Abstract

A computer simulation technique is used to investigate the origins of the arcs of Lowitz. The model explored consists of light passing through a hexagonal ice plate, spinning about a major diagonal axis that remains horizontal as the crystal falls.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Lowitz, Nova Acta Acad. Imp. Sc. Petropol 8, 384 (1794). (Although the account was published in 1794, the observation of the St. Petersburg complex was actually made on June 18, 1790, not July 1794 as reported in Refs. 5 and 7.)
  2. W. Evans and R. A. R. Tricker, Weather 27, 234 (1972); R. A. R. Tricker, Weather 25, 502 (1970); ibid. 28, 159 (1973). P. P. Hattinga Verschure, Weather 26, 532 (1971); ibid. 28, 300 (1973); R. E. Lacy, M. A. Ellison, and S. E. Ashmore, Weather 9, 206 (1954); G. W. Robertson, Weather 29, 113 (1974); R. Scutt, Weather 23, 525 (1968).
  3. R. D. Edge, Am. J. Phys. 44, 780 (1976).
  4. J. M. Pernter and F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed. (Vienna and Leipzig, 1922).
  5. W. J. Humphreys, Physics of the Air, (republication by Dover, 1964, of the 3rd edition published by McGraw-Hill, New York, 1940).
  6. S. Fujiwhara and S. Oti, Bull. Cent. Met. Obs. Japan III, 33 (1919).
  7. R. A. R. Tricker, Introduction to Meteorological Optics (American Elsevier, New York, 1970).
  8. R. A. R. Tricker, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 542 (1972).
  9. R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, Science 176, 128 (1972).
  10. R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, J. R. Mueller, R. Rornito, Science 195, 360 (1977).
  11. R. G. Greenler, J. R. Mueller, W. Hahn, and A. J. Mallmann, Science (to be published).

Edge, R. D.

R. D. Edge, Am. J. Phys. 44, 780 (1976).

Evans, W.

W. Evans and R. A. R. Tricker, Weather 27, 234 (1972); R. A. R. Tricker, Weather 25, 502 (1970); ibid. 28, 159 (1973). P. P. Hattinga Verschure, Weather 26, 532 (1971); ibid. 28, 300 (1973); R. E. Lacy, M. A. Ellison, and S. E. Ashmore, Weather 9, 206 (1954); G. W. Robertson, Weather 29, 113 (1974); R. Scutt, Weather 23, 525 (1968).

Exner, F. M.

J. M. Pernter and F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed. (Vienna and Leipzig, 1922).

Fujiwhara, S.

S. Fujiwhara and S. Oti, Bull. Cent. Met. Obs. Japan III, 33 (1919).

Greenler, R. G.

R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, Science 176, 128 (1972).

R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, J. R. Mueller, R. Rornito, Science 195, 360 (1977).

R. G. Greenler, J. R. Mueller, W. Hahn, and A. J. Mallmann, Science (to be published).

Hahn, W.

R. G. Greenler, J. R. Mueller, W. Hahn, and A. J. Mallmann, Science (to be published).

Humphreys, W. J.

W. J. Humphreys, Physics of the Air, (republication by Dover, 1964, of the 3rd edition published by McGraw-Hill, New York, 1940).

Lowitz, T.

T. Lowitz, Nova Acta Acad. Imp. Sc. Petropol 8, 384 (1794). (Although the account was published in 1794, the observation of the St. Petersburg complex was actually made on June 18, 1790, not July 1794 as reported in Refs. 5 and 7.)

Mallmann, A. J.

R. G. Greenler, J. R. Mueller, W. Hahn, and A. J. Mallmann, Science (to be published).

R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, Science 176, 128 (1972).

R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, J. R. Mueller, R. Rornito, Science 195, 360 (1977).

Mueller, J. R.

R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, J. R. Mueller, R. Rornito, Science 195, 360 (1977).

R. G. Greenler, J. R. Mueller, W. Hahn, and A. J. Mallmann, Science (to be published).

Oti, S.

S. Fujiwhara and S. Oti, Bull. Cent. Met. Obs. Japan III, 33 (1919).

Pernter, J. M.

J. M. Pernter and F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed. (Vienna and Leipzig, 1922).

Rornito, R.

R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, J. R. Mueller, R. Rornito, Science 195, 360 (1977).

Tricker, R. A. R.

W. Evans and R. A. R. Tricker, Weather 27, 234 (1972); R. A. R. Tricker, Weather 25, 502 (1970); ibid. 28, 159 (1973). P. P. Hattinga Verschure, Weather 26, 532 (1971); ibid. 28, 300 (1973); R. E. Lacy, M. A. Ellison, and S. E. Ashmore, Weather 9, 206 (1954); G. W. Robertson, Weather 29, 113 (1974); R. Scutt, Weather 23, 525 (1968).

R. A. R. Tricker, Introduction to Meteorological Optics (American Elsevier, New York, 1970).

R. A. R. Tricker, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 542 (1972).

Other

T. Lowitz, Nova Acta Acad. Imp. Sc. Petropol 8, 384 (1794). (Although the account was published in 1794, the observation of the St. Petersburg complex was actually made on June 18, 1790, not July 1794 as reported in Refs. 5 and 7.)

W. Evans and R. A. R. Tricker, Weather 27, 234 (1972); R. A. R. Tricker, Weather 25, 502 (1970); ibid. 28, 159 (1973). P. P. Hattinga Verschure, Weather 26, 532 (1971); ibid. 28, 300 (1973); R. E. Lacy, M. A. Ellison, and S. E. Ashmore, Weather 9, 206 (1954); G. W. Robertson, Weather 29, 113 (1974); R. Scutt, Weather 23, 525 (1968).

R. D. Edge, Am. J. Phys. 44, 780 (1976).

J. M. Pernter and F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed. (Vienna and Leipzig, 1922).

W. J. Humphreys, Physics of the Air, (republication by Dover, 1964, of the 3rd edition published by McGraw-Hill, New York, 1940).

S. Fujiwhara and S. Oti, Bull. Cent. Met. Obs. Japan III, 33 (1919).

R. A. R. Tricker, Introduction to Meteorological Optics (American Elsevier, New York, 1970).

R. A. R. Tricker, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 542 (1972).

R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, Science 176, 128 (1972).

R. G. Greenler, A. J. Mallmann, J. R. Mueller, R. Rornito, Science 195, 360 (1977).

R. G. Greenler, J. R. Mueller, W. Hahn, and A. J. Mallmann, Science (to be published).

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