Abstract

The arctic mirage is an atmospheric refraction phenomenon caused by a temperature inversion in the lower atmosphere. It is classified into three basic types, two of which (<i>hillingar</i> and <i>hafgerdingar</i> effects) occur fairly frequently. The third is the Novaya Zemlya effect, reported by polar explorers on several occasions as an anomalous sunrise during the polar winter, when the position of the sun was below the horizon. The Novaya Zemlya effect consists of the trapping of light rays beneath a thermocline of large horizontal extent. Within the thermocline layers, the coefficient of refraction must exceed 1, while above and below it the coefficient must be less than 1. Then certain upward rays repeatedly bounce back from the thermocline and are transmitted for long distances around the earth’s curvature. The anomalous sunrise is a special case of this generalized definition. The properties of the Novaya Zemlya effect, analyzed using a laterally uniform stratified-atmosphere model, agree with those reported by polar expeditions. A narrow strip or window appears near the horizon, with or without an image of the sun in the window. An observation sketched by Liljequist in Antarctica is reconstructed to demonstrate the model’s accuracy.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. deVeer, The Three Voyages of William Barents to the Arctic Regions (1594, 1595 and 1596), 2nd ed. (Hakluyt Society, London, 1876).
  2. S. W. Visser, "The Novaya-Zemlya Phenomenon," K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Versl. Gewone Vergad, Afd. Natuurkd. 59, 375–385 (1956).
  3. E. Shackleton, South–The Story of Shackleton's Last Expedition 1914–1917, (MacMillan, New York, 1920).
  4. A. Wegener, "Elementare Theorie der atmosphärischen Spiegelungen," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 57, 203–230 (1918).
  5. J. M. Pernter and F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed. (Braumüller, Vienna, 1922).
  6. G. H. Liljequist, "Refraction Phenomena in the Polar Atmosphere," in Scientific Results, Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1949–52, Vol. 2, Part 2, (Oslo University, Oslo, 1964).
  7. H. L. Sawatzky and W. H. Lehn, "The Arctic Mirage and the Early North Atlantic," Science, 192, 1300–1305 (1976).
  8. W. H. Lehn and H. L. Sawatzky, "Image Transmission under Arctic Mirage Conditions," Z. Polarforschung, 45, 120–128 (1975).
  9. W. H. Lehn, H. L. Sawatzky et al., "Lore, Logic and the Arctic Mirage", Scand. Review, 66, 36–41 (1978).
  10. W. H. Lehn and M. B. El-Arini, "Computer-graphics analysis of atmospheric refraction", Appl. Opt., 17, 3146–3151 (1978).

1978

W. H. Lehn, H. L. Sawatzky et al., "Lore, Logic and the Arctic Mirage", Scand. Review, 66, 36–41 (1978).

W. H. Lehn and M. B. El-Arini, "Computer-graphics analysis of atmospheric refraction", Appl. Opt., 17, 3146–3151 (1978).

1976

H. L. Sawatzky and W. H. Lehn, "The Arctic Mirage and the Early North Atlantic," Science, 192, 1300–1305 (1976).

1975

W. H. Lehn and H. L. Sawatzky, "Image Transmission under Arctic Mirage Conditions," Z. Polarforschung, 45, 120–128 (1975).

1956

S. W. Visser, "The Novaya-Zemlya Phenomenon," K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Versl. Gewone Vergad, Afd. Natuurkd. 59, 375–385 (1956).

1918

A. Wegener, "Elementare Theorie der atmosphärischen Spiegelungen," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 57, 203–230 (1918).

de Veer, G.

G. deVeer, The Three Voyages of William Barents to the Arctic Regions (1594, 1595 and 1596), 2nd ed. (Hakluyt Society, London, 1876).

El-Arini, M. B.

Exner, F. M.

J. M. Pernter and F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed. (Braumüller, Vienna, 1922).

Lehn, W. H.

W. H. Lehn, H. L. Sawatzky et al., "Lore, Logic and the Arctic Mirage", Scand. Review, 66, 36–41 (1978).

W. H. Lehn and M. B. El-Arini, "Computer-graphics analysis of atmospheric refraction", Appl. Opt., 17, 3146–3151 (1978).

H. L. Sawatzky and W. H. Lehn, "The Arctic Mirage and the Early North Atlantic," Science, 192, 1300–1305 (1976).

W. H. Lehn and H. L. Sawatzky, "Image Transmission under Arctic Mirage Conditions," Z. Polarforschung, 45, 120–128 (1975).

Liljequist, G. H.

G. H. Liljequist, "Refraction Phenomena in the Polar Atmosphere," in Scientific Results, Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1949–52, Vol. 2, Part 2, (Oslo University, Oslo, 1964).

Pernter, J. M.

J. M. Pernter and F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed. (Braumüller, Vienna, 1922).

Sawatzky, H. L.

W. H. Lehn, H. L. Sawatzky et al., "Lore, Logic and the Arctic Mirage", Scand. Review, 66, 36–41 (1978).

H. L. Sawatzky and W. H. Lehn, "The Arctic Mirage and the Early North Atlantic," Science, 192, 1300–1305 (1976).

W. H. Lehn and H. L. Sawatzky, "Image Transmission under Arctic Mirage Conditions," Z. Polarforschung, 45, 120–128 (1975).

Shackleton, E.

E. Shackleton, South–The Story of Shackleton's Last Expedition 1914–1917, (MacMillan, New York, 1920).

Visser, S. W.

S. W. Visser, "The Novaya-Zemlya Phenomenon," K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Versl. Gewone Vergad, Afd. Natuurkd. 59, 375–385 (1956).

Wegener, A.

A. Wegener, "Elementare Theorie der atmosphärischen Spiegelungen," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 57, 203–230 (1918).

Afd. Natuurkd.

S. W. Visser, "The Novaya-Zemlya Phenomenon," K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Versl. Gewone Vergad, Afd. Natuurkd. 59, 375–385 (1956).

Ann. Phys.

A. Wegener, "Elementare Theorie der atmosphärischen Spiegelungen," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 57, 203–230 (1918).

Appl. Opt.

Scand. Review

W. H. Lehn, H. L. Sawatzky et al., "Lore, Logic and the Arctic Mirage", Scand. Review, 66, 36–41 (1978).

Z. Polarforschung

W. H. Lehn and H. L. Sawatzky, "Image Transmission under Arctic Mirage Conditions," Z. Polarforschung, 45, 120–128 (1975).

Other

G. deVeer, The Three Voyages of William Barents to the Arctic Regions (1594, 1595 and 1596), 2nd ed. (Hakluyt Society, London, 1876).

E. Shackleton, South–The Story of Shackleton's Last Expedition 1914–1917, (MacMillan, New York, 1920).

J. M. Pernter and F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed. (Braumüller, Vienna, 1922).

G. H. Liljequist, "Refraction Phenomena in the Polar Atmosphere," in Scientific Results, Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1949–52, Vol. 2, Part 2, (Oslo University, Oslo, 1964).

H. L. Sawatzky and W. H. Lehn, "The Arctic Mirage and the Early North Atlantic," Science, 192, 1300–1305 (1976).

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