Abstract

The first ionization potential of neptunium has been determined from the photoionization thresholdand from Rydberg series observed by laser spectroscopy techniques. The Rydberg series convergence limits yield the most accurate value of 50 536(4) cm<sup>-1</sup> [6.2657(5) eV]. The radiative lifetimes of five levels in the 26 200–29 050-cm<sup>-1</sup> range have been measured. New energy levels, 27 odd and 37 even, in the 33 000–37 000-cm<sup>-1</sup> range have been determined with approximately ± 0.5-cm<sup>-1</sup> precision.

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  1. L. R. Carlson, J. A. Paisner, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, C. A. May, and R. W. Solarz, "Radiative lifetimes, absorption cross sections, and the observation of high lying odd levels of 238U using multistep laser photoionization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 846–853 (1976).
  2. R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, and L. J. Radziemski, "Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time-resolved stepwise laser photoionization," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, and J. G. Conway, "First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).
  3. D. H. Smith and G. R. Hertel, "First ionization potentials of Th, Np and Pu by surface ionization," J. Chem. Phys. 51, 3105–3107 (1969).
  4. E. G. Rauh and R. J. Ackermann, "The first ionization potentials of neptunium and neptunium monoxide," J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1584 (1975).
  5. J. Sugar, "Revised ionization energies of the neutral actinides," J. Chem. Phys. 60, 4103 (1974).
  6. M. Fred and F. S. Tomkins, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, II.; J. E. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. Verges, Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Orsay, France, "The atomic spectrum of neptunium," Argonne National Laboratory, report ANL-76-68, May, 1976 available from National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA. 22161, $8.00, microfiche $2.25.
  7. M. Fred, F. S. Tomkins, J. E. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. Verges, "Term analysis of neutral neptunium (Np I)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 7–23 (1977).
  8. R. J. Ackermann pointed out the need to use single crystal tantalum to contain Np metal at high temperature and also emphasized that NpO would be the major species during the initial stages of vaporization, (private communication, 1977).
  9. R. J. Ackermann and E. G. Rauh, "The thermodynamics of vaporization of neptunium and plutonium," J. Chem. Thermodynamics 7, 211–218 (1975).
  10. We are indebted to J. Blaise, Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Orsay, France and M. Fred, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, II. for providing us with the unpublished low-lying energy levels of singly ionized Np.
  11. K. Rajnak and B. W. Shore, "Regularities in s-electron binding energies in lNsM configurations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 360–367 (1978).

1977

1976

L. R. Carlson, J. A. Paisner, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, C. A. May, and R. W. Solarz, "Radiative lifetimes, absorption cross sections, and the observation of high lying odd levels of 238U using multistep laser photoionization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 846–853 (1976).

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, and L. J. Radziemski, "Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time-resolved stepwise laser photoionization," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, and J. G. Conway, "First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).

1975

E. G. Rauh and R. J. Ackermann, "The first ionization potentials of neptunium and neptunium monoxide," J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1584 (1975).

1974

J. Sugar, "Revised ionization energies of the neutral actinides," J. Chem. Phys. 60, 4103 (1974).

1969

D. H. Smith and G. R. Hertel, "First ionization potentials of Th, Np and Pu by surface ionization," J. Chem. Phys. 51, 3105–3107 (1969).

Ackermann, R. J.

E. G. Rauh and R. J. Ackermann, "The first ionization potentials of neptunium and neptunium monoxide," J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1584 (1975).

R. J. Ackermann pointed out the need to use single crystal tantalum to contain Np metal at high temperature and also emphasized that NpO would be the major species during the initial stages of vaporization, (private communication, 1977).

R. J. Ackermann and E. G. Rauh, "The thermodynamics of vaporization of neptunium and plutonium," J. Chem. Thermodynamics 7, 211–218 (1975).

Blaise, J. E.

Camus, P.

Carlson, L. R.

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, and L. J. Radziemski, "Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time-resolved stepwise laser photoionization," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, and J. G. Conway, "First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).

L. R. Carlson, J. A. Paisner, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, C. A. May, and R. W. Solarz, "Radiative lifetimes, absorption cross sections, and the observation of high lying odd levels of 238U using multistep laser photoionization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 846–853 (1976).

Fred, M.

M. Fred, F. S. Tomkins, J. E. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. Verges, "Term analysis of neutral neptunium (Np I)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 7–23 (1977).

M. Fred and F. S. Tomkins, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, II.; J. E. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. Verges, Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Orsay, France, "The atomic spectrum of neptunium," Argonne National Laboratory, report ANL-76-68, May, 1976 available from National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA. 22161, $8.00, microfiche $2.25.

Hertel, G. R.

D. H. Smith and G. R. Hertel, "First ionization potentials of Th, Np and Pu by surface ionization," J. Chem. Phys. 51, 3105–3107 (1969).

Johnson, S. A.

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, and L. J. Radziemski, "Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time-resolved stepwise laser photoionization," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, and J. G. Conway, "First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).

L. R. Carlson, J. A. Paisner, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, C. A. May, and R. W. Solarz, "Radiative lifetimes, absorption cross sections, and the observation of high lying odd levels of 238U using multistep laser photoionization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 846–853 (1976).

May, C. A.

L. R. Carlson, J. A. Paisner, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, C. A. May, and R. W. Solarz, "Radiative lifetimes, absorption cross sections, and the observation of high lying odd levels of 238U using multistep laser photoionization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 846–853 (1976).

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, and L. J. Radziemski, "Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time-resolved stepwise laser photoionization," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, and J. G. Conway, "First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).

Paisner, J. A.

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, and L. J. Radziemski, "Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time-resolved stepwise laser photoionization," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, and J. G. Conway, "First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).

L. R. Carlson, J. A. Paisner, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, C. A. May, and R. W. Solarz, "Radiative lifetimes, absorption cross sections, and the observation of high lying odd levels of 238U using multistep laser photoionization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 846–853 (1976).

Radziemski, L. J.

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, and L. J. Radziemski, "Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time-resolved stepwise laser photoionization," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, and J. G. Conway, "First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).

Rajnak, K.

K. Rajnak and B. W. Shore, "Regularities in s-electron binding energies in lNsM configurations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 360–367 (1978).

Rauh, E. G.

E. G. Rauh and R. J. Ackermann, "The first ionization potentials of neptunium and neptunium monoxide," J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1584 (1975).

R. J. Ackermann and E. G. Rauh, "The thermodynamics of vaporization of neptunium and plutonium," J. Chem. Thermodynamics 7, 211–218 (1975).

Shore, B. W.

K. Rajnak and B. W. Shore, "Regularities in s-electron binding energies in lNsM configurations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 360–367 (1978).

Smith, D. H.

D. H. Smith and G. R. Hertel, "First ionization potentials of Th, Np and Pu by surface ionization," J. Chem. Phys. 51, 3105–3107 (1969).

Solarz, R. W.

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, and L. J. Radziemski, "Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time-resolved stepwise laser photoionization," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, and J. G. Conway, "First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).

L. R. Carlson, J. A. Paisner, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, C. A. May, and R. W. Solarz, "Radiative lifetimes, absorption cross sections, and the observation of high lying odd levels of 238U using multistep laser photoionization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 846–853 (1976).

Sugar, J.

J. Sugar, "Revised ionization energies of the neutral actinides," J. Chem. Phys. 60, 4103 (1974).

Tomkins, F. S.

M. Fred, F. S. Tomkins, J. E. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. Verges, "Term analysis of neutral neptunium (Np I)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 7–23 (1977).

M. Fred and F. S. Tomkins, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, II.; J. E. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. Verges, Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Orsay, France, "The atomic spectrum of neptunium," Argonne National Laboratory, report ANL-76-68, May, 1976 available from National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA. 22161, $8.00, microfiche $2.25.

Verges, J.

Worden, E. F.

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, and L. J. Radziemski, "Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time-resolved stepwise laser photoionization," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, and J. G. Conway, "First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).

L. R. Carlson, J. A. Paisner, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, C. A. May, and R. W. Solarz, "Radiative lifetimes, absorption cross sections, and the observation of high lying odd levels of 238U using multistep laser photoionization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 846–853 (1976).

J. Chem. Phys.

D. H. Smith and G. R. Hertel, "First ionization potentials of Th, Np and Pu by surface ionization," J. Chem. Phys. 51, 3105–3107 (1969).

E. G. Rauh and R. J. Ackermann, "The first ionization potentials of neptunium and neptunium monoxide," J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1584 (1975).

J. Sugar, "Revised ionization energies of the neutral actinides," J. Chem. Phys. 60, 4103 (1974).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Phys. Rev. A

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, and L. J. Radziemski, "Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time-resolved stepwise laser photoionization," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, and J. G. Conway, "First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).

Other

M. Fred and F. S. Tomkins, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, II.; J. E. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. Verges, Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Orsay, France, "The atomic spectrum of neptunium," Argonne National Laboratory, report ANL-76-68, May, 1976 available from National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA. 22161, $8.00, microfiche $2.25.

R. J. Ackermann pointed out the need to use single crystal tantalum to contain Np metal at high temperature and also emphasized that NpO would be the major species during the initial stages of vaporization, (private communication, 1977).

R. J. Ackermann and E. G. Rauh, "The thermodynamics of vaporization of neptunium and plutonium," J. Chem. Thermodynamics 7, 211–218 (1975).

We are indebted to J. Blaise, Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Orsay, France and M. Fred, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, II. for providing us with the unpublished low-lying energy levels of singly ionized Np.

K. Rajnak and B. W. Shore, "Regularities in s-electron binding energies in lNsM configurations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 360–367 (1978).

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