Abstract

Our understanding of atmospheric scattering phenomena has increased through the combined developments of new electro-optical instrumentation, theoretical solutions for complex model atmospheres, and large computers enabling computation of such solutions. Earth satellites permit external, planetwide observations of our atmosphere, while spacecraft permit detailed measurements of the scattering by other planetary atmospheres. Some recent results are: elucidation of the effects of ozone absorption and high-altitude aerosol scattering on twilight colors and polarization; identification of a cloudbow on Venus and consequent deduction of the cloud particle shape, size distribution, and refractive index; and, the interpretation of Rayleigh scattering on Jupiter in terms of cloud-top topography.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. von Helmholtz, Physiological Optics, English edition, translated by J. P. C. Southall (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1924), especially Vol. II, pp. 301–308; E. J. Gording, "A Report on Haidinger Brushes," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 27, 604–610 (1951); L. L. Sloan and H. A. Naquin, "A Quantitative Test for Determining the Visibility of the Haidinger Brushes: Clinical Applications," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 40, 393–406 (1955).
  2. W. A. Shurcliff, "Haidinger's Brushes and Circularly Polarized Light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 399 (1955); but see C. C. D. Shute, "Haidinger's brushes and predominant orientation of collagen in corneal stroma," Nature 250, 163–164 (1974).
  3. H. C. van de Hulst, "Scattering in the Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets," in The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, edited by G. P. Kuiper (University of Chicago, Chicago, 1949).
  4. W. J. Humphreys, Physics of the Air (Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, 1920).
  5. M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover, New York, 1954) (reprint).
  6. J. C. Johnson, Physical Meteorology (MIT, Cambridge, Mass. and Wiley, N.Y., 1954).
  7. K. Bullrich, "Scattered Radiation in the Atmosphere and the Natural Aerosol," Adv. Geophys. 10, 99–260, 1964.
  8. G. V. Rozenberg, Twilight: A Study in Atmospheric Optics (Plenum, New York, 1966).
  9. K. Ya. Kondratyev, Radiation in the Atmosphere (Academic, New York, 1969).
  10. R. A. R. Tricker, Introduction to Meteorological Optics (American Elsevier, New York, 1970).
  11. E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976).
  12. J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light Scattering in Planetary Atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
  13. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960) (reprint).
  14. S. Chandrasekhar and D. D. Elbert, "The Illumination and Polarization of the Sunlit Sky on Rayleigh Scattering," Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. 44, 643–728 (1954).
  15. G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, and S. J. Hitzfelder, "Multiple scattered radiation emerging from Rayleigh and continental haze layers. 1: Radiance, polarization, and neutral points," Appl. Opt. 15, 632–647 (1976).
  16. K. L. Coulson, "On the Solar Radiation Field in a Polluted Atmosphere," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 739–755 (1971).
  17. F. Unz, "Die Konzentration des Aerosols in Troposphäre und Stratosphäre aus Messungen der Polarisation der Himmelsstrahlung im Zenit," Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 42, 1–35 (1969).
  18. C. Darwin, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited during the Voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle (Heritage, New York, 1957) (reprint edition).
  19. C. N. Adams, G. N. Plass, and G. W. Kattawar, "The Influence of Ozone and Aerosols on the Brightness and Color of the Twilight Sky," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1662–1674 (1974).
  20. T. Gehrels, "Wavelength Dependence of the Polarization of the Sunlit Sky," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 1164–1173 (1962).
  21. K. L. Coulson, "Atmospheric Turbidity Determinations by Skylight Measurements at the Mauna Loa Observatory," Contributions in Atmospheric Science No. 13 (University of California, Davis, 1977).
  22. E. de Bary, K. Bullrich, and D. Lorenz, "Messungen der Himmelsstrahlung und deren Polarisationsgrad während der Sonnenfinsternis am 15.2.1961 in Viareggio (Italien)," Geofis. Pura Appl. 48, 193–198 (1961).
  23. D. L. Coffeen, J. Hdmeen-Anttila, and R. H. Toubhans, "Airborne Infrared Polarimeter," Space Sci. Instrum. 1, 161–175 (1975).
  24. J. E. Hansen and D. L. Coffeen, "Analysis of Cloud Polarization Measurements," Proceedings of the Conference on Cloud Physics of the American Meteorological Society, edited by R. L. Lavoie and G. A. Dawson, 350–356 (1974).
  25. J. E. Hansen, "Multiple Scattering of Polarized Light in Planetary Atmospheres. Part II. Sunlight Reflected by Terrestrial Water Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1400–1426 (1971).
  26. O. K. Garriott, "Visual Observations from Space," Technical Digest of OSA Topical Meeting on Meteorological Optics, Keystone, Colorado, August, 1978 (unpublished).
  27. A. Dollfus, Thesis, Univ. of Paris, 1955 (in English translation as NASA TT F-188, Washington, D.C., 1964).
  28. Preliminary data from C. Lillie (unpublished).
  29. Preliminary data by L. Travis, D. Coffeen, W. Lane, and J. Hansen (unpublished).
  30. E. M. Shoemaker, J. J. Rennilson, and E. A. Whitaker, "Eclipse of Sun by Earth, as Seen from Surveyor III," Surveyor Project Final Report, Part II. Science Results (NASA Technical Report 32-1265, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, 1968).
  31. A. Arking and J. Potter, "The Phase Curve of Venus and the Nature of its Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 617–628 (1968).
  32. A. Dollfus and D. L. Coffeen, "Polarization of Venus. I. Disk Observations," Astron. Astrophys. 8, 251–266 (1970).
  33. D. L. Coffeen, "Wavelength Dependence of Polarization. XVI. Atmosphere of Venus," Astron. J. 74, 446–460 (1969).
  34. J. E. Hansen and J. W. Hovenier, "Interpretation of the Polarization of Venus," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).
  35. See Figure 17 in D. L. Coffeen and J. E. Hansen, "Polarization Studies of Planetary Atmospheres," in Planets, Stars and Nebulae Studied with Photopolarimetry, edited by T. Gehrels (University of Arizona, Tucson, 1974).
  36. It should be noted that the Venus particles form more of a "haze" than a "cloud." K. Kawabata and J. E. Hansen ["Interpretation of the Variation of Polarization over the Disk of Venus, "J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 1133–1139 (1975)] deduce a photon mean free path of ˜5 km at the level where the vertical cloud optical depth is unity, compared to a mean free path of ˜0.1 km in typical terrestrial clouds.
  37. L. D. Travis, D. L. Coffeen, J. E. Hansen, K. Kawabata, A. A. Lacis, W. A. Lane, S. S. Limaye, and P. H. Stone, "Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter Investigation," Science 203, 781–785 (1979).
  38. P. Moore, The Planet Venus, 3rd ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1960).
  39. W. McD. Napier, "The Ashen Light on Venuis," Planet. Space Sci. 19, 1049–1051 (1971).
  40. M. V. Keldysh, "Venus Exploration with the Automatic Stations Venera 9 and Venera 10," paper presented at the XIXth COSPAR Meeting, Philadelphia, Pa., 14–19 June, 1976, 43 pp. (unpublished); A. S. Selivanov, V. P. Chemodanov, M. K. Naraeva, A. S. Panfilov, M. A. Gerasimov, and I. I. Kobzeva, "A Television Experiment on the Surface of Venus," translation of Kosm. Issled. 14, 674–677 (1976); A. S. Selivanov, A. S. Panfilov, M. K. Naraeva, V. P. Chemodanov, M. I. Bokhonov, and M. A. Gerasimov, "Photometric Analysis of Panoramas on the Surface of Venus," translation of Kosm. Issled. 14, 678–686 (1976).
  41. A. J. Stratton, "Optical and Radio Refraction on Venus," J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 666–667 (1968).
  42. R. O. Fimmel, W. Swindell, and E. Burgess, Pioneer Odyssey, NASA SP-396, 2nd edition (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1977).
  43. D. L. Coffeen, "Optical Polarization Measurements of the Jupiter Atmosphere at 103° Phase Angle," J. Geophys. Res. 79, 3645–3652 (1974).
  44. M. G. Tomasko, R. A. West, and N. D. Castillo, "Photometry and Polarimetry of Jupiter at Large Phase Angles. 1. Analysis of Imaging Data of a Prominent Belt and a Zone from Pioneer 10," Icarus 33, 558–592 (1978).
  45. R. Eiden, "The Elliptical Polarization of Light Scattered by a Volume of Atmospheric Air," Appl. Opt. 5, 569–575 (1966).
  46. J. C. Kemp, R. D. Wolstencroft, and J. B. Swedlund, "Circular Polarization: Jupiter and Other Planets," Nature 232, 165–168 (1971).
  47. J. E. Hansen, "Circular Polarization of Sunlight Reflected by Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1515–1516 (1971).
  48. Y. Kawata, "Circular Polarization of Sunlight Reflected by Planetary Atmospheres", Icarus 33, 217–232 (1978).

1979 (1)

L. D. Travis, D. L. Coffeen, J. E. Hansen, K. Kawabata, A. A. Lacis, W. A. Lane, S. S. Limaye, and P. H. Stone, "Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter Investigation," Science 203, 781–785 (1979).

1978 (2)

M. G. Tomasko, R. A. West, and N. D. Castillo, "Photometry and Polarimetry of Jupiter at Large Phase Angles. 1. Analysis of Imaging Data of a Prominent Belt and a Zone from Pioneer 10," Icarus 33, 558–592 (1978).

Y. Kawata, "Circular Polarization of Sunlight Reflected by Planetary Atmospheres", Icarus 33, 217–232 (1978).

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

D. L. Coffeen, J. Hdmeen-Anttila, and R. H. Toubhans, "Airborne Infrared Polarimeter," Space Sci. Instrum. 1, 161–175 (1975).

1974 (4)

C. N. Adams, G. N. Plass, and G. W. Kattawar, "The Influence of Ozone and Aerosols on the Brightness and Color of the Twilight Sky," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1662–1674 (1974).

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light Scattering in Planetary Atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).

J. E. Hansen and J. W. Hovenier, "Interpretation of the Polarization of Venus," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).

D. L. Coffeen, "Optical Polarization Measurements of the Jupiter Atmosphere at 103° Phase Angle," J. Geophys. Res. 79, 3645–3652 (1974).

1971 (5)

W. McD. Napier, "The Ashen Light on Venuis," Planet. Space Sci. 19, 1049–1051 (1971).

K. L. Coulson, "On the Solar Radiation Field in a Polluted Atmosphere," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 739–755 (1971).

J. E. Hansen, "Multiple Scattering of Polarized Light in Planetary Atmospheres. Part II. Sunlight Reflected by Terrestrial Water Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1400–1426 (1971).

J. C. Kemp, R. D. Wolstencroft, and J. B. Swedlund, "Circular Polarization: Jupiter and Other Planets," Nature 232, 165–168 (1971).

J. E. Hansen, "Circular Polarization of Sunlight Reflected by Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1515–1516 (1971).

1970 (1)

A. Dollfus and D. L. Coffeen, "Polarization of Venus. I. Disk Observations," Astron. Astrophys. 8, 251–266 (1970).

1969 (2)

D. L. Coffeen, "Wavelength Dependence of Polarization. XVI. Atmosphere of Venus," Astron. J. 74, 446–460 (1969).

F. Unz, "Die Konzentration des Aerosols in Troposphäre und Stratosphäre aus Messungen der Polarisation der Himmelsstrahlung im Zenit," Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 42, 1–35 (1969).

1968 (2)

A. Arking and J. Potter, "The Phase Curve of Venus and the Nature of its Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 617–628 (1968).

A. J. Stratton, "Optical and Radio Refraction on Venus," J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 666–667 (1968).

1966 (1)

1964 (1)

K. Bullrich, "Scattered Radiation in the Atmosphere and the Natural Aerosol," Adv. Geophys. 10, 99–260, 1964.

1962 (1)

T. Gehrels, "Wavelength Dependence of the Polarization of the Sunlit Sky," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 1164–1173 (1962).

1961 (1)

E. de Bary, K. Bullrich, and D. Lorenz, "Messungen der Himmelsstrahlung und deren Polarisationsgrad während der Sonnenfinsternis am 15.2.1961 in Viareggio (Italien)," Geofis. Pura Appl. 48, 193–198 (1961).

1955 (1)

1954 (1)

S. Chandrasekhar and D. D. Elbert, "The Illumination and Polarization of the Sunlit Sky on Rayleigh Scattering," Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. 44, 643–728 (1954).

Adams, C. N.

C. N. Adams, G. N. Plass, and G. W. Kattawar, "The Influence of Ozone and Aerosols on the Brightness and Color of the Twilight Sky," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1662–1674 (1974).

Arking, A.

A. Arking and J. Potter, "The Phase Curve of Venus and the Nature of its Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 617–628 (1968).

Bullrich, K.

K. Bullrich, "Scattered Radiation in the Atmosphere and the Natural Aerosol," Adv. Geophys. 10, 99–260, 1964.

E. de Bary, K. Bullrich, and D. Lorenz, "Messungen der Himmelsstrahlung und deren Polarisationsgrad während der Sonnenfinsternis am 15.2.1961 in Viareggio (Italien)," Geofis. Pura Appl. 48, 193–198 (1961).

Burgess, E.

R. O. Fimmel, W. Swindell, and E. Burgess, Pioneer Odyssey, NASA SP-396, 2nd edition (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Castillo, N. D.

M. G. Tomasko, R. A. West, and N. D. Castillo, "Photometry and Polarimetry of Jupiter at Large Phase Angles. 1. Analysis of Imaging Data of a Prominent Belt and a Zone from Pioneer 10," Icarus 33, 558–592 (1978).

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar and D. D. Elbert, "The Illumination and Polarization of the Sunlit Sky on Rayleigh Scattering," Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. 44, 643–728 (1954).

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960) (reprint).

Coffeen, D.

Preliminary data by L. Travis, D. Coffeen, W. Lane, and J. Hansen (unpublished).

Coffeen, D. L.

L. D. Travis, D. L. Coffeen, J. E. Hansen, K. Kawabata, A. A. Lacis, W. A. Lane, S. S. Limaye, and P. H. Stone, "Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter Investigation," Science 203, 781–785 (1979).

D. L. Coffeen, J. Hdmeen-Anttila, and R. H. Toubhans, "Airborne Infrared Polarimeter," Space Sci. Instrum. 1, 161–175 (1975).

D. L. Coffeen, "Optical Polarization Measurements of the Jupiter Atmosphere at 103° Phase Angle," J. Geophys. Res. 79, 3645–3652 (1974).

A. Dollfus and D. L. Coffeen, "Polarization of Venus. I. Disk Observations," Astron. Astrophys. 8, 251–266 (1970).

D. L. Coffeen, "Wavelength Dependence of Polarization. XVI. Atmosphere of Venus," Astron. J. 74, 446–460 (1969).

See Figure 17 in D. L. Coffeen and J. E. Hansen, "Polarization Studies of Planetary Atmospheres," in Planets, Stars and Nebulae Studied with Photopolarimetry, edited by T. Gehrels (University of Arizona, Tucson, 1974).

J. E. Hansen and D. L. Coffeen, "Analysis of Cloud Polarization Measurements," Proceedings of the Conference on Cloud Physics of the American Meteorological Society, edited by R. L. Lavoie and G. A. Dawson, 350–356 (1974).

Coulson, K. L.

K. L. Coulson, "On the Solar Radiation Field in a Polluted Atmosphere," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 739–755 (1971).

K. L. Coulson, "Atmospheric Turbidity Determinations by Skylight Measurements at the Mauna Loa Observatory," Contributions in Atmospheric Science No. 13 (University of California, Davis, 1977).

Darwin, C.

C. Darwin, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited during the Voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle (Heritage, New York, 1957) (reprint edition).

de Bary, E.

E. de Bary, K. Bullrich, and D. Lorenz, "Messungen der Himmelsstrahlung und deren Polarisationsgrad während der Sonnenfinsternis am 15.2.1961 in Viareggio (Italien)," Geofis. Pura Appl. 48, 193–198 (1961).

Dollfus, A.

A. Dollfus and D. L. Coffeen, "Polarization of Venus. I. Disk Observations," Astron. Astrophys. 8, 251–266 (1970).

A. Dollfus, Thesis, Univ. of Paris, 1955 (in English translation as NASA TT F-188, Washington, D.C., 1964).

Eiden, R.

Elbert, D. D.

S. Chandrasekhar and D. D. Elbert, "The Illumination and Polarization of the Sunlit Sky on Rayleigh Scattering," Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. 44, 643–728 (1954).

Fimmel, R. O.

R. O. Fimmel, W. Swindell, and E. Burgess, Pioneer Odyssey, NASA SP-396, 2nd edition (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Garriott, O. K.

O. K. Garriott, "Visual Observations from Space," Technical Digest of OSA Topical Meeting on Meteorological Optics, Keystone, Colorado, August, 1978 (unpublished).

Gehrels, T.

T. Gehrels, "Wavelength Dependence of the Polarization of the Sunlit Sky," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 1164–1173 (1962).

Hansen, J.

Preliminary data by L. Travis, D. Coffeen, W. Lane, and J. Hansen (unpublished).

Hansen, J. E.

L. D. Travis, D. L. Coffeen, J. E. Hansen, K. Kawabata, A. A. Lacis, W. A. Lane, S. S. Limaye, and P. H. Stone, "Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter Investigation," Science 203, 781–785 (1979).

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light Scattering in Planetary Atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).

J. E. Hansen and J. W. Hovenier, "Interpretation of the Polarization of Venus," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).

J. E. Hansen, "Circular Polarization of Sunlight Reflected by Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1515–1516 (1971).

J. E. Hansen, "Multiple Scattering of Polarized Light in Planetary Atmospheres. Part II. Sunlight Reflected by Terrestrial Water Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1400–1426 (1971).

It should be noted that the Venus particles form more of a "haze" than a "cloud." K. Kawabata and J. E. Hansen ["Interpretation of the Variation of Polarization over the Disk of Venus, "J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 1133–1139 (1975)] deduce a photon mean free path of ˜5 km at the level where the vertical cloud optical depth is unity, compared to a mean free path of ˜0.1 km in typical terrestrial clouds.

See Figure 17 in D. L. Coffeen and J. E. Hansen, "Polarization Studies of Planetary Atmospheres," in Planets, Stars and Nebulae Studied with Photopolarimetry, edited by T. Gehrels (University of Arizona, Tucson, 1974).

J. E. Hansen and D. L. Coffeen, "Analysis of Cloud Polarization Measurements," Proceedings of the Conference on Cloud Physics of the American Meteorological Society, edited by R. L. Lavoie and G. A. Dawson, 350–356 (1974).

Hdmeen-Anttila, J.

D. L. Coffeen, J. Hdmeen-Anttila, and R. H. Toubhans, "Airborne Infrared Polarimeter," Space Sci. Instrum. 1, 161–175 (1975).

Helmholtz, H. von

H. von Helmholtz, Physiological Optics, English edition, translated by J. P. C. Southall (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1924), especially Vol. II, pp. 301–308; E. J. Gording, "A Report on Haidinger Brushes," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 27, 604–610 (1951); L. L. Sloan and H. A. Naquin, "A Quantitative Test for Determining the Visibility of the Haidinger Brushes: Clinical Applications," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 40, 393–406 (1955).

Hitzfelder, S. J.

Hovenier, J. W.

J. E. Hansen and J. W. Hovenier, "Interpretation of the Polarization of Venus," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).

Humphreys, W. J.

W. J. Humphreys, Physics of the Air (Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, 1920).

Johnson, J. C.

J. C. Johnson, Physical Meteorology (MIT, Cambridge, Mass. and Wiley, N.Y., 1954).

Kattawar, G. W.

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, and S. J. Hitzfelder, "Multiple scattered radiation emerging from Rayleigh and continental haze layers. 1: Radiance, polarization, and neutral points," Appl. Opt. 15, 632–647 (1976).

C. N. Adams, G. N. Plass, and G. W. Kattawar, "The Influence of Ozone and Aerosols on the Brightness and Color of the Twilight Sky," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1662–1674 (1974).

Kawabata, K.

L. D. Travis, D. L. Coffeen, J. E. Hansen, K. Kawabata, A. A. Lacis, W. A. Lane, S. S. Limaye, and P. H. Stone, "Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter Investigation," Science 203, 781–785 (1979).

It should be noted that the Venus particles form more of a "haze" than a "cloud." K. Kawabata and J. E. Hansen ["Interpretation of the Variation of Polarization over the Disk of Venus, "J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 1133–1139 (1975)] deduce a photon mean free path of ˜5 km at the level where the vertical cloud optical depth is unity, compared to a mean free path of ˜0.1 km in typical terrestrial clouds.

Kawata, Y.

Y. Kawata, "Circular Polarization of Sunlight Reflected by Planetary Atmospheres", Icarus 33, 217–232 (1978).

Keldysh, M. V.

M. V. Keldysh, "Venus Exploration with the Automatic Stations Venera 9 and Venera 10," paper presented at the XIXth COSPAR Meeting, Philadelphia, Pa., 14–19 June, 1976, 43 pp. (unpublished); A. S. Selivanov, V. P. Chemodanov, M. K. Naraeva, A. S. Panfilov, M. A. Gerasimov, and I. I. Kobzeva, "A Television Experiment on the Surface of Venus," translation of Kosm. Issled. 14, 674–677 (1976); A. S. Selivanov, A. S. Panfilov, M. K. Naraeva, V. P. Chemodanov, M. I. Bokhonov, and M. A. Gerasimov, "Photometric Analysis of Panoramas on the Surface of Venus," translation of Kosm. Issled. 14, 678–686 (1976).

Kemp, J. C.

J. C. Kemp, R. D. Wolstencroft, and J. B. Swedlund, "Circular Polarization: Jupiter and Other Planets," Nature 232, 165–168 (1971).

Kondratyev, K. Ya.

K. Ya. Kondratyev, Radiation in the Atmosphere (Academic, New York, 1969).

Lacis, A. A.

L. D. Travis, D. L. Coffeen, J. E. Hansen, K. Kawabata, A. A. Lacis, W. A. Lane, S. S. Limaye, and P. H. Stone, "Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter Investigation," Science 203, 781–785 (1979).

Lane, W.

Preliminary data by L. Travis, D. Coffeen, W. Lane, and J. Hansen (unpublished).

Lane, W. A.

L. D. Travis, D. L. Coffeen, J. E. Hansen, K. Kawabata, A. A. Lacis, W. A. Lane, S. S. Limaye, and P. H. Stone, "Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter Investigation," Science 203, 781–785 (1979).

Limaye, S. S.

L. D. Travis, D. L. Coffeen, J. E. Hansen, K. Kawabata, A. A. Lacis, W. A. Lane, S. S. Limaye, and P. H. Stone, "Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter Investigation," Science 203, 781–785 (1979).

Lorenz, D.

E. de Bary, K. Bullrich, and D. Lorenz, "Messungen der Himmelsstrahlung und deren Polarisationsgrad während der Sonnenfinsternis am 15.2.1961 in Viareggio (Italien)," Geofis. Pura Appl. 48, 193–198 (1961).

McCartney, E. J.

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976).

Minnaert, M.

M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover, New York, 1954) (reprint).

Moore, P.

P. Moore, The Planet Venus, 3rd ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1960).

Napier, W. McD.

W. McD. Napier, "The Ashen Light on Venuis," Planet. Space Sci. 19, 1049–1051 (1971).

Plass, G. N.

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, and S. J. Hitzfelder, "Multiple scattered radiation emerging from Rayleigh and continental haze layers. 1: Radiance, polarization, and neutral points," Appl. Opt. 15, 632–647 (1976).

C. N. Adams, G. N. Plass, and G. W. Kattawar, "The Influence of Ozone and Aerosols on the Brightness and Color of the Twilight Sky," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1662–1674 (1974).

Potter, J.

A. Arking and J. Potter, "The Phase Curve of Venus and the Nature of its Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 617–628 (1968).

Rennilson, J. J.

E. M. Shoemaker, J. J. Rennilson, and E. A. Whitaker, "Eclipse of Sun by Earth, as Seen from Surveyor III," Surveyor Project Final Report, Part II. Science Results (NASA Technical Report 32-1265, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, 1968).

Rozenberg, G. V.

G. V. Rozenberg, Twilight: A Study in Atmospheric Optics (Plenum, New York, 1966).

Shoemaker, E. M.

E. M. Shoemaker, J. J. Rennilson, and E. A. Whitaker, "Eclipse of Sun by Earth, as Seen from Surveyor III," Surveyor Project Final Report, Part II. Science Results (NASA Technical Report 32-1265, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, 1968).

Shurcliff, W. A.

Stone, P. H.

L. D. Travis, D. L. Coffeen, J. E. Hansen, K. Kawabata, A. A. Lacis, W. A. Lane, S. S. Limaye, and P. H. Stone, "Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter Investigation," Science 203, 781–785 (1979).

Stratton, A. J.

A. J. Stratton, "Optical and Radio Refraction on Venus," J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 666–667 (1968).

Swedlund, J. B.

J. C. Kemp, R. D. Wolstencroft, and J. B. Swedlund, "Circular Polarization: Jupiter and Other Planets," Nature 232, 165–168 (1971).

Swindell, W.

R. O. Fimmel, W. Swindell, and E. Burgess, Pioneer Odyssey, NASA SP-396, 2nd edition (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Tomasko, M. G.

M. G. Tomasko, R. A. West, and N. D. Castillo, "Photometry and Polarimetry of Jupiter at Large Phase Angles. 1. Analysis of Imaging Data of a Prominent Belt and a Zone from Pioneer 10," Icarus 33, 558–592 (1978).

Toubhans, R. H.

D. L. Coffeen, J. Hdmeen-Anttila, and R. H. Toubhans, "Airborne Infrared Polarimeter," Space Sci. Instrum. 1, 161–175 (1975).

Travis, L.

Preliminary data by L. Travis, D. Coffeen, W. Lane, and J. Hansen (unpublished).

Travis, L. D.

L. D. Travis, D. L. Coffeen, J. E. Hansen, K. Kawabata, A. A. Lacis, W. A. Lane, S. S. Limaye, and P. H. Stone, "Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter Investigation," Science 203, 781–785 (1979).

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light Scattering in Planetary Atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).

Tricker, R. A. R.

R. A. R. Tricker, Introduction to Meteorological Optics (American Elsevier, New York, 1970).

Unz, F.

F. Unz, "Die Konzentration des Aerosols in Troposphäre und Stratosphäre aus Messungen der Polarisation der Himmelsstrahlung im Zenit," Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 42, 1–35 (1969).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, "Scattering in the Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets," in The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, edited by G. P. Kuiper (University of Chicago, Chicago, 1949).

West, R. A.

M. G. Tomasko, R. A. West, and N. D. Castillo, "Photometry and Polarimetry of Jupiter at Large Phase Angles. 1. Analysis of Imaging Data of a Prominent Belt and a Zone from Pioneer 10," Icarus 33, 558–592 (1978).

Whitaker, E. A.

E. M. Shoemaker, J. J. Rennilson, and E. A. Whitaker, "Eclipse of Sun by Earth, as Seen from Surveyor III," Surveyor Project Final Report, Part II. Science Results (NASA Technical Report 32-1265, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, 1968).

Wolstencroft, R. D.

J. C. Kemp, R. D. Wolstencroft, and J. B. Swedlund, "Circular Polarization: Jupiter and Other Planets," Nature 232, 165–168 (1971).

Adv. Geophys. (1)

K. Bullrich, "Scattered Radiation in the Atmosphere and the Natural Aerosol," Adv. Geophys. 10, 99–260, 1964.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

A. Dollfus and D. L. Coffeen, "Polarization of Venus. I. Disk Observations," Astron. Astrophys. 8, 251–266 (1970).

Astron. J. (1)

D. L. Coffeen, "Wavelength Dependence of Polarization. XVI. Atmosphere of Venus," Astron. J. 74, 446–460 (1969).

Beitr. Phys. Atmos. (1)

F. Unz, "Die Konzentration des Aerosols in Troposphäre und Stratosphäre aus Messungen der Polarisation der Himmelsstrahlung im Zenit," Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 42, 1–35 (1969).

Geofis. Pura Appl. (1)

E. de Bary, K. Bullrich, and D. Lorenz, "Messungen der Himmelsstrahlung und deren Polarisationsgrad während der Sonnenfinsternis am 15.2.1961 in Viareggio (Italien)," Geofis. Pura Appl. 48, 193–198 (1961).

Icarus (2)

M. G. Tomasko, R. A. West, and N. D. Castillo, "Photometry and Polarimetry of Jupiter at Large Phase Angles. 1. Analysis of Imaging Data of a Prominent Belt and a Zone from Pioneer 10," Icarus 33, 558–592 (1978).

Y. Kawata, "Circular Polarization of Sunlight Reflected by Planetary Atmospheres", Icarus 33, 217–232 (1978).

J. Atmos. Sci. (6)

J. E. Hansen, "Circular Polarization of Sunlight Reflected by Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1515–1516 (1971).

A. J. Stratton, "Optical and Radio Refraction on Venus," J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 666–667 (1968).

A. Arking and J. Potter, "The Phase Curve of Venus and the Nature of its Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 617–628 (1968).

J. E. Hansen and J. W. Hovenier, "Interpretation of the Polarization of Venus," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).

C. N. Adams, G. N. Plass, and G. W. Kattawar, "The Influence of Ozone and Aerosols on the Brightness and Color of the Twilight Sky," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1662–1674 (1974).

J. E. Hansen, "Multiple Scattering of Polarized Light in Planetary Atmospheres. Part II. Sunlight Reflected by Terrestrial Water Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1400–1426 (1971).

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

D. L. Coffeen, "Optical Polarization Measurements of the Jupiter Atmosphere at 103° Phase Angle," J. Geophys. Res. 79, 3645–3652 (1974).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

T. Gehrels, "Wavelength Dependence of the Polarization of the Sunlit Sky," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 1164–1173 (1962).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

K. L. Coulson, "On the Solar Radiation Field in a Polluted Atmosphere," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 739–755 (1971).

Nature (1)

J. C. Kemp, R. D. Wolstencroft, and J. B. Swedlund, "Circular Polarization: Jupiter and Other Planets," Nature 232, 165–168 (1971).

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

W. McD. Napier, "The Ashen Light on Venuis," Planet. Space Sci. 19, 1049–1051 (1971).

Science (1)

L. D. Travis, D. L. Coffeen, J. E. Hansen, K. Kawabata, A. A. Lacis, W. A. Lane, S. S. Limaye, and P. H. Stone, "Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter Investigation," Science 203, 781–785 (1979).

Space Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. L. Coffeen, J. Hdmeen-Anttila, and R. H. Toubhans, "Airborne Infrared Polarimeter," Space Sci. Instrum. 1, 161–175 (1975).

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light Scattering in Planetary Atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).

Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. (1)

S. Chandrasekhar and D. D. Elbert, "The Illumination and Polarization of the Sunlit Sky on Rayleigh Scattering," Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. 44, 643–728 (1954).

Other (23)

H. von Helmholtz, Physiological Optics, English edition, translated by J. P. C. Southall (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1924), especially Vol. II, pp. 301–308; E. J. Gording, "A Report on Haidinger Brushes," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 27, 604–610 (1951); L. L. Sloan and H. A. Naquin, "A Quantitative Test for Determining the Visibility of the Haidinger Brushes: Clinical Applications," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 40, 393–406 (1955).

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960) (reprint).

R. O. Fimmel, W. Swindell, and E. Burgess, Pioneer Odyssey, NASA SP-396, 2nd edition (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1977).

G. V. Rozenberg, Twilight: A Study in Atmospheric Optics (Plenum, New York, 1966).

K. Ya. Kondratyev, Radiation in the Atmosphere (Academic, New York, 1969).

R. A. R. Tricker, Introduction to Meteorological Optics (American Elsevier, New York, 1970).

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976).

P. Moore, The Planet Venus, 3rd ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1960).

M. V. Keldysh, "Venus Exploration with the Automatic Stations Venera 9 and Venera 10," paper presented at the XIXth COSPAR Meeting, Philadelphia, Pa., 14–19 June, 1976, 43 pp. (unpublished); A. S. Selivanov, V. P. Chemodanov, M. K. Naraeva, A. S. Panfilov, M. A. Gerasimov, and I. I. Kobzeva, "A Television Experiment on the Surface of Venus," translation of Kosm. Issled. 14, 674–677 (1976); A. S. Selivanov, A. S. Panfilov, M. K. Naraeva, V. P. Chemodanov, M. I. Bokhonov, and M. A. Gerasimov, "Photometric Analysis of Panoramas on the Surface of Venus," translation of Kosm. Issled. 14, 678–686 (1976).

H. C. van de Hulst, "Scattering in the Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets," in The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, edited by G. P. Kuiper (University of Chicago, Chicago, 1949).

W. J. Humphreys, Physics of the Air (Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, 1920).

M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover, New York, 1954) (reprint).

J. C. Johnson, Physical Meteorology (MIT, Cambridge, Mass. and Wiley, N.Y., 1954).

J. E. Hansen and D. L. Coffeen, "Analysis of Cloud Polarization Measurements," Proceedings of the Conference on Cloud Physics of the American Meteorological Society, edited by R. L. Lavoie and G. A. Dawson, 350–356 (1974).

See Figure 17 in D. L. Coffeen and J. E. Hansen, "Polarization Studies of Planetary Atmospheres," in Planets, Stars and Nebulae Studied with Photopolarimetry, edited by T. Gehrels (University of Arizona, Tucson, 1974).

It should be noted that the Venus particles form more of a "haze" than a "cloud." K. Kawabata and J. E. Hansen ["Interpretation of the Variation of Polarization over the Disk of Venus, "J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 1133–1139 (1975)] deduce a photon mean free path of ˜5 km at the level where the vertical cloud optical depth is unity, compared to a mean free path of ˜0.1 km in typical terrestrial clouds.

K. L. Coulson, "Atmospheric Turbidity Determinations by Skylight Measurements at the Mauna Loa Observatory," Contributions in Atmospheric Science No. 13 (University of California, Davis, 1977).

C. Darwin, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited during the Voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle (Heritage, New York, 1957) (reprint edition).

O. K. Garriott, "Visual Observations from Space," Technical Digest of OSA Topical Meeting on Meteorological Optics, Keystone, Colorado, August, 1978 (unpublished).

A. Dollfus, Thesis, Univ. of Paris, 1955 (in English translation as NASA TT F-188, Washington, D.C., 1964).

Preliminary data from C. Lillie (unpublished).

Preliminary data by L. Travis, D. Coffeen, W. Lane, and J. Hansen (unpublished).

E. M. Shoemaker, J. J. Rennilson, and E. A. Whitaker, "Eclipse of Sun by Earth, as Seen from Surveyor III," Surveyor Project Final Report, Part II. Science Results (NASA Technical Report 32-1265, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, 1968).

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