in Ref. 12.
  30. J. J. Koenderink, "Contrast enhancement and the negative afterimage," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 685–689 (1972).
  31. V. Virsu and P. Laurinen, "Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).
  32. D. H. Kelly, "New method of stabilizing retinal images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1184, abstract (1973).
  33. In some unpublished experiments conducted in this laboratory, H. D. Crane and T. P. Piantanida have found that the luminance of a stabilized reflectance pattern can be changed rapidly (e.g., by flickering the light source at rates above 10 Hz) without restoring its visibility, as long as the contrast of the pattern is held constant. This result is just what would be expected from the kind of retinal masking described here.

1978 (3)

1977 (3)

V. Virsu and P. Laurinen, "Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).

D. H. Kelly, "Visual contrast sensitivity," Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).

R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, "The effect of retinal image movements on vision. II. Oscillatory movements," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 197, 385–406 (1977).

1976 (1)

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, "The effect of micromovements of the eye and exposure duration on contrast sensitivity," Vision Res. 16, 481–488 (1976).

1973 (3)

D. H. Kelly, "New method of stabilizing retinal images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1184, abstract (1973).

T. N. Cornsweet and H. D. Crane, "Accurate two-dimensional eye tracker using first and fourth Purkinje images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 921–928 (1973).

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, "A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods," Percept. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).

1972 (2)

D. H. Kelly, "Adaptation effects on spatio-temporal sine-wave thresholds," Vision Res. 12, 89–101 (1972).

J. J. Koenderink, "Contrast enhancement and the negative afterimage," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 685–689 (1972).

1970 (1)

1969 (1)

D. S. Gilbert and D. H. Fender, "Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings," Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).

1968 (1)

A. Watanabe, T. Mori, S. Nagata, and K. Hiwatashi, "Spatial sine-wave responses of the human visual system," Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).

1967 (1)

1966 (2)

1962 (1)

1959 (2)

R. W. Ditchburn, D. H. Fender, and Stella Mayne, "Vision with controlled movements of the retinal image," J. Physiol. (London) 145, 98–107 (1959).

See, for example, L. A. Riggs and S. U. Tulunay, "Visual effects of varying the extent of compensation for eye movements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 741–745 (1959).

1957 (1)

1953 (1)

1952 (1)

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, "Vision with a stabilized retinal image," Nature (Lond.) 170, 36–37 (1952).

Bouman, M. A.

Clark, M. R.

Cornsweet, J. C.

Cornsweet, T. N.

Crane, H. D.

de Mesquita, A. E. Bueno

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, "The effect of retinal image movements on vision. II. Oscillatory movements," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 197, 385–406 (1977).

R. W. Ditchburn, D. H. Fender, and Stella Mayne, "Vision with controlled movements of the retinal image," J. Physiol. (London) 145, 98–107 (1959).

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, "Vision with a stabilized retinal image," Nature (Lond.) 170, 36–37 (1952).

R. W. Ditchburn, Eye-movements and Visual Perception (Clarendon, Oxford, 1973), p. 142.

Drysdale, A. E.

R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, "The effect of retinal image movements on vision. II. Oscillatory movements," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 197, 385–406 (1977).

Fender, D. H.

D. S. Gilbert and D. H. Fender, "Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings," Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).

R. W. Ditchburn, D. H. Fender, and Stella Mayne, "Vision with controlled movements of the retinal image," J. Physiol. (London) 145, 98–107 (1959).

Gilbert, D. S.

D. S. Gilbert and D. H. Fender, "Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings," Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).

Ginsborg, B. L.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, "Vision with a stabilized retinal image," Nature (Lond.) 170, 36–37 (1952).

Hiwatashi, K.

A. Watanabe, T. Mori, S. Nagata, and K. Hiwatashi, "Spatial sine-wave responses of the human visual system," Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).

Jones, R. M.

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, "The effect of micromovements of the eye and exposure duration on contrast sensitivity," Vision Res. 16, 481–488 (1976).

Kelly, D. H.

D. H. Kelly, "Visual contrast sensitivity," Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, "A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods," Percept. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).

D. H. Kelly, "New method of stabilizing retinal images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1184, abstract (1973).

D. H. Kelly, "Adaptation effects on spatio-temporal sine-wave thresholds," Vision Res. 12, 89–101 (1972).

D. H. Kelly, "Frequency doubling in visual responses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1628–1633 (1966).

Koenderink, J. J.

Krauskopf, J.

Laurinen, P.

V. Virsu and P. Laurinen, "Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).

Mayne, Stella

R. W. Ditchburn, D. H. Fender, and Stella Mayne, "Vision with controlled movements of the retinal image," J. Physiol. (London) 145, 98–107 (1959).

Mori, T.

A. Watanabe, T. Mori, S. Nagata, and K. Hiwatashi, "Spatial sine-wave responses of the human visual system," Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).

Nagata, S.

A. Watanabe, T. Mori, S. Nagata, and K. Hiwatashi, "Spatial sine-wave responses of the human visual system," Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).

Nas, H.

Piantanida, T. P.

H. D. Crane and T. P. Piantanida, unpublished communication (1978).

Ratliff, F.

Riggs, L. A.

Robson, J. G.

Savoie, R. E.

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, "A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods," Percept. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).

Slappendel, S.

Steele, C. M.

Tulunay, S. U.

Tulunay-Keesey, Ü.

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, "The effect of micromovements of the eye and exposure duration on contrast sensitivity," Vision Res. 16, 481–488 (1976).

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey and L. A. Riggs, "Visibility of Mach bands with imposed motions of the retinal image," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52,719–720 (1962).

van Nes, F. L.

Virsu, V.

V. Virsu and P. Laurinen, "Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).

Watanabe, A.

A. Watanabe, T. Mori, S. Nagata, and K. Hiwatashi, "Spatial sine-wave responses of the human visual system," Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).

Wooten, B. R.

L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, unpublished communication (1977).

Yarbus, A. L.

A. L. Yarbus, Eye-movements and Vision (Plenum, New York, 1967), p. 86.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (12)

J. J. Koenderink, "Contrast enhancement and the negative afterimage," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 685–689 (1972).

D. H. Kelly, "New method of stabilizing retinal images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1184, abstract (1973).

See, for example, L. A. Riggs and S. U. Tulunay, "Visual effects of varying the extent of compensation for eye movements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 741–745 (1959).

T. N. Cornsweet and H. D. Crane, "Accurate two-dimensional eye tracker using first and fourth Purkinje images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 921–928 (1973).

J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, A. E. Bueno de Mesquita, S. Slappendel, "Perimetry of contrast detection thresholds of moving spatial sine wave patterns," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 845–865 (1978).

H. D. Crane and T. N. Cornsweet, "Ocular focus stimulator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 577 (1970).

J. G. Robson, "Spatial and temporal contrast-sensitivity functions of the visual system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141–1142 (1966).

D. H. Kelly, "Frequency doubling in visual responses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1628–1633 (1966).

F. L. van Nes, J. J. Koenderink, H. Nas, and M. A. Bouman, "Spatiotemporal modulation transfer in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1082–1088 (1967).

J. Krauskopf, "Effect of retinal image motion on contrast thresholds for maintained vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 740–744 (1957).

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey and L. A. Riggs, "Visibility of Mach bands with imposed motions of the retinal image," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52,719–720 (1962).

L. A. Riggs, F. Ratliff, J. C. Cornsweet, and T. N. Cornsweet, "Disappearance of steadily fixated test objects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495–501 (1953).

J. Physiol. (1)

R. W. Ditchburn, D. H. Fender, and Stella Mayne, "Vision with controlled movements of the retinal image," J. Physiol. (London) 145, 98–107 (1959).

Nature (1)

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, "Vision with a stabilized retinal image," Nature (Lond.) 170, 36–37 (1952).

Opt. Acta (2)

D. S. Gilbert and D. H. Fender, "Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings," Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).

D. H. Kelly, "Visual contrast sensitivity," Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, "A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods," Percept. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (1)

R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, "The effect of retinal image movements on vision. II. Oscillatory movements," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 197, 385–406 (1977).

Vision Res. (4)

D. H. Kelly, "Adaptation effects on spatio-temporal sine-wave thresholds," Vision Res. 12, 89–101 (1972).

A. Watanabe, T. Mori, S. Nagata, and K. Hiwatashi, "Spatial sine-wave responses of the human visual system," Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).

V. Virsu and P. Laurinen, "Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, "The effect of micromovements of the eye and exposure duration on contrast sensitivity," Vision Res. 16, 481–488 (1976).

Other (9)

In some unpublished experiments conducted in this laboratory, H. D. Crane and T. P. Piantanida have found that the luminance of a stabilized reflectance pattern can be changed rapidly (e.g., by flickering the light source at rates above 10 Hz) without restoring its visibility, as long as the contrast of the pattern is held constant. This result is just what would be expected from the kind of retinal masking described here.

L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, unpublished communication (1977).

The form of the normal contrast sensitivity curve, and the effects of various parameters upon it, are discussed extensively in Ref. 12.

Ref. 1, p. 129.

In subsequent papers of this series, we will consider other evidence that contrast thresholds are controlled by retinal receptive fields.

H. D. Crane and T. P. Piantanida, unpublished communication (1978).

R. W. Ditchburn, Eye-movements and Visual Perception (Clarendon, Oxford, 1973), p. 142.

L. A. Riggs, personal communication.

A. L. Yarbus, Eye-movements and Vision (Plenum, New York, 1967), p. 86.

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