Abstract

A tunable far infrared optically pumped laser has been used to measure the reflection <i>R</i> and transmission of liquid water at 25°C. The laser covered the range 8.22–175.7 cm<sup>- 1</sup> with an average spacing between lines of 8 cm<sup>- 1</sup>. The optical data were used to find the complex index of refraction <i>nik</i> with typical errors of 2%. A small peak in n was observed near 55 cm<sup>- 1</sup>. This feature correlates with published Raman data. The values of <i>R</i>, <i>n</i>, <i>k</i>, and the absorption coefficient α are given in graphical and tabular form.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. Thorough reviews of FIR work in water are given by P. S. Ray, "Broadband Complex Refractive Indices of Ice and Water," Appl. Opt. 11, 1836–1844 (1972); and H. O. Downing and D. Williams, "Optical Constants of Water in the Infrared," J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).
  2. M. N. Afsar and J. B. Hasted, "Measurements of the optical constants of liquid H2O and D2O between 6 and 450 cm-1" J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 902–904 (1977).
  3. M. N. Afsar and J. B. Hasted, "Subinillimeter Wave Measurements of Optical Constants of Water at Various Temperatures," Infrared Physics 18, 835–841 (1978).
  4. M. S. Zafar, J. B. Hasted, and J. Chamberlain, "Water-Submillimeter Dielectric Dispersion," Nature 243, 106–109 (1973).
  5. B. L. Bean and S. Perkowitz, "Far-infrared Transmission Measurements with an Optically Pumped FIR Laser," Appl. Opt. 11, 2617–2618 (1976).
  6. B. L. Bean and S. Perkowitz, "Submillimeter—Far infrared spectroscopy in the liquid and solid states with a tunable optically pumped laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 911–914 (1977).
  7. G. Busse, E. Basel, and A. Pfaller, "Application of the Opto-Acoustic Effect to the Operation of Optically Pumped Far-Infrared Gas Lasers," Appl. Phys. 12, 387–389 (1977).
  8. B. L. Bean and S. Perkowitz, "Complete Frequency Coverage for Submillimeter Laser Spectroscopy with Optically Pumped CH3OH, CH3OD, CD3OD, and CH2CF2," Opt. Lett. 1, 202–204 (1977).
  9. D. A. Draegert, N. W. B. Stone, B. Curnutte, and D. Williams, "Far Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Water," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 64–70 (1966).
  10. G. E. Walrafen, "Liquid Water: Dielectric Properties," in Water: A Comprehensive Treatise, edited by F. Franks (Plenum, New York, 1972), pp. 151–165.
  11. G. E. Walrafen in Structure of Water and Aqueous Solutions, edited by W. A. P. Luck (Verlag Chemie-Physik Verlag, Weinheim, 1974), pp. 319–320.
  12. O. F. Nielsen, "The Structure of Liquid Water; a Low Frequency (10–400 cm-1) Raman Study," Chem. Phys. Lett. 60, 515–517 (1979).

1979 (1)

O. F. Nielsen, "The Structure of Liquid Water; a Low Frequency (10–400 cm-1) Raman Study," Chem. Phys. Lett. 60, 515–517 (1979).

1978 (1)

M. N. Afsar and J. B. Hasted, "Subinillimeter Wave Measurements of Optical Constants of Water at Various Temperatures," Infrared Physics 18, 835–841 (1978).

1977 (4)

B. L. Bean and S. Perkowitz, "Submillimeter—Far infrared spectroscopy in the liquid and solid states with a tunable optically pumped laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 911–914 (1977).

G. Busse, E. Basel, and A. Pfaller, "Application of the Opto-Acoustic Effect to the Operation of Optically Pumped Far-Infrared Gas Lasers," Appl. Phys. 12, 387–389 (1977).

B. L. Bean and S. Perkowitz, "Complete Frequency Coverage for Submillimeter Laser Spectroscopy with Optically Pumped CH3OH, CH3OD, CD3OD, and CH2CF2," Opt. Lett. 1, 202–204 (1977).

M. N. Afsar and J. B. Hasted, "Measurements of the optical constants of liquid H2O and D2O between 6 and 450 cm-1" J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 902–904 (1977).

1976 (1)

B. L. Bean and S. Perkowitz, "Far-infrared Transmission Measurements with an Optically Pumped FIR Laser," Appl. Opt. 11, 2617–2618 (1976).

1973 (1)

M. S. Zafar, J. B. Hasted, and J. Chamberlain, "Water-Submillimeter Dielectric Dispersion," Nature 243, 106–109 (1973).

1972 (1)

1966 (1)

Afsar, M. N.

M. N. Afsar and J. B. Hasted, "Subinillimeter Wave Measurements of Optical Constants of Water at Various Temperatures," Infrared Physics 18, 835–841 (1978).

M. N. Afsar and J. B. Hasted, "Measurements of the optical constants of liquid H2O and D2O between 6 and 450 cm-1" J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 902–904 (1977).

Basel, E.

G. Busse, E. Basel, and A. Pfaller, "Application of the Opto-Acoustic Effect to the Operation of Optically Pumped Far-Infrared Gas Lasers," Appl. Phys. 12, 387–389 (1977).

Bean, B. L.

B. L. Bean and S. Perkowitz, "Submillimeter—Far infrared spectroscopy in the liquid and solid states with a tunable optically pumped laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 911–914 (1977).

B. L. Bean and S. Perkowitz, "Complete Frequency Coverage for Submillimeter Laser Spectroscopy with Optically Pumped CH3OH, CH3OD, CD3OD, and CH2CF2," Opt. Lett. 1, 202–204 (1977).

B. L. Bean and S. Perkowitz, "Far-infrared Transmission Measurements with an Optically Pumped FIR Laser," Appl. Opt. 11, 2617–2618 (1976).

Busse, G.

G. Busse, E. Basel, and A. Pfaller, "Application of the Opto-Acoustic Effect to the Operation of Optically Pumped Far-Infrared Gas Lasers," Appl. Phys. 12, 387–389 (1977).

Chamberlain, J.

M. S. Zafar, J. B. Hasted, and J. Chamberlain, "Water-Submillimeter Dielectric Dispersion," Nature 243, 106–109 (1973).

Curnutte, B.

Draegert, D. A.

Hasted, J. B.

M. N. Afsar and J. B. Hasted, "Subinillimeter Wave Measurements of Optical Constants of Water at Various Temperatures," Infrared Physics 18, 835–841 (1978).

M. N. Afsar and J. B. Hasted, "Measurements of the optical constants of liquid H2O and D2O between 6 and 450 cm-1" J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 902–904 (1977).

M. S. Zafar, J. B. Hasted, and J. Chamberlain, "Water-Submillimeter Dielectric Dispersion," Nature 243, 106–109 (1973).

Nielsen, O. F.

O. F. Nielsen, "The Structure of Liquid Water; a Low Frequency (10–400 cm-1) Raman Study," Chem. Phys. Lett. 60, 515–517 (1979).

Perkowitz, S.

B. L. Bean and S. Perkowitz, "Submillimeter—Far infrared spectroscopy in the liquid and solid states with a tunable optically pumped laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 911–914 (1977).

B. L. Bean and S. Perkowitz, "Complete Frequency Coverage for Submillimeter Laser Spectroscopy with Optically Pumped CH3OH, CH3OD, CD3OD, and CH2CF2," Opt. Lett. 1, 202–204 (1977).

B. L. Bean and S. Perkowitz, "Far-infrared Transmission Measurements with an Optically Pumped FIR Laser," Appl. Opt. 11, 2617–2618 (1976).

Pfaller, A.

G. Busse, E. Basel, and A. Pfaller, "Application of the Opto-Acoustic Effect to the Operation of Optically Pumped Far-Infrared Gas Lasers," Appl. Phys. 12, 387–389 (1977).

Ray, P. S.

Stone, N. W. B.

Walrafen, G. E.

G. E. Walrafen in Structure of Water and Aqueous Solutions, edited by W. A. P. Luck (Verlag Chemie-Physik Verlag, Weinheim, 1974), pp. 319–320.

G. E. Walrafen, "Liquid Water: Dielectric Properties," in Water: A Comprehensive Treatise, edited by F. Franks (Plenum, New York, 1972), pp. 151–165.

Williams, D.

Zafar, M. S.

M. S. Zafar, J. B. Hasted, and J. Chamberlain, "Water-Submillimeter Dielectric Dispersion," Nature 243, 106–109 (1973).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Busse, E. Basel, and A. Pfaller, "Application of the Opto-Acoustic Effect to the Operation of Optically Pumped Far-Infrared Gas Lasers," Appl. Phys. 12, 387–389 (1977).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

O. F. Nielsen, "The Structure of Liquid Water; a Low Frequency (10–400 cm-1) Raman Study," Chem. Phys. Lett. 60, 515–517 (1979).

Infrared Physics (1)

M. N. Afsar and J. B. Hasted, "Subinillimeter Wave Measurements of Optical Constants of Water at Various Temperatures," Infrared Physics 18, 835–841 (1978).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Nature (1)

M. S. Zafar, J. B. Hasted, and J. Chamberlain, "Water-Submillimeter Dielectric Dispersion," Nature 243, 106–109 (1973).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

G. E. Walrafen, "Liquid Water: Dielectric Properties," in Water: A Comprehensive Treatise, edited by F. Franks (Plenum, New York, 1972), pp. 151–165.

G. E. Walrafen in Structure of Water and Aqueous Solutions, edited by W. A. P. Luck (Verlag Chemie-Physik Verlag, Weinheim, 1974), pp. 319–320.

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