Abstract

An optical model of the parhelic circle is computed which includes the Stokes parameters of polarization. The model is based on one of two closely related mechanisms in crystals which are known to exist in cirrus clouds. An analysis of the circumstances of occurrence shows that one mechanism—external reflection from the side faces of ice crystal plates with c axes vertical—probably generates most parhelic circles.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Color in the Open Air, (Dover, New York, 1954).
  2. D. K. Lynch, "Atmospheric Halos," Sci. Am. 238, (4), 144–152 (1978).
  3. R. S. McDowell, "The Formation of Parhelia at Higher Solar Elevations," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1876–1884, (1974).
  4. E. Kidson, "Halo Complex," Met. Mag. 66, 17–18 (1931).
  5. J. Findlater, "Remarkable Halo Display at Gibralter," Weather 2, 247 (1947).
  6. G. A. Jones and K. J. Wiggins, "Halo Phenomena at Odiham," Weather 19, 289–290 (1964).
  7. A. E. Moon, (untitled correspondence), Met. Mag. 69, 121–122 (1934).
  8. A. B. Fraser (private communication at OSA meeting Keystone, Colorado), 1978.
  9. F. G. Maunsell, "Parhelic Circle," Weather 6, 245 (1951).

1978 (1)

D. K. Lynch, "Atmospheric Halos," Sci. Am. 238, (4), 144–152 (1978).

1974 (1)

R. S. McDowell, "The Formation of Parhelia at Higher Solar Elevations," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1876–1884, (1974).

1964 (1)

G. A. Jones and K. J. Wiggins, "Halo Phenomena at Odiham," Weather 19, 289–290 (1964).

1951 (1)

F. G. Maunsell, "Parhelic Circle," Weather 6, 245 (1951).

1947 (1)

J. Findlater, "Remarkable Halo Display at Gibralter," Weather 2, 247 (1947).

1934 (1)

A. E. Moon, (untitled correspondence), Met. Mag. 69, 121–122 (1934).

1931 (1)

E. Kidson, "Halo Complex," Met. Mag. 66, 17–18 (1931).

Findlater, J.

J. Findlater, "Remarkable Halo Display at Gibralter," Weather 2, 247 (1947).

Fraser, A. B.

A. B. Fraser (private communication at OSA meeting Keystone, Colorado), 1978.

Jones, G. A.

G. A. Jones and K. J. Wiggins, "Halo Phenomena at Odiham," Weather 19, 289–290 (1964).

Kidson, E.

E. Kidson, "Halo Complex," Met. Mag. 66, 17–18 (1931).

Lynch, D. K.

D. K. Lynch, "Atmospheric Halos," Sci. Am. 238, (4), 144–152 (1978).

Maunsell, F. G.

F. G. Maunsell, "Parhelic Circle," Weather 6, 245 (1951).

McDowell, R. S.

R. S. McDowell, "The Formation of Parhelia at Higher Solar Elevations," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1876–1884, (1974).

Minnaert, M.

M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Color in the Open Air, (Dover, New York, 1954).

Moon, A. E.

A. E. Moon, (untitled correspondence), Met. Mag. 69, 121–122 (1934).

Wiggins, K. J.

G. A. Jones and K. J. Wiggins, "Halo Phenomena at Odiham," Weather 19, 289–290 (1964).

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

R. S. McDowell, "The Formation of Parhelia at Higher Solar Elevations," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1876–1884, (1974).

Met. Mag. (2)

E. Kidson, "Halo Complex," Met. Mag. 66, 17–18 (1931).

A. E. Moon, (untitled correspondence), Met. Mag. 69, 121–122 (1934).

Sci. Am. (1)

D. K. Lynch, "Atmospheric Halos," Sci. Am. 238, (4), 144–152 (1978).

Weather (3)

J. Findlater, "Remarkable Halo Display at Gibralter," Weather 2, 247 (1947).

G. A. Jones and K. J. Wiggins, "Halo Phenomena at Odiham," Weather 19, 289–290 (1964).

F. G. Maunsell, "Parhelic Circle," Weather 6, 245 (1951).

Other (2)

M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Color in the Open Air, (Dover, New York, 1954).

A. B. Fraser (private communication at OSA meeting Keystone, Colorado), 1978.

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