Abstract

Brightness-duration relations for chromatic stimuli were studied using three pulse-to-background luminance relations: chromatic equal-luminance pulses (3.2 cd/m<sup>2</sup>) were presented as increments of 0.3 or 1.0 log units above a lower luminance achromatic background, or were presented in hue substitution, equated in luminance to the achromatic background, so that no spatio-temporal luminance transients occurred during stimulus presentation. Incremental pulses produced temporal brightness enhancement (the Broca-Sulzer phenomenon), but hue substitution pulses did not. Temporal brightness enhancement thus depends upon the occurrence of luminance transients and cannot be produced by pulsed-to-background brightness differences associated solely with chromaticity differences.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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  1. Luminance is defined by empirical measurements of either heterochromatic flicker photometry [G. Wagner, and R. M. Boynton, "Comparison of four methods of heterochromatic photometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62,1508–1515 (1972)] or by the minimally distinct border criterion [R. M. Boynton, and P. K. Kaiser, "Vision: The additivity law made to work for heterochromatic photometry with bipartite fields," Science 161, 366–368 (1968)].
  2. P. K. Kaiser and J. P. Comerford, "Flicker photometry of equally bright lights," Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).
  3. J. P. Comerford and P. K. Kaiser, "Luminous efficiency function determined by heterochromatic brightness matching," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 466–468 (1975).
  4. R. M. Boynton, "Implications of the minimally distinct border," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1037–1043 (1973).
  5. S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marroco, "On luminance additivity and related topics," Vision Res. 9, 537–576 (1969).
  6. S. L. Guth and H. Lodge, "Heterochromatic additivity, foveal spectral sensitivity, and a new color model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 450–462 (1973).
  7. D. Broca and A. Sulzer "La sensation lumineuse en fonction du temps," J. Physiol. Pathol. Gen. 4, 632–640 (1902).
  8. M. Katz, "Brief flash brightness," Vision Res. 4, 361–373 (1964).
  9. D. Broca and A. Sulzer, "Sensation lumineuse en fonction du temps pour les lumieres colorees; Technique et resultats," C. R. Hebd. Seanc. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 137, 944–946 (1903).
  10. M. A. Bills, "The lag of visual sensation in its relation to wavelengths and intensity of light," Psychol. Mongr. 28, No. 127 (1920).
  11. W. H. Stainton, "The phenomenon of Broca and Sulzer in foveal vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 26–39, 1928.
  12. R. J. Ball, "An investigation of chromatic brightness enhancement tendencies," Am. J. Optom. 41, 361–371 (1964).
  13. G. S. Wasserman, "Brightness enhancement and opponent-colors theory," Vision Res. 6, 689–699 (1966).
  14. F. Weingarten, "Wavelength effect on visual latency," Science 176, 692–694 (1972).
  15. M. E. Breton, "Hue substitution: Wavelength latency effects," Vision Res. 17, 435–443 (1977).
  16. R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, and D. Cacciato, "Metacontrast masking depends on luminance transients," Vision Res. 17, 971–975 (1977).
  17. R. W. Bowen, D. T. Lindsey and V. C. Smith, "Chromatic two-pulse resolution with and without luminance transients," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1501–1507 (1977).
  18. M. J. Nissen and J. Pokorny, "Wavelength effects on simple reaction time," Percept. Psychophys. 22, 457–462 (1977).
  19. J. Pokorny, R. W. Bowen, and D. T. Lindsey, "Duration thresholds for chromatic stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1308A (1977).
  20. T. S. Aiba and S. S. Stevens, "Relation of brightness to duration and luminance under light- and dark-adaptation," Vision Res. 4, 391–401 (1964).
  21. D. Raab, "Magnitude estimation of the brightness of brief foveal stimuli," Science 135, 42–44 (1962).
  22. M. F. Lewis, "Category judgments as functions of flash luminance and duration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1655–1660 (1965).
  23. R. W. Bowen and J. Pokorny, "Target edge sharpness and temporal brightness enhancement," Vision Res. 18, 1691–1695 (1978). A variant of the brightness comparison method we describe may actually be traced to N. MacDougal ["The variation of the intensity of visual sensation with the duration of the stimulus," Brit. J. Psychol. 1, 151–189 (1904)].
  24. R. L. DeValois, "Processing of intensity and wavelength information by the visual system," Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 417–426 (1972).
  25. C. Ingling and B. Drum "Retinal receptive fields: Correlations between psychophysics and electrophysiology," Vision Res. 13, 1151–1163 (1973).
  26. D. H. Kelly and D. van Norren, "Two-band model of heterochromatic flicker," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1081–1091 (1977).

1978 (1)

R. W. Bowen and J. Pokorny, "Target edge sharpness and temporal brightness enhancement," Vision Res. 18, 1691–1695 (1978). A variant of the brightness comparison method we describe may actually be traced to N. MacDougal ["The variation of the intensity of visual sensation with the duration of the stimulus," Brit. J. Psychol. 1, 151–189 (1904)].

1977 (6)

D. H. Kelly and D. van Norren, "Two-band model of heterochromatic flicker," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1081–1091 (1977).

M. E. Breton, "Hue substitution: Wavelength latency effects," Vision Res. 17, 435–443 (1977).

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, and D. Cacciato, "Metacontrast masking depends on luminance transients," Vision Res. 17, 971–975 (1977).

R. W. Bowen, D. T. Lindsey and V. C. Smith, "Chromatic two-pulse resolution with and without luminance transients," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1501–1507 (1977).

M. J. Nissen and J. Pokorny, "Wavelength effects on simple reaction time," Percept. Psychophys. 22, 457–462 (1977).

J. Pokorny, R. W. Bowen, and D. T. Lindsey, "Duration thresholds for chromatic stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1308A (1977).

1975 (2)

P. K. Kaiser and J. P. Comerford, "Flicker photometry of equally bright lights," Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).

J. P. Comerford and P. K. Kaiser, "Luminous efficiency function determined by heterochromatic brightness matching," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 466–468 (1975).

1973 (3)

1972 (3)

1969 (1)

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marroco, "On luminance additivity and related topics," Vision Res. 9, 537–576 (1969).

1966 (1)

G. S. Wasserman, "Brightness enhancement and opponent-colors theory," Vision Res. 6, 689–699 (1966).

1965 (1)

1964 (3)

M. Katz, "Brief flash brightness," Vision Res. 4, 361–373 (1964).

R. J. Ball, "An investigation of chromatic brightness enhancement tendencies," Am. J. Optom. 41, 361–371 (1964).

T. S. Aiba and S. S. Stevens, "Relation of brightness to duration and luminance under light- and dark-adaptation," Vision Res. 4, 391–401 (1964).

1962 (1)

D. Raab, "Magnitude estimation of the brightness of brief foveal stimuli," Science 135, 42–44 (1962).

1928 (1)

1920 (1)

M. A. Bills, "The lag of visual sensation in its relation to wavelengths and intensity of light," Psychol. Mongr. 28, No. 127 (1920).

1903 (1)

D. Broca and A. Sulzer, "Sensation lumineuse en fonction du temps pour les lumieres colorees; Technique et resultats," C. R. Hebd. Seanc. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 137, 944–946 (1903).

1902 (1)

D. Broca and A. Sulzer "La sensation lumineuse en fonction du temps," J. Physiol. Pathol. Gen. 4, 632–640 (1902).

Aiba, T. S.

T. S. Aiba and S. S. Stevens, "Relation of brightness to duration and luminance under light- and dark-adaptation," Vision Res. 4, 391–401 (1964).

Ball, R. J.

R. J. Ball, "An investigation of chromatic brightness enhancement tendencies," Am. J. Optom. 41, 361–371 (1964).

Bills, M. A.

M. A. Bills, "The lag of visual sensation in its relation to wavelengths and intensity of light," Psychol. Mongr. 28, No. 127 (1920).

Bowen, R. W.

R. W. Bowen and J. Pokorny, "Target edge sharpness and temporal brightness enhancement," Vision Res. 18, 1691–1695 (1978). A variant of the brightness comparison method we describe may actually be traced to N. MacDougal ["The variation of the intensity of visual sensation with the duration of the stimulus," Brit. J. Psychol. 1, 151–189 (1904)].

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, and D. Cacciato, "Metacontrast masking depends on luminance transients," Vision Res. 17, 971–975 (1977).

J. Pokorny, R. W. Bowen, and D. T. Lindsey, "Duration thresholds for chromatic stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1308A (1977).

R. W. Bowen, D. T. Lindsey and V. C. Smith, "Chromatic two-pulse resolution with and without luminance transients," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1501–1507 (1977).

Boynton, R. M.

Breton, M. E.

M. E. Breton, "Hue substitution: Wavelength latency effects," Vision Res. 17, 435–443 (1977).

Broca, D.

D. Broca and A. Sulzer, "Sensation lumineuse en fonction du temps pour les lumieres colorees; Technique et resultats," C. R. Hebd. Seanc. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 137, 944–946 (1903).

D. Broca and A. Sulzer "La sensation lumineuse en fonction du temps," J. Physiol. Pathol. Gen. 4, 632–640 (1902).

Cacciato, D.

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, and D. Cacciato, "Metacontrast masking depends on luminance transients," Vision Res. 17, 971–975 (1977).

Comerford, J. P.

P. K. Kaiser and J. P. Comerford, "Flicker photometry of equally bright lights," Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).

J. P. Comerford and P. K. Kaiser, "Luminous efficiency function determined by heterochromatic brightness matching," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 466–468 (1975).

DeValois, R. L.

R. L. DeValois, "Processing of intensity and wavelength information by the visual system," Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 417–426 (1972).

Donley, N. J.

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marroco, "On luminance additivity and related topics," Vision Res. 9, 537–576 (1969).

Drum, B.

C. Ingling and B. Drum "Retinal receptive fields: Correlations between psychophysics and electrophysiology," Vision Res. 13, 1151–1163 (1973).

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth and H. Lodge, "Heterochromatic additivity, foveal spectral sensitivity, and a new color model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 450–462 (1973).

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marroco, "On luminance additivity and related topics," Vision Res. 9, 537–576 (1969).

Ingling, C.

C. Ingling and B. Drum "Retinal receptive fields: Correlations between psychophysics and electrophysiology," Vision Res. 13, 1151–1163 (1973).

Kaiser, P. K.

P. K. Kaiser and J. P. Comerford, "Flicker photometry of equally bright lights," Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).

J. P. Comerford and P. K. Kaiser, "Luminous efficiency function determined by heterochromatic brightness matching," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 466–468 (1975).

Katz, M.

M. Katz, "Brief flash brightness," Vision Res. 4, 361–373 (1964).

Kelly, D. H.

Lewis, M. F.

Lindsey, D. T.

J. Pokorny, R. W. Bowen, and D. T. Lindsey, "Duration thresholds for chromatic stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1308A (1977).

R. W. Bowen, D. T. Lindsey and V. C. Smith, "Chromatic two-pulse resolution with and without luminance transients," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1501–1507 (1977).

Lodge, H.

Marroco, R. T.

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marroco, "On luminance additivity and related topics," Vision Res. 9, 537–576 (1969).

Nissen, M. J.

M. J. Nissen and J. Pokorny, "Wavelength effects on simple reaction time," Percept. Psychophys. 22, 457–462 (1977).

Pokorny, J.

R. W. Bowen and J. Pokorny, "Target edge sharpness and temporal brightness enhancement," Vision Res. 18, 1691–1695 (1978). A variant of the brightness comparison method we describe may actually be traced to N. MacDougal ["The variation of the intensity of visual sensation with the duration of the stimulus," Brit. J. Psychol. 1, 151–189 (1904)].

M. J. Nissen and J. Pokorny, "Wavelength effects on simple reaction time," Percept. Psychophys. 22, 457–462 (1977).

J. Pokorny, R. W. Bowen, and D. T. Lindsey, "Duration thresholds for chromatic stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1308A (1977).

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, and D. Cacciato, "Metacontrast masking depends on luminance transients," Vision Res. 17, 971–975 (1977).

Raab, D.

D. Raab, "Magnitude estimation of the brightness of brief foveal stimuli," Science 135, 42–44 (1962).

Smith, V. C.

Stainton, W. H.

Stevens, S. S.

T. S. Aiba and S. S. Stevens, "Relation of brightness to duration and luminance under light- and dark-adaptation," Vision Res. 4, 391–401 (1964).

Sulzer, A.

D. Broca and A. Sulzer, "Sensation lumineuse en fonction du temps pour les lumieres colorees; Technique et resultats," C. R. Hebd. Seanc. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 137, 944–946 (1903).

D. Broca and A. Sulzer "La sensation lumineuse en fonction du temps," J. Physiol. Pathol. Gen. 4, 632–640 (1902).

van Norren, D.

Wagner, G.

Wasserman, G. S.

G. S. Wasserman, "Brightness enhancement and opponent-colors theory," Vision Res. 6, 689–699 (1966).

Weingarten, F.

F. Weingarten, "Wavelength effect on visual latency," Science 176, 692–694 (1972).

Am. J. Optom. (1)

R. J. Ball, "An investigation of chromatic brightness enhancement tendencies," Am. J. Optom. 41, 361–371 (1964).

C. R. Hebd. Seanc. Acad. Sci. (1)

D. Broca and A. Sulzer, "Sensation lumineuse en fonction du temps pour les lumieres colorees; Technique et resultats," C. R. Hebd. Seanc. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 137, 944–946 (1903).

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. L. DeValois, "Processing of intensity and wavelength information by the visual system," Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 417–426 (1972).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (9)

J. Physiol. Pathol. Gen. (1)

D. Broca and A. Sulzer "La sensation lumineuse en fonction du temps," J. Physiol. Pathol. Gen. 4, 632–640 (1902).

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

M. J. Nissen and J. Pokorny, "Wavelength effects on simple reaction time," Percept. Psychophys. 22, 457–462 (1977).

Psychol. Mongr. (1)

M. A. Bills, "The lag of visual sensation in its relation to wavelengths and intensity of light," Psychol. Mongr. 28, No. 127 (1920).

Science (2)

F. Weingarten, "Wavelength effect on visual latency," Science 176, 692–694 (1972).

D. Raab, "Magnitude estimation of the brightness of brief foveal stimuli," Science 135, 42–44 (1962).

Vision Res. (9)

R. W. Bowen and J. Pokorny, "Target edge sharpness and temporal brightness enhancement," Vision Res. 18, 1691–1695 (1978). A variant of the brightness comparison method we describe may actually be traced to N. MacDougal ["The variation of the intensity of visual sensation with the duration of the stimulus," Brit. J. Psychol. 1, 151–189 (1904)].

C. Ingling and B. Drum "Retinal receptive fields: Correlations between psychophysics and electrophysiology," Vision Res. 13, 1151–1163 (1973).

M. E. Breton, "Hue substitution: Wavelength latency effects," Vision Res. 17, 435–443 (1977).

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, and D. Cacciato, "Metacontrast masking depends on luminance transients," Vision Res. 17, 971–975 (1977).

G. S. Wasserman, "Brightness enhancement and opponent-colors theory," Vision Res. 6, 689–699 (1966).

T. S. Aiba and S. S. Stevens, "Relation of brightness to duration and luminance under light- and dark-adaptation," Vision Res. 4, 391–401 (1964).

M. Katz, "Brief flash brightness," Vision Res. 4, 361–373 (1964).

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marroco, "On luminance additivity and related topics," Vision Res. 9, 537–576 (1969).

P. K. Kaiser and J. P. Comerford, "Flicker photometry of equally bright lights," Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).

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