Abstract

The existence of hexagonal, pencil-shaped ice crystals that fall with their long axes horizontal is well established. We have used a computer simulation technique to examine the consequences of five mechanisms suggested in the literature to explain the origins of anthelic arcs. The results show that pencil crystals with horizontal axes may be responsible for the anthelic arcs, the anthelic pillar, and the anthelion.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. G. Greenler and A. J. Mallmann, "Circumscribed Halos," Science 176, 128–131 (1972).
  2. R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, J. R. Mueller, and R. Romito, "Form and Origins of the Parry Arcs," Science 195, 360–367 (1977).
  3. E. Everhart, "The Solar Halo Complex of September 17, 1960," Sky and Telescope 21, 14–15 (1961).
  4. R. G. Greenler, J. R. Mueller, W. Hahn, and A. J. Mallmann, "The 46° Halo and Its Arcs," Science (to be published).
  5. J. R. Blake, "The Fairbanks Halo of April 27, 1966," Mon. Weather Rev. 94, 599–604 (1966).
  6. P. P. Hattinga Verschure, "Rare Halo Displays in Amsterdam," Weather 26, 532–536 (1971); "Uncommon Optical Phenomena at Venlo 2 May, 1972," ibid. 28, 300–306 (1973).
  7. G. W. Robertson, "Unusual Halo Phenomena at Swift Current," Weather 29, 113–115 (1974).
  8. J. R. Blake, "Solar Halos in Antarctica," Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition Report No. 59, Ser. A, Vol. 4, Glaciology, (Antarctic Div., Melbourne, 1961).
  9. G. H. Liljequist, "Halo Phenomena and Ice Crystals," Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1949–1952, Scientific Results Vol. 2 Special Studies (Norsk Polarinstitutt, Oslo, 1956).
  10. S. W. Visser, "Die Halo-Erscheinung," Handbuch der Geophysik, Band 8, Kapitel 15 (Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, 1961).
  11. A. Wegener, "Theorie der Haupthalos," Archiv der Deutschen Seewarte, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Hamburg, 1926).
  12. C. S. Hastings, "A General Theory of Halos," Mon. Weather Rev. 48, 322–330 (1920).
  13. R. A. R. Tricker, "A Simple Theory of Certain Heliacal and Anthelic Halo Arcs. The Long Hexagonal Ice Prism as a Kaleidoscope," Q. J. R. Meteorolog. Soc. 99, 649–656 (1973).
  14. We used several methods of measuring the angles, working both directly from the 35mm slides and from enlarged projected images. In some cases we first sketched the arcs and drew tangent lines to the sketch; in others, we constructed tangent lines directly from the arcs in the photograph. We found that the reproducibility using any one method is better than the agreement between different methods. The number of ±5° on the measurements gives a reasonable indication of the uncertainty.
  15. Photograph from Rainbows, Halos, and Glories, to be published by Cambridge University Press.
  16. D. K. Lynch and Pt. Schwartz, "Formation of the anthelion," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 383–386 (1979).

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, J. R. Mueller, and R. Romito, "Form and Origins of the Parry Arcs," Science 195, 360–367 (1977).

1974 (1)

G. W. Robertson, "Unusual Halo Phenomena at Swift Current," Weather 29, 113–115 (1974).

1973 (1)

R. A. R. Tricker, "A Simple Theory of Certain Heliacal and Anthelic Halo Arcs. The Long Hexagonal Ice Prism as a Kaleidoscope," Q. J. R. Meteorolog. Soc. 99, 649–656 (1973).

1972 (1)

R. G. Greenler and A. J. Mallmann, "Circumscribed Halos," Science 176, 128–131 (1972).

1971 (1)

P. P. Hattinga Verschure, "Rare Halo Displays in Amsterdam," Weather 26, 532–536 (1971); "Uncommon Optical Phenomena at Venlo 2 May, 1972," ibid. 28, 300–306 (1973).

1966 (1)

J. R. Blake, "The Fairbanks Halo of April 27, 1966," Mon. Weather Rev. 94, 599–604 (1966).

1961 (1)

E. Everhart, "The Solar Halo Complex of September 17, 1960," Sky and Telescope 21, 14–15 (1961).

1920 (1)

C. S. Hastings, "A General Theory of Halos," Mon. Weather Rev. 48, 322–330 (1920).

Blake, J. R.

J. R. Blake, "The Fairbanks Halo of April 27, 1966," Mon. Weather Rev. 94, 599–604 (1966).

J. R. Blake, "Solar Halos in Antarctica," Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition Report No. 59, Ser. A, Vol. 4, Glaciology, (Antarctic Div., Melbourne, 1961).

Everhart, E.

E. Everhart, "The Solar Halo Complex of September 17, 1960," Sky and Telescope 21, 14–15 (1961).

Greenler, R. G.

R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, J. R. Mueller, and R. Romito, "Form and Origins of the Parry Arcs," Science 195, 360–367 (1977).

R. G. Greenler and A. J. Mallmann, "Circumscribed Halos," Science 176, 128–131 (1972).

R. G. Greenler, J. R. Mueller, W. Hahn, and A. J. Mallmann, "The 46° Halo and Its Arcs," Science (to be published).

Hahn, W.

R. G. Greenler, J. R. Mueller, W. Hahn, and A. J. Mallmann, "The 46° Halo and Its Arcs," Science (to be published).

Hastings, C. S.

C. S. Hastings, "A General Theory of Halos," Mon. Weather Rev. 48, 322–330 (1920).

Liljequist, G. H.

G. H. Liljequist, "Halo Phenomena and Ice Crystals," Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1949–1952, Scientific Results Vol. 2 Special Studies (Norsk Polarinstitutt, Oslo, 1956).

Lynch, D. K.

Mallmann, A. J.

R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, J. R. Mueller, and R. Romito, "Form and Origins of the Parry Arcs," Science 195, 360–367 (1977).

R. G. Greenler and A. J. Mallmann, "Circumscribed Halos," Science 176, 128–131 (1972).

R. G. Greenler, J. R. Mueller, W. Hahn, and A. J. Mallmann, "The 46° Halo and Its Arcs," Science (to be published).

Mueller, J. R.

R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, J. R. Mueller, and R. Romito, "Form and Origins of the Parry Arcs," Science 195, 360–367 (1977).

R. G. Greenler, J. R. Mueller, W. Hahn, and A. J. Mallmann, "The 46° Halo and Its Arcs," Science (to be published).

Robertson, G. W.

G. W. Robertson, "Unusual Halo Phenomena at Swift Current," Weather 29, 113–115 (1974).

Romito, R.

R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, J. R. Mueller, and R. Romito, "Form and Origins of the Parry Arcs," Science 195, 360–367 (1977).

Schwartz, Pt.

Tricker, R. A. R.

R. A. R. Tricker, "A Simple Theory of Certain Heliacal and Anthelic Halo Arcs. The Long Hexagonal Ice Prism as a Kaleidoscope," Q. J. R. Meteorolog. Soc. 99, 649–656 (1973).

Verschure, P. P. Hattinga

P. P. Hattinga Verschure, "Rare Halo Displays in Amsterdam," Weather 26, 532–536 (1971); "Uncommon Optical Phenomena at Venlo 2 May, 1972," ibid. 28, 300–306 (1973).

Visser, S. W.

S. W. Visser, "Die Halo-Erscheinung," Handbuch der Geophysik, Band 8, Kapitel 15 (Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, 1961).

Wegener, A.

A. Wegener, "Theorie der Haupthalos," Archiv der Deutschen Seewarte, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Hamburg, 1926).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Mon. Weather Rev. (2)

C. S. Hastings, "A General Theory of Halos," Mon. Weather Rev. 48, 322–330 (1920).

J. R. Blake, "The Fairbanks Halo of April 27, 1966," Mon. Weather Rev. 94, 599–604 (1966).

Q. J. R. Meteorolog. Soc. (1)

R. A. R. Tricker, "A Simple Theory of Certain Heliacal and Anthelic Halo Arcs. The Long Hexagonal Ice Prism as a Kaleidoscope," Q. J. R. Meteorolog. Soc. 99, 649–656 (1973).

Science (2)

R. G. Greenler and A. J. Mallmann, "Circumscribed Halos," Science 176, 128–131 (1972).

R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, J. R. Mueller, and R. Romito, "Form and Origins of the Parry Arcs," Science 195, 360–367 (1977).

Sky and Telescope (1)

E. Everhart, "The Solar Halo Complex of September 17, 1960," Sky and Telescope 21, 14–15 (1961).

Weather (2)

P. P. Hattinga Verschure, "Rare Halo Displays in Amsterdam," Weather 26, 532–536 (1971); "Uncommon Optical Phenomena at Venlo 2 May, 1972," ibid. 28, 300–306 (1973).

G. W. Robertson, "Unusual Halo Phenomena at Swift Current," Weather 29, 113–115 (1974).

Other (7)

J. R. Blake, "Solar Halos in Antarctica," Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition Report No. 59, Ser. A, Vol. 4, Glaciology, (Antarctic Div., Melbourne, 1961).

G. H. Liljequist, "Halo Phenomena and Ice Crystals," Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1949–1952, Scientific Results Vol. 2 Special Studies (Norsk Polarinstitutt, Oslo, 1956).

S. W. Visser, "Die Halo-Erscheinung," Handbuch der Geophysik, Band 8, Kapitel 15 (Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, 1961).

A. Wegener, "Theorie der Haupthalos," Archiv der Deutschen Seewarte, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Hamburg, 1926).

R. G. Greenler, J. R. Mueller, W. Hahn, and A. J. Mallmann, "The 46° Halo and Its Arcs," Science (to be published).

We used several methods of measuring the angles, working both directly from the 35mm slides and from enlarged projected images. In some cases we first sketched the arcs and drew tangent lines to the sketch; in others, we constructed tangent lines directly from the arcs in the photograph. We found that the reproducibility using any one method is better than the agreement between different methods. The number of ±5° on the measurements gives a reasonable indication of the uncertainty.

Photograph from Rainbows, Halos, and Glories, to be published by Cambridge University Press.

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