Abstract

Photographs of a ground-based laser beacon were taken by astronauts on board the Skylab spacecraft. Unexpected large and elliptical laser-beam images were recorded. The photographic results are presented and discussed in terms of possible atmospheric scattering mechanisms. Current beacon experiments with the Landsat spacecraft are also discussed.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. R. Piech and J. R. Schott, “Evaluation of skylab earth laser beacon imagery,” Final Report No. KL-5552-M-1, Calspan Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., March1975 (unpublished).
  2. E. A. Bucher, Proc. of the National Electronics Conf., Vol. 29, Oct.1974, pp. 180–185 (unpublished).
  3. H. M. Heggestad, “Optical communication through multiple-scattering media,” Tech. Report 472, MIT, Cambridge, Mass., Nov.22, 1968 (unpublished).
  4. R. M. Lerner and A. M. Holland, “The optical scatter channel,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1547–1564 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. T. Yura, Proc. of the E. M. Propagation through Atmospheric Turbulence Conf., La Baule, France, April28, 1977, pp. 65–69 (unpublished).
  6. E. J. Mack, U. Katz, C. W. Rogers, D. W. Gaucher, K. R. Piech, C. K. Akers, and R. J. Pilie, “An investigation of the meteorology, physics and chemistry of marine boundary layer processes,” Report No. CJ-6017-M-1, Calspan Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., Oct.1977 (unpublished).
  7. W. E. Evans, “Effect of sun angle, atmospheric attenuation, and turbulence on mirror beacons for Landsat image control,” Tech. Report PB-255 404, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., March1976 (unpublished).
  8. R. E. Var, “Advanced earth observation system instrumentation study,” Final Report No. R-963, The Charles Stark Draper Lab. Inc., Cambridge, Mass., June1976 (unpublished).

1970 (1)

R. M. Lerner and A. M. Holland, “The optical scatter channel,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1547–1564 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Akers, C. K.

E. J. Mack, U. Katz, C. W. Rogers, D. W. Gaucher, K. R. Piech, C. K. Akers, and R. J. Pilie, “An investigation of the meteorology, physics and chemistry of marine boundary layer processes,” Report No. CJ-6017-M-1, Calspan Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., Oct.1977 (unpublished).

Bucher, E. A.

E. A. Bucher, Proc. of the National Electronics Conf., Vol. 29, Oct.1974, pp. 180–185 (unpublished).

Evans, W. E.

W. E. Evans, “Effect of sun angle, atmospheric attenuation, and turbulence on mirror beacons for Landsat image control,” Tech. Report PB-255 404, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., March1976 (unpublished).

Gaucher, D. W.

E. J. Mack, U. Katz, C. W. Rogers, D. W. Gaucher, K. R. Piech, C. K. Akers, and R. J. Pilie, “An investigation of the meteorology, physics and chemistry of marine boundary layer processes,” Report No. CJ-6017-M-1, Calspan Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., Oct.1977 (unpublished).

Heggestad, H. M.

H. M. Heggestad, “Optical communication through multiple-scattering media,” Tech. Report 472, MIT, Cambridge, Mass., Nov.22, 1968 (unpublished).

Holland, A. M.

R. M. Lerner and A. M. Holland, “The optical scatter channel,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1547–1564 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Katz, U.

E. J. Mack, U. Katz, C. W. Rogers, D. W. Gaucher, K. R. Piech, C. K. Akers, and R. J. Pilie, “An investigation of the meteorology, physics and chemistry of marine boundary layer processes,” Report No. CJ-6017-M-1, Calspan Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., Oct.1977 (unpublished).

Lerner, R. M.

R. M. Lerner and A. M. Holland, “The optical scatter channel,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1547–1564 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Mack, E. J.

E. J. Mack, U. Katz, C. W. Rogers, D. W. Gaucher, K. R. Piech, C. K. Akers, and R. J. Pilie, “An investigation of the meteorology, physics and chemistry of marine boundary layer processes,” Report No. CJ-6017-M-1, Calspan Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., Oct.1977 (unpublished).

Piech, K. R.

E. J. Mack, U. Katz, C. W. Rogers, D. W. Gaucher, K. R. Piech, C. K. Akers, and R. J. Pilie, “An investigation of the meteorology, physics and chemistry of marine boundary layer processes,” Report No. CJ-6017-M-1, Calspan Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., Oct.1977 (unpublished).

K. R. Piech and J. R. Schott, “Evaluation of skylab earth laser beacon imagery,” Final Report No. KL-5552-M-1, Calspan Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., March1975 (unpublished).

Pilie, R. J.

E. J. Mack, U. Katz, C. W. Rogers, D. W. Gaucher, K. R. Piech, C. K. Akers, and R. J. Pilie, “An investigation of the meteorology, physics and chemistry of marine boundary layer processes,” Report No. CJ-6017-M-1, Calspan Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., Oct.1977 (unpublished).

Rogers, C. W.

E. J. Mack, U. Katz, C. W. Rogers, D. W. Gaucher, K. R. Piech, C. K. Akers, and R. J. Pilie, “An investigation of the meteorology, physics and chemistry of marine boundary layer processes,” Report No. CJ-6017-M-1, Calspan Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., Oct.1977 (unpublished).

Schott, J. R.

K. R. Piech and J. R. Schott, “Evaluation of skylab earth laser beacon imagery,” Final Report No. KL-5552-M-1, Calspan Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., March1975 (unpublished).

Var, R. E.

R. E. Var, “Advanced earth observation system instrumentation study,” Final Report No. R-963, The Charles Stark Draper Lab. Inc., Cambridge, Mass., June1976 (unpublished).

Yura, H. T.

H. T. Yura, Proc. of the E. M. Propagation through Atmospheric Turbulence Conf., La Baule, France, April28, 1977, pp. 65–69 (unpublished).

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. M. Lerner and A. M. Holland, “The optical scatter channel,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1547–1564 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

H. T. Yura, Proc. of the E. M. Propagation through Atmospheric Turbulence Conf., La Baule, France, April28, 1977, pp. 65–69 (unpublished).

E. J. Mack, U. Katz, C. W. Rogers, D. W. Gaucher, K. R. Piech, C. K. Akers, and R. J. Pilie, “An investigation of the meteorology, physics and chemistry of marine boundary layer processes,” Report No. CJ-6017-M-1, Calspan Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., Oct.1977 (unpublished).

W. E. Evans, “Effect of sun angle, atmospheric attenuation, and turbulence on mirror beacons for Landsat image control,” Tech. Report PB-255 404, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., March1976 (unpublished).

R. E. Var, “Advanced earth observation system instrumentation study,” Final Report No. R-963, The Charles Stark Draper Lab. Inc., Cambridge, Mass., June1976 (unpublished).

K. R. Piech and J. R. Schott, “Evaluation of skylab earth laser beacon imagery,” Final Report No. KL-5552-M-1, Calspan Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., March1975 (unpublished).

E. A. Bucher, Proc. of the National Electronics Conf., Vol. 29, Oct.1974, pp. 180–185 (unpublished).

H. M. Heggestad, “Optical communication through multiple-scattering media,” Tech. Report 472, MIT, Cambridge, Mass., Nov.22, 1968 (unpublished).

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Figures (2)

PLATE 104
PLATE 104

(Bufton et al., p. 1180). Skylab Laser-Beacon Photograph: 3 December 1973, laser operateda t 3-W output at 514.5 nm. The beacon measures 230 by 190 m and occupies 3.4 resolution areas.

PLATE 105
PLATE 105

(Bufton et al., p. 1180). Skylab Laser-Beacon Photograph: 27 January 1974, laser operated at 1.8-W output at 590.0 nm. The beacon measures 280 by 160 m and occupies 4.1 resolution areas.