Abstract

A color-naming method was used to examine the large-field red/green discriminations of dlchromats screened with standard tests. The stimulus was a 12°. annular field with the central 4°. removed, flashed for 300 ms. Four wavelengths were equated in brightness for each observer at two retinal illuminance levels, approximately 10 and 100 trolands. The stimuli were then presented in random order and the observer was asked to name each, using one of four color terms. The entire experiment was done with the observers dark-adapted and also with the rods bleached. For all four deuteranopes and two of four protanopes, color names were very significantly related to both illuminance and wavelength in both adaptation conditions. The relationship between name and wavelength was similar to that of a normal trichromat, but the performance of a dichromat was very poor by comparison. Performance was generally somewhat better in the dark than with the rods bleached. However, the result in the bleached condition is consistent with recent evidence that at least some observers who are classified as dichromats with standard small-field screening procedures actually have a weak residual third cone mechanism.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. A. Nagel, "Dichromatische Fovea, trichromatische Peripherie," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnes. 39, 93–101 (1905).
  2. W. A. Nagel, "Neue Effrahrungen uber das Farbensehen der dichromaten auf grossen felde," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 319–337 (1907).
  3. W. A. Nagel, "Farbenstimmung beim Dichromaten," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 44, 5–17 (1910).
  4. W. Jaeger and K. Kroker, "Uber das Verhalten der Protanopen und Deuteranopen bei grossen Reizflachen," Klin MBL. Augenhelk. 121, 445–449 (1952).
  5. V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Large-field trichromacy in protanopes and deuteranopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 213–220 (1977).
  6. H. M. O. Scheibner and R. M. Boynton, "Residual red-green discrimination in dichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1151–1158 (1968).
  7. F. Frome, T. Piantanida, and D. H. Kelly, "Flicker thresholds reveal forbidden cones in dichromats," Supplement to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 197 (1978).
  8. T. P. Piantanida, F. Frome, and D. H. Kelly, "Spectral sensitivity of the forbidden cones in dichromats," Supplement to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 197–198 (1978).
  9. M. Alpern and T. Wake, "Cone pigments in human deutan colour vision defects," J. Physiol. 266, 595–612 (1977).
  10. Subsequent to the preparation of this manuscript one protanope and one deuteranope were run using a "Ganzfield" bleach, obtained with a slide projector beam illuminating a half of a ping-pong ball mounted in the bottom of a coffee cup [See T. R. Corwin and M. A. Green, "The Broca-Sulzer effect in a ganzfield," Vis. Res. 18, 1675–1678, (1978)]. The observer placed his eye to the ping-pong ball to obtain a reasonably homogeneous bleach of the entire retina. Color-naming data were obtained following the same procedures used in the bleaching experiments described above. Both observers performed about as well as they did in experiments with 20° bleaches. This result indicates that the results described in the body of the paper cannot be attributed to stray light from the test flashes falling on unbleached rods.
  11. C. E. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423 (1948).
  12. p. Attneave, Applications of Information Theory to Psychology (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1959).
  13. W. L. Hays, Statistics (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1963).
  14. G. A. Miller and W. G. Madow, "On the maximum likelihood estimates of the Shannon-Weiner measure of information," Air Force Cambridge Research Center: Tech. Rpt. 54–75 (August, 1954) (unpublished).
  15. W. A. H. Rushton, "Rhodopsin measurement and dark adaptation in a subject deficient in cone vision," J. Physiol. 156, 193–205 (1961).
  16. M. Alpern, W. A. H. Rushton, and S. Torii, "The attenuation of rod signals by bleaching," J. Physiol. 207, 449–461 (1970).
  17. C. J. Gosline, D. I. A. MacLeod, and W. A. H. Rushton, "The dark adaptation curve of rods measured by their after-image," J. Physiol. 259, 491–499 (1976).
  18. M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, and T. A. Bruch, "Rod-cone independence in dark adaptation," Vis. Res. 16, 591–600 (1976).
  19. B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, "Colour-vision mechanisms in peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers," J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
  20. J. Gordon and I. Abramov, "Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–206 (1977).
  21. W. A. H. Rushton, "Discussion on human color vision," edited by A. V. S. DeReuck and J. Knight, in Ciba Foundation Symposium on Color Vision (Little, Brown, Boston, 1965). pp. 246–247.
  22. M. Alpern, "Distal mechanisms of vertebrate color vision," Ann. Rev. Physiol. 30, 279–318 (1968).
  23. J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).
  24. V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Spectral sensitivity of color-blind observers and the cone photopigments," Vision Res. 12, 2059–2071 (1972).

1978

F. Frome, T. Piantanida, and D. H. Kelly, "Flicker thresholds reveal forbidden cones in dichromats," Supplement to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 197 (1978).

T. P. Piantanida, F. Frome, and D. H. Kelly, "Spectral sensitivity of the forbidden cones in dichromats," Supplement to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 197–198 (1978).

1977

1976

C. J. Gosline, D. I. A. MacLeod, and W. A. H. Rushton, "The dark adaptation curve of rods measured by their after-image," J. Physiol. 259, 491–499 (1976).

M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, and T. A. Bruch, "Rod-cone independence in dark adaptation," Vis. Res. 16, 591–600 (1976).

1973

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, "Colour-vision mechanisms in peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers," J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

1972

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Spectral sensitivity of color-blind observers and the cone photopigments," Vision Res. 12, 2059–2071 (1972).

1971

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

1970

M. Alpern, W. A. H. Rushton, and S. Torii, "The attenuation of rod signals by bleaching," J. Physiol. 207, 449–461 (1970).

1968

H. M. O. Scheibner and R. M. Boynton, "Residual red-green discrimination in dichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1151–1158 (1968).

M. Alpern, "Distal mechanisms of vertebrate color vision," Ann. Rev. Physiol. 30, 279–318 (1968).

1961

W. A. H. Rushton, "Rhodopsin measurement and dark adaptation in a subject deficient in cone vision," J. Physiol. 156, 193–205 (1961).

1952

W. Jaeger and K. Kroker, "Uber das Verhalten der Protanopen und Deuteranopen bei grossen Reizflachen," Klin MBL. Augenhelk. 121, 445–449 (1952).

1948

C. E. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423 (1948).

1910

W. A. Nagel, "Farbenstimmung beim Dichromaten," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 44, 5–17 (1910).

1907

W. A. Nagel, "Neue Effrahrungen uber das Farbensehen der dichromaten auf grossen felde," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 319–337 (1907).

1905

W. A. Nagel, "Dichromatische Fovea, trichromatische Peripherie," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnes. 39, 93–101 (1905).

Abramov, I.

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern and T. Wake, "Cone pigments in human deutan colour vision defects," J. Physiol. 266, 595–612 (1977).

M. Alpern, W. A. H. Rushton, and S. Torii, "The attenuation of rod signals by bleaching," J. Physiol. 207, 449–461 (1970).

M. Alpern, "Distal mechanisms of vertebrate color vision," Ann. Rev. Physiol. 30, 279–318 (1968).

Attneave, p.

p. Attneave, Applications of Information Theory to Psychology (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1959).

Boynton, R. M.

Bruch, T. A.

M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, and T. A. Bruch, "Rod-cone independence in dark adaptation," Vis. Res. 16, 591–600 (1976).

Frome, F.

T. P. Piantanida, F. Frome, and D. H. Kelly, "Spectral sensitivity of the forbidden cones in dichromats," Supplement to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 197–198 (1978).

F. Frome, T. Piantanida, and D. H. Kelly, "Flicker thresholds reveal forbidden cones in dichromats," Supplement to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 197 (1978).

Gordon, J.

Gosline, C. J.

C. J. Gosline, D. I. A. MacLeod, and W. A. H. Rushton, "The dark adaptation curve of rods measured by their after-image," J. Physiol. 259, 491–499 (1976).

Hayhoe, M. M.

M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, and T. A. Bruch, "Rod-cone independence in dark adaptation," Vis. Res. 16, 591–600 (1976).

Hays, W. L.

W. L. Hays, Statistics (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1963).

Jaeger, W.

W. Jaeger and K. Kroker, "Uber das Verhalten der Protanopen und Deuteranopen bei grossen Reizflachen," Klin MBL. Augenhelk. 121, 445–449 (1952).

Kelly, D. H.

T. P. Piantanida, F. Frome, and D. H. Kelly, "Spectral sensitivity of the forbidden cones in dichromats," Supplement to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 197–198 (1978).

F. Frome, T. Piantanida, and D. H. Kelly, "Flicker thresholds reveal forbidden cones in dichromats," Supplement to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 197 (1978).

Kroker, K.

W. Jaeger and K. Kroker, "Uber das Verhalten der Protanopen und Deuteranopen bei grossen Reizflachen," Klin MBL. Augenhelk. 121, 445–449 (1952).

MacLeod, D. I. A.

M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, and T. A. Bruch, "Rod-cone independence in dark adaptation," Vis. Res. 16, 591–600 (1976).

C. J. Gosline, D. I. A. MacLeod, and W. A. H. Rushton, "The dark adaptation curve of rods measured by their after-image," J. Physiol. 259, 491–499 (1976).

Madow, W. G.

G. A. Miller and W. G. Madow, "On the maximum likelihood estimates of the Shannon-Weiner measure of information," Air Force Cambridge Research Center: Tech. Rpt. 54–75 (August, 1954) (unpublished).

Miller, G. A.

G. A. Miller and W. G. Madow, "On the maximum likelihood estimates of the Shannon-Weiner measure of information," Air Force Cambridge Research Center: Tech. Rpt. 54–75 (August, 1954) (unpublished).

Nagel, W. A.

W. A. Nagel, "Farbenstimmung beim Dichromaten," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 44, 5–17 (1910).

W. A. Nagel, "Neue Effrahrungen uber das Farbensehen der dichromaten auf grossen felde," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 319–337 (1907).

W. A. Nagel, "Dichromatische Fovea, trichromatische Peripherie," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnes. 39, 93–101 (1905).

Piantanida, T.

F. Frome, T. Piantanida, and D. H. Kelly, "Flicker thresholds reveal forbidden cones in dichromats," Supplement to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 197 (1978).

Piantanida, T. P.

T. P. Piantanida, F. Frome, and D. H. Kelly, "Spectral sensitivity of the forbidden cones in dichromats," Supplement to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 197–198 (1978).

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Large-field trichromacy in protanopes and deuteranopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 213–220 (1977).

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Spectral sensitivity of color-blind observers and the cone photopigments," Vision Res. 12, 2059–2071 (1972).

Rushton, W. A. H.

C. J. Gosline, D. I. A. MacLeod, and W. A. H. Rushton, "The dark adaptation curve of rods measured by their after-image," J. Physiol. 259, 491–499 (1976).

M. Alpern, W. A. H. Rushton, and S. Torii, "The attenuation of rod signals by bleaching," J. Physiol. 207, 449–461 (1970).

W. A. H. Rushton, "Rhodopsin measurement and dark adaptation in a subject deficient in cone vision," J. Physiol. 156, 193–205 (1961).

W. A. H. Rushton, "Discussion on human color vision," edited by A. V. S. DeReuck and J. Knight, in Ciba Foundation Symposium on Color Vision (Little, Brown, Boston, 1965). pp. 246–247.

Scheibner, H. M. O.

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423 (1948).

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Large-field trichromacy in protanopes and deuteranopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 213–220 (1977).

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Spectral sensitivity of color-blind observers and the cone photopigments," Vision Res. 12, 2059–2071 (1972).

Torii, S.

M. Alpern, W. A. H. Rushton, and S. Torii, "The attenuation of rod signals by bleaching," J. Physiol. 207, 449–461 (1970).

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

Wake, T.

M. Alpern and T. Wake, "Cone pigments in human deutan colour vision defects," J. Physiol. 266, 595–612 (1977).

Wald, G.

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, "Colour-vision mechanisms in peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers," J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

Walraven, P. L.

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, "Colour-vision mechanisms in peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers," J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

Ann. Rev. Physiol.

M. Alpern, "Distal mechanisms of vertebrate color vision," Ann. Rev. Physiol. 30, 279–318 (1968).

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

C. E. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423 (1948).

J. Gen. Physiol.

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, "Colour-vision mechanisms in peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers," J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Physiol.

W. A. H. Rushton, "Rhodopsin measurement and dark adaptation in a subject deficient in cone vision," J. Physiol. 156, 193–205 (1961).

M. Alpern, W. A. H. Rushton, and S. Torii, "The attenuation of rod signals by bleaching," J. Physiol. 207, 449–461 (1970).

C. J. Gosline, D. I. A. MacLeod, and W. A. H. Rushton, "The dark adaptation curve of rods measured by their after-image," J. Physiol. 259, 491–499 (1976).

M. Alpern and T. Wake, "Cone pigments in human deutan colour vision defects," J. Physiol. 266, 595–612 (1977).

Klin MBL. Augenhelk.

W. Jaeger and K. Kroker, "Uber das Verhalten der Protanopen und Deuteranopen bei grossen Reizflachen," Klin MBL. Augenhelk. 121, 445–449 (1952).

Supplement to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

F. Frome, T. Piantanida, and D. H. Kelly, "Flicker thresholds reveal forbidden cones in dichromats," Supplement to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 197 (1978).

T. P. Piantanida, F. Frome, and D. H. Kelly, "Spectral sensitivity of the forbidden cones in dichromats," Supplement to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 197–198 (1978).

Vis. Res.

M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, and T. A. Bruch, "Rod-cone independence in dark adaptation," Vis. Res. 16, 591–600 (1976).

Vision Res.

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Spectral sensitivity of color-blind observers and the cone photopigments," Vision Res. 12, 2059–2071 (1972).

Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnes.

W. A. Nagel, "Dichromatische Fovea, trichromatische Peripherie," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnes. 39, 93–101 (1905).

Z. Sinnesphysiol.

W. A. Nagel, "Neue Effrahrungen uber das Farbensehen der dichromaten auf grossen felde," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 319–337 (1907).

W. A. Nagel, "Farbenstimmung beim Dichromaten," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 44, 5–17 (1910).

Other

Subsequent to the preparation of this manuscript one protanope and one deuteranope were run using a "Ganzfield" bleach, obtained with a slide projector beam illuminating a half of a ping-pong ball mounted in the bottom of a coffee cup [See T. R. Corwin and M. A. Green, "The Broca-Sulzer effect in a ganzfield," Vis. Res. 18, 1675–1678, (1978)]. The observer placed his eye to the ping-pong ball to obtain a reasonably homogeneous bleach of the entire retina. Color-naming data were obtained following the same procedures used in the bleaching experiments described above. Both observers performed about as well as they did in experiments with 20° bleaches. This result indicates that the results described in the body of the paper cannot be attributed to stray light from the test flashes falling on unbleached rods.

p. Attneave, Applications of Information Theory to Psychology (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1959).

W. L. Hays, Statistics (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1963).

G. A. Miller and W. G. Madow, "On the maximum likelihood estimates of the Shannon-Weiner measure of information," Air Force Cambridge Research Center: Tech. Rpt. 54–75 (August, 1954) (unpublished).

W. A. H. Rushton, "Discussion on human color vision," edited by A. V. S. DeReuck and J. Knight, in Ciba Foundation Symposium on Color Vision (Little, Brown, Boston, 1965). pp. 246–247.

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