Abstract

Binocular contrast interactions in human vision were studied psychophysically. Thresholds were obtained for sinewave grating stimulation of the right eye in the presence of simultaneous masking gratings presented to the right eye (monocular masking) or left eye (dichoptic masking). In the first experiment, thresholds were measured at 0.25, 1.0, 4.0, and 16.0 cycle per degree (cpd) as a function of the contrast of masking gratings of identical frequency and phase. Thresholds rose nonmonotonically with masking contrast. At medium and high contrast levels, dichoptic masking was more effective in elevating contrast thresholds than monocular masking, and approached Weber’s Law behavior. In the second experiment, spatial frequency tuning functions were obtained for test gratings at five spatial frequencies, by measuring threshold elevation as a function of the spatial frequency of constant-contrast masking gratings. At 1.0, 4.0, and 16.0 cpd, the tuning functions peaked at the test frequencies. The dichoptic tuning functions had a bandwidth of about 1 octave between half-maximum points, narrower than the ± 1 octave bandwidths of the monocular tuning functions. At 0.125 and 0.25 cpd, the tuning functions were broader and exhibited a shift in peak masking to frequencies above the test frequencies.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).
  2. T. N. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, New York, 1970).
  3. F. W. Campbell, "The transmission of spatial information through the visual system," in The Neurosciences Third Study Program, edited by F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden (MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1974).
  4. R. W. Sekuler, "Spatial vision," Ann. Rev. Psychol. 25, 195–232 (1974).
  5. O. Braddick, F. W. Campbell, and J. Atkinson, "Channels in vision: basic aspects," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology. VIII. Perception, edited by R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber (Springer, Berlin, 1978).
  6. C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).
  7. A. Y. Maudarbocus and K. H. Ruddock, "Nonlinearity of visual signals in relation to shape-sensitive adaptation responses," Vision Res. 13, 1713–1737 (1973).
  8. S. A. Lema and R. Blake, "Binocular summation in normal and stereoblind humans," Vision Res. 17, 691–695 (1977).
  9. M. H. Pirenne, "Binocular and uniocular thresholds of vision," Nature 152, 698–699 (1943).
  10. F. Thorn and R. M. Boynton, "Human binocular summation at absolute threshold," Vision Res. 14, 445–458 (1974).
  11. R. Blake and R. Fox, "The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation," Percept. Psychophys. 14, 161–185 (1973).
  12. T. E. Cohn and D. J. Lasley, "Spatial summation of foveal increments and decrements," Vision Res. 15, 389–399 (1975).
  13. F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Monocular vs binocular visual acuity," Nature 208, 191–192 (1965).
  14. J. Bacon, "Interaction of dichoptically presented spatial gratings," Vision Res. 16, 337–344 (1976).
  15. R. Blake and E. Levinson, "Spatial properties of binocular neurons in the human visual system, " Exp. Brain Res. 27, 221–232 (1977).
  16. B. H. Crawford, "Ocular interaction in its relation to measurements of brightness thresholds," Proc. R. Soc. B 128, 552–559 (1940).
  17. M. A. Bouman "On foveal and peripheral interaction in binocular vision," Opt. Acta 1, 177–183 (1955).
  18. T. Lansford and H. Baker, "Dark adaptation: an interocular light-adaptation effect," Science 164, 1307–1309 (1969).
  19. J. Paris and A. M. Prestrude, "On the mechanisms of the interocular light adaptation effect," Vision Res. 15, 595–603 (1975).
  20. W. Makous, D. Teller and R. Boothe, "Binocular interaction in the dark," Vision Res. 16, 473–476 (1976).
  21. D. Kahneman, "Method, findings and theory in studies of visual masking," Psychol. Bull. 70, 404–425 (1968).
  22. L. A. Lefton, "Metacontrast: a review," Percept. Psychophys. 13, 161–171 (1973).
  23. B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, "Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing," Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–37 (1976).
  24. R. Fox, "Visual masking," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology. VIII. Perception, edited by R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber (Springer, Berlin, 1978).
  25. F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).
  26. G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, "Sequential estimation of points on a psychometric function," Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).
  27. G. E. Legge, "Space domain properties of a spatial frequency channel in human vision," Vision Res. 18, 959–969 (1978).
  28. R. Blake and J. Camisa, "Is binocular vision always monocular?", Science 200, 1497–1499 (1978).
  29. R. Wales and R. Fox, "Increment detection thresholds during binocular rivalry suppression," Percept. Psychophys. 8, 90–94 (1970).
  30. R. Blake and S. A. Lema, "Inhibitory effect of binocular rivalry suppression is independent of orientation," Vision Res. 18, 541–545 (1978).
  31. R. Blake, "Threshold conditions for binocular rivalry," J. Exp. Psychol., Hum. Percept. & Perform. 3, 251–257 (1977).
  32. L. Kaufman, "On the spread of suppression and binocular rivalry," Vision Res. 3, 401–415 (1963).
  33. F. W. Campbell and J. J. Kulikowski, "Orientational selectivity of the human visual system," J. Physiol. (London) 187, 437–445 (1966).
  34. R. Blake and R. Fox, "Binocular rivalry suppression: insensitive to spatial frequency and orientation change," Vision Res. 14, 687–692 (1974).
  35. I. Bodis-Wollner, C. D. Hendley, and J. J. Kulikowski, "Electrophysiological and psychophysical responses to modulation of contrast of grating pattern," Perception 1, 341–349 (1972).
  36. I. Bodis-Wollner, C. D. Hendley, and M. Tajfel, "Contrast-modulation thresholds as a function of spatial frequency," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1297 (1973).
  37. A. Pantle, "Simultaneous masking of one spatial sine wave by another," Suppl. Invest. Opthamol. Vis. Sci. 16, 47 (1977).
  38. C. F. Stromeyer, III and B. Julesz, "Spatial frequency masking in vision: critical bands and spread of masking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1221–1232 (1972).
  39. W. Jesteadt, C. C. Wier,.and D. M. Green, "Intensity discrimination as a function of frequency and sensation level," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 61, 169–177 (1977).
  40. J. J. Kulikowski, "Effective contrast constancy and linearity of contrast sensation," Vision Res. 16, 1419–1432 (1976).
  41. A. Pantle and R. Sekuler, "Size detecting mechanisms in human vision," Science 162, 1146–1148 (1968).
  42. G. E. Legge, "Sustained and transient mechanisms in human vision: temporal and spatial properties," Vision Res. 18, 69–81 (1978).
  43. A. B. Watson and J. Nachmias, "Patterns of temporal integration in the detection of gratings," Vision Res. 17, 893–902 (1977).
  44. A. Watanabe, T. Mori, S. Nagata, and K. Hiwatashi, "Spatial sinewave responses of the human visual system," Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).
  45. C. Blakemore, J. P. J. Muncey, and R. Ridley, "Stimulus specificity in the human visual system," Vision Res. 13, 1915–1931 (1973).
  46. M. A. Georgeson and G. D. Sullivan, "Contrast constancy: deblurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels," J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627–656 (1975).
  47. O. Franzén and M. Berkley, "Apparent contrast as a function of modulation depth and spatial frequency: a comparison between perceptual and electrophysiological measures," Vision Res. 15, 655–660 (1975).
  48. J. R. Hamerly, R. F. Quick, Jr., and T. A. Reichert, "A study of grating contrast judgement," Vision Res. 17, 201–207 (1977).
  49. J. J. Kulikowski and P. E. King-Smith, "Spatial arrangement of line, edge, and grating detectors revealed by subthreshold summation," Vision Res. 13, 1455–1478 (1973).
  50. J. Nachmias and E. C. Kocher, "Visual detection and discrimination of luminance increments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 382–389 (1970).
  51. T. E. Cohn, L. N. Thibos, and R. N. Kleinstein, "Detectability of a luminance increment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1321–1327 (1974).
  52. J. Nachmias and R. V. Sansbury, "Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection," Vision Res. 14, 1039–1042 (1974).
  53. J. H. Movshon and C. Blakemore, "Orientation specificity and spatial selectivity in human vision," Perception 2, 53–60 (1973).
  54. D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, "Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex," J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215–243 (1968).
  55. D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, "Cells sensitive to binocular depth in area 18 of the macaque monkey cortex," Nature 225, 41–42 (1970).
  56. G. F. Poggio and B. Fischer, "Binocular interaction and depth sensitivity in striate and prestriate cortex of behaving rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 40, 1392–1405 (1977).
  57. G. E. Legge and J. M. Foley, "Spatial frequency masking: Dependence on contrast and frequency," Suppl. Invest. Ophthamol. Vis. Sci. 18, 59 (1979).

1979 (1)

G. E. Legge and J. M. Foley, "Spatial frequency masking: Dependence on contrast and frequency," Suppl. Invest. Ophthamol. Vis. Sci. 18, 59 (1979).

1978 (4)

G. E. Legge, "Sustained and transient mechanisms in human vision: temporal and spatial properties," Vision Res. 18, 69–81 (1978).

G. E. Legge, "Space domain properties of a spatial frequency channel in human vision," Vision Res. 18, 959–969 (1978).

R. Blake and J. Camisa, "Is binocular vision always monocular?", Science 200, 1497–1499 (1978).

R. Blake and S. A. Lema, "Inhibitory effect of binocular rivalry suppression is independent of orientation," Vision Res. 18, 541–545 (1978).

1977 (8)

R. Blake, "Threshold conditions for binocular rivalry," J. Exp. Psychol., Hum. Percept. & Perform. 3, 251–257 (1977).

A. Pantle, "Simultaneous masking of one spatial sine wave by another," Suppl. Invest. Opthamol. Vis. Sci. 16, 47 (1977).

W. Jesteadt, C. C. Wier,.and D. M. Green, "Intensity discrimination as a function of frequency and sensation level," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 61, 169–177 (1977).

S. A. Lema and R. Blake, "Binocular summation in normal and stereoblind humans," Vision Res. 17, 691–695 (1977).

R. Blake and E. Levinson, "Spatial properties of binocular neurons in the human visual system, " Exp. Brain Res. 27, 221–232 (1977).

A. B. Watson and J. Nachmias, "Patterns of temporal integration in the detection of gratings," Vision Res. 17, 893–902 (1977).

J. R. Hamerly, R. F. Quick, Jr., and T. A. Reichert, "A study of grating contrast judgement," Vision Res. 17, 201–207 (1977).

G. F. Poggio and B. Fischer, "Binocular interaction and depth sensitivity in striate and prestriate cortex of behaving rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 40, 1392–1405 (1977).

1976 (4)

J. Bacon, "Interaction of dichoptically presented spatial gratings," Vision Res. 16, 337–344 (1976).

J. J. Kulikowski, "Effective contrast constancy and linearity of contrast sensation," Vision Res. 16, 1419–1432 (1976).

W. Makous, D. Teller and R. Boothe, "Binocular interaction in the dark," Vision Res. 16, 473–476 (1976).

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, "Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing," Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–37 (1976).

1975 (4)

J. Paris and A. M. Prestrude, "On the mechanisms of the interocular light adaptation effect," Vision Res. 15, 595–603 (1975).

T. E. Cohn and D. J. Lasley, "Spatial summation of foveal increments and decrements," Vision Res. 15, 389–399 (1975).

M. A. Georgeson and G. D. Sullivan, "Contrast constancy: deblurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels," J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627–656 (1975).

O. Franzén and M. Berkley, "Apparent contrast as a function of modulation depth and spatial frequency: a comparison between perceptual and electrophysiological measures," Vision Res. 15, 655–660 (1975).

1974 (5)

J. Nachmias and R. V. Sansbury, "Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection," Vision Res. 14, 1039–1042 (1974).

T. E. Cohn, L. N. Thibos, and R. N. Kleinstein, "Detectability of a luminance increment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1321–1327 (1974).

F. Thorn and R. M. Boynton, "Human binocular summation at absolute threshold," Vision Res. 14, 445–458 (1974).

R. W. Sekuler, "Spatial vision," Ann. Rev. Psychol. 25, 195–232 (1974).

R. Blake and R. Fox, "Binocular rivalry suppression: insensitive to spatial frequency and orientation change," Vision Res. 14, 687–692 (1974).

1973 (7)

L. A. Lefton, "Metacontrast: a review," Percept. Psychophys. 13, 161–171 (1973).

A. Y. Maudarbocus and K. H. Ruddock, "Nonlinearity of visual signals in relation to shape-sensitive adaptation responses," Vision Res. 13, 1713–1737 (1973).

R. Blake and R. Fox, "The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation," Percept. Psychophys. 14, 161–185 (1973).

J. H. Movshon and C. Blakemore, "Orientation specificity and spatial selectivity in human vision," Perception 2, 53–60 (1973).

J. J. Kulikowski and P. E. King-Smith, "Spatial arrangement of line, edge, and grating detectors revealed by subthreshold summation," Vision Res. 13, 1455–1478 (1973).

I. Bodis-Wollner, C. D. Hendley, and M. Tajfel, "Contrast-modulation thresholds as a function of spatial frequency," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1297 (1973).

C. Blakemore, J. P. J. Muncey, and R. Ridley, "Stimulus specificity in the human visual system," Vision Res. 13, 1915–1931 (1973).

1972 (2)

C. F. Stromeyer, III and B. Julesz, "Spatial frequency masking in vision: critical bands and spread of masking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1221–1232 (1972).

I. Bodis-Wollner, C. D. Hendley, and J. J. Kulikowski, "Electrophysiological and psychophysical responses to modulation of contrast of grating pattern," Perception 1, 341–349 (1972).

1970 (3)

R. Wales and R. Fox, "Increment detection thresholds during binocular rivalry suppression," Percept. Psychophys. 8, 90–94 (1970).

J. Nachmias and E. C. Kocher, "Visual detection and discrimination of luminance increments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 382–389 (1970).

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, "Cells sensitive to binocular depth in area 18 of the macaque monkey cortex," Nature 225, 41–42 (1970).

1969 (2)

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

T. Lansford and H. Baker, "Dark adaptation: an interocular light-adaptation effect," Science 164, 1307–1309 (1969).

1968 (5)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).

D. Kahneman, "Method, findings and theory in studies of visual masking," Psychol. Bull. 70, 404–425 (1968).

A. Pantle and R. Sekuler, "Size detecting mechanisms in human vision," Science 162, 1146–1148 (1968).

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, "Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex," J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215–243 (1968).

A. Watanabe, T. Mori, S. Nagata, and K. Hiwatashi, "Spatial sinewave responses of the human visual system," Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).

1966 (1)

F. W. Campbell and J. J. Kulikowski, "Orientational selectivity of the human visual system," J. Physiol. (London) 187, 437–445 (1966).

1965 (3)

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, "Sequential estimation of points on a psychometric function," Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Monocular vs binocular visual acuity," Nature 208, 191–192 (1965).

1963 (1)

L. Kaufman, "On the spread of suppression and binocular rivalry," Vision Res. 3, 401–415 (1963).

1955 (1)

M. A. Bouman "On foveal and peripheral interaction in binocular vision," Opt. Acta 1, 177–183 (1955).

1943 (1)

M. H. Pirenne, "Binocular and uniocular thresholds of vision," Nature 152, 698–699 (1943).

1940 (1)

B. H. Crawford, "Ocular interaction in its relation to measurements of brightness thresholds," Proc. R. Soc. B 128, 552–559 (1940).

Atkinson, J.

O. Braddick, F. W. Campbell, and J. Atkinson, "Channels in vision: basic aspects," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology. VIII. Perception, edited by R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber (Springer, Berlin, 1978).

Bacon, J.

J. Bacon, "Interaction of dichoptically presented spatial gratings," Vision Res. 16, 337–344 (1976).

Baker, H.

T. Lansford and H. Baker, "Dark adaptation: an interocular light-adaptation effect," Science 164, 1307–1309 (1969).

Berkley, M.

O. Franzén and M. Berkley, "Apparent contrast as a function of modulation depth and spatial frequency: a comparison between perceptual and electrophysiological measures," Vision Res. 15, 655–660 (1975).

Blake, R.

R. Blake and J. Camisa, "Is binocular vision always monocular?", Science 200, 1497–1499 (1978).

R. Blake and S. A. Lema, "Inhibitory effect of binocular rivalry suppression is independent of orientation," Vision Res. 18, 541–545 (1978).

R. Blake, "Threshold conditions for binocular rivalry," J. Exp. Psychol., Hum. Percept. & Perform. 3, 251–257 (1977).

R. Blake and E. Levinson, "Spatial properties of binocular neurons in the human visual system, " Exp. Brain Res. 27, 221–232 (1977).

S. A. Lema and R. Blake, "Binocular summation in normal and stereoblind humans," Vision Res. 17, 691–695 (1977).

R. Blake and R. Fox, "Binocular rivalry suppression: insensitive to spatial frequency and orientation change," Vision Res. 14, 687–692 (1974).

R. Blake and R. Fox, "The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation," Percept. Psychophys. 14, 161–185 (1973).

Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore, J. P. J. Muncey, and R. Ridley, "Stimulus specificity in the human visual system," Vision Res. 13, 1915–1931 (1973).

J. H. Movshon and C. Blakemore, "Orientation specificity and spatial selectivity in human vision," Perception 2, 53–60 (1973).

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

Bodis-Wollner, I.

I. Bodis-Wollner, C. D. Hendley, and M. Tajfel, "Contrast-modulation thresholds as a function of spatial frequency," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1297 (1973).

I. Bodis-Wollner, C. D. Hendley, and J. J. Kulikowski, "Electrophysiological and psychophysical responses to modulation of contrast of grating pattern," Perception 1, 341–349 (1972).

Boothe, R.

W. Makous, D. Teller and R. Boothe, "Binocular interaction in the dark," Vision Res. 16, 473–476 (1976).

Bouman, M. A.

M. A. Bouman "On foveal and peripheral interaction in binocular vision," Opt. Acta 1, 177–183 (1955).

Boynton, R. M.

F. Thorn and R. M. Boynton, "Human binocular summation at absolute threshold," Vision Res. 14, 445–458 (1974).

Braddick, O.

O. Braddick, F. W. Campbell, and J. Atkinson, "Channels in vision: basic aspects," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology. VIII. Perception, edited by R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber (Springer, Berlin, 1978).

Breitmeyer, B. G.

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, "Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing," Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–37 (1976).

Camisa, J.

R. Blake and J. Camisa, "Is binocular vision always monocular?", Science 200, 1497–1499 (1978).

Campbell, F. W.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).

F. W. Campbell and J. J. Kulikowski, "Orientational selectivity of the human visual system," J. Physiol. (London) 187, 437–445 (1966).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Monocular vs binocular visual acuity," Nature 208, 191–192 (1965).

F. W. Campbell, "The transmission of spatial information through the visual system," in The Neurosciences Third Study Program, edited by F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden (MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1974).

O. Braddick, F. W. Campbell, and J. Atkinson, "Channels in vision: basic aspects," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology. VIII. Perception, edited by R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber (Springer, Berlin, 1978).

Cohn, T. E.

T. E. Cohn and D. J. Lasley, "Spatial summation of foveal increments and decrements," Vision Res. 15, 389–399 (1975).

T. E. Cohn, L. N. Thibos, and R. N. Kleinstein, "Detectability of a luminance increment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1321–1327 (1974).

Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, New York, 1970).

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, "Ocular interaction in its relation to measurements of brightness thresholds," Proc. R. Soc. B 128, 552–559 (1940).

Fischer, B.

G. F. Poggio and B. Fischer, "Binocular interaction and depth sensitivity in striate and prestriate cortex of behaving rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 40, 1392–1405 (1977).

Foley, J. M.

G. E. Legge and J. M. Foley, "Spatial frequency masking: Dependence on contrast and frequency," Suppl. Invest. Ophthamol. Vis. Sci. 18, 59 (1979).

Fox, R.

R. Blake and R. Fox, "Binocular rivalry suppression: insensitive to spatial frequency and orientation change," Vision Res. 14, 687–692 (1974).

R. Blake and R. Fox, "The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation," Percept. Psychophys. 14, 161–185 (1973).

R. Wales and R. Fox, "Increment detection thresholds during binocular rivalry suppression," Percept. Psychophys. 8, 90–94 (1970).

R. Fox, "Visual masking," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology. VIII. Perception, edited by R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber (Springer, Berlin, 1978).

Franzén, O.

O. Franzén and M. Berkley, "Apparent contrast as a function of modulation depth and spatial frequency: a comparison between perceptual and electrophysiological measures," Vision Res. 15, 655–660 (1975).

Ganz, L.

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, "Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing," Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–37 (1976).

Georgeson, M. A.

M. A. Georgeson and G. D. Sullivan, "Contrast constancy: deblurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels," J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627–656 (1975).

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Monocular vs binocular visual acuity," Nature 208, 191–192 (1965).

Green, D. M.

W. Jesteadt, C. C. Wier,.and D. M. Green, "Intensity discrimination as a function of frequency and sensation level," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 61, 169–177 (1977).

Hamerly, J. R.

J. R. Hamerly, R. F. Quick, Jr., and T. A. Reichert, "A study of grating contrast judgement," Vision Res. 17, 201–207 (1977).

Hendley, C. D.

I. Bodis-Wollner, C. D. Hendley, and M. Tajfel, "Contrast-modulation thresholds as a function of spatial frequency," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1297 (1973).

I. Bodis-Wollner, C. D. Hendley, and J. J. Kulikowski, "Electrophysiological and psychophysical responses to modulation of contrast of grating pattern," Perception 1, 341–349 (1972).

Hiwatashi, K.

A. Watanabe, T. Mori, S. Nagata, and K. Hiwatashi, "Spatial sinewave responses of the human visual system," Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).

Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, "Cells sensitive to binocular depth in area 18 of the macaque monkey cortex," Nature 225, 41–42 (1970).

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, "Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex," J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215–243 (1968).

Jesteadt, W.

W. Jesteadt, C. C. Wier,.and D. M. Green, "Intensity discrimination as a function of frequency and sensation level," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 61, 169–177 (1977).

Julesz, B.

Kahneman, D.

D. Kahneman, "Method, findings and theory in studies of visual masking," Psychol. Bull. 70, 404–425 (1968).

Kaufman, L.

L. Kaufman, "On the spread of suppression and binocular rivalry," Vision Res. 3, 401–415 (1963).

King-Smith, P. E.

J. J. Kulikowski and P. E. King-Smith, "Spatial arrangement of line, edge, and grating detectors revealed by subthreshold summation," Vision Res. 13, 1455–1478 (1973).

Kleinstein, R. N.

Kocher, E. C.

Kulikowski, J. J.

J. J. Kulikowski, "Effective contrast constancy and linearity of contrast sensation," Vision Res. 16, 1419–1432 (1976).

J. J. Kulikowski and P. E. King-Smith, "Spatial arrangement of line, edge, and grating detectors revealed by subthreshold summation," Vision Res. 13, 1455–1478 (1973).

I. Bodis-Wollner, C. D. Hendley, and J. J. Kulikowski, "Electrophysiological and psychophysical responses to modulation of contrast of grating pattern," Perception 1, 341–349 (1972).

F. W. Campbell and J. J. Kulikowski, "Orientational selectivity of the human visual system," J. Physiol. (London) 187, 437–445 (1966).

Lansford, T.

T. Lansford and H. Baker, "Dark adaptation: an interocular light-adaptation effect," Science 164, 1307–1309 (1969).

Lasley, D. J.

T. E. Cohn and D. J. Lasley, "Spatial summation of foveal increments and decrements," Vision Res. 15, 389–399 (1975).

Lefton, L. A.

L. A. Lefton, "Metacontrast: a review," Percept. Psychophys. 13, 161–171 (1973).

Legge, G. E.

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Ann. Rev. Psychol. (1)

R. W. Sekuler, "Spatial vision," Ann. Rev. Psychol. 25, 195–232 (1974).

Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. (1)

G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, "Sequential estimation of points on a psychometric function," Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).

Exp. Brain Res. (1)

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Hum. Percept. & Perform. (1)

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J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

W. Jesteadt, C. C. Wier,.and D. M. Green, "Intensity discrimination as a function of frequency and sensation level," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 61, 169–177 (1977).

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

G. F. Poggio and B. Fischer, "Binocular interaction and depth sensitivity in striate and prestriate cortex of behaving rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 40, 1392–1405 (1977).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Physiol. (6)

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, "Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex," J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215–243 (1968).

M. A. Georgeson and G. D. Sullivan, "Contrast constancy: deblurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels," J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627–656 (1975).

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F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

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C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

Nature (3)

M. H. Pirenne, "Binocular and uniocular thresholds of vision," Nature 152, 698–699 (1943).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Monocular vs binocular visual acuity," Nature 208, 191–192 (1965).

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, "Cells sensitive to binocular depth in area 18 of the macaque monkey cortex," Nature 225, 41–42 (1970).

Opt. Acta (1)

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Percept. Psychophys. (3)

R. Blake and R. Fox, "The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation," Percept. Psychophys. 14, 161–185 (1973).

L. A. Lefton, "Metacontrast: a review," Percept. Psychophys. 13, 161–171 (1973).

R. Wales and R. Fox, "Increment detection thresholds during binocular rivalry suppression," Percept. Psychophys. 8, 90–94 (1970).

Perception (2)

I. Bodis-Wollner, C. D. Hendley, and J. J. Kulikowski, "Electrophysiological and psychophysical responses to modulation of contrast of grating pattern," Perception 1, 341–349 (1972).

J. H. Movshon and C. Blakemore, "Orientation specificity and spatial selectivity in human vision," Perception 2, 53–60 (1973).

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Psychol. Bull. (1)

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Psychol. Rev. (1)

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Science (3)

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T. Lansford and H. Baker, "Dark adaptation: an interocular light-adaptation effect," Science 164, 1307–1309 (1969).

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Suppl. Invest. Ophthamol. Vis. Sci. (1)

G. E. Legge and J. M. Foley, "Spatial frequency masking: Dependence on contrast and frequency," Suppl. Invest. Ophthamol. Vis. Sci. 18, 59 (1979).

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A. Pantle, "Simultaneous masking of one spatial sine wave by another," Suppl. Invest. Opthamol. Vis. Sci. 16, 47 (1977).

Vision Res. (20)

J. J. Kulikowski, "Effective contrast constancy and linearity of contrast sensation," Vision Res. 16, 1419–1432 (1976).

G. E. Legge, "Sustained and transient mechanisms in human vision: temporal and spatial properties," Vision Res. 18, 69–81 (1978).

A. B. Watson and J. Nachmias, "Patterns of temporal integration in the detection of gratings," Vision Res. 17, 893–902 (1977).

A. Watanabe, T. Mori, S. Nagata, and K. Hiwatashi, "Spatial sinewave responses of the human visual system," Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).

C. Blakemore, J. P. J. Muncey, and R. Ridley, "Stimulus specificity in the human visual system," Vision Res. 13, 1915–1931 (1973).

O. Franzén and M. Berkley, "Apparent contrast as a function of modulation depth and spatial frequency: a comparison between perceptual and electrophysiological measures," Vision Res. 15, 655–660 (1975).

J. R. Hamerly, R. F. Quick, Jr., and T. A. Reichert, "A study of grating contrast judgement," Vision Res. 17, 201–207 (1977).

J. J. Kulikowski and P. E. King-Smith, "Spatial arrangement of line, edge, and grating detectors revealed by subthreshold summation," Vision Res. 13, 1455–1478 (1973).

J. Nachmias and R. V. Sansbury, "Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection," Vision Res. 14, 1039–1042 (1974).

J. Paris and A. M. Prestrude, "On the mechanisms of the interocular light adaptation effect," Vision Res. 15, 595–603 (1975).

W. Makous, D. Teller and R. Boothe, "Binocular interaction in the dark," Vision Res. 16, 473–476 (1976).

T. E. Cohn and D. J. Lasley, "Spatial summation of foveal increments and decrements," Vision Res. 15, 389–399 (1975).

J. Bacon, "Interaction of dichoptically presented spatial gratings," Vision Res. 16, 337–344 (1976).

F. Thorn and R. M. Boynton, "Human binocular summation at absolute threshold," Vision Res. 14, 445–458 (1974).

A. Y. Maudarbocus and K. H. Ruddock, "Nonlinearity of visual signals in relation to shape-sensitive adaptation responses," Vision Res. 13, 1713–1737 (1973).

S. A. Lema and R. Blake, "Binocular summation in normal and stereoblind humans," Vision Res. 17, 691–695 (1977).

R. Blake and R. Fox, "Binocular rivalry suppression: insensitive to spatial frequency and orientation change," Vision Res. 14, 687–692 (1974).

R. Blake and S. A. Lema, "Inhibitory effect of binocular rivalry suppression is independent of orientation," Vision Res. 18, 541–545 (1978).

L. Kaufman, "On the spread of suppression and binocular rivalry," Vision Res. 3, 401–415 (1963).

G. E. Legge, "Space domain properties of a spatial frequency channel in human vision," Vision Res. 18, 959–969 (1978).

Other (4)

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T. N. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, New York, 1970).

F. W. Campbell, "The transmission of spatial information through the visual system," in The Neurosciences Third Study Program, edited by F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden (MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1974).

O. Braddick, F. W. Campbell, and J. Atkinson, "Channels in vision: basic aspects," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology. VIII. Perception, edited by R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber (Springer, Berlin, 1978).

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