Abstract

Limitations on the use of Fourier analysis to solve the radiative-transfer equation in the small-angle-scattering approximation are discussed. The low-order position and angular spatial frequency components of the transformed scattered radiance are shown to be associated with diffusive multiply scattered radiation, and the high-order components with multiply forward scattered radiation. In addition, qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the theory with numerical and experimental results are given.

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. A. Dell-Imagine, "A study of multiple scattering of optical radiation with applications to laser communications," in Advances in Communication Systems, edited by V. A. Balakrishnar (Academic, New York, 1966) Vol. II, p. 1.
  2. H. M. Heggestad, "Multiple Scattering Model For Light Transmission Through Optically Thick Clouds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1293–1300 (1971).
  3. D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchmin, and V. A. Sarelyev, "Structure of a narrow light beam in sea water," Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, (2), 160–167 (1969) [translated by P. A. Kaehnl.
  4. D. Arnush, "Underwater light-beam propagation in the small-angle-scattering approximation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1109–1111 (1972).
  5. R. L. Fante, "Propagation of electromagnetic waves through turbulent plasma using transport theory," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-21, 750–755 (1973).
  6. A. Ishimaru and S. T. Hong, "Multiple scattering effects on coherent bandwidth and pulse distortion of a wave propagating in a random distribution of particles," Radio Sci. 10, 637–644 (1975).
  7. S. T. Hong and A. Ishimaru, "Two frequency mutual coherence function, coherence bandwidth, and coherence time of millimeter and optical waves in rain, fog, and turbulence," Radio Sci. 11 (6), 551–559 (1976).
  8. L. B. Stotts, "The radiance produced by laser radiation traversing a particulate multiple-scattering medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67 815–819 (1977).
  9. A. Ishimaru, "Theory and application of wave propagation and scattering in random media," Proc. IEEE 65, 1030–1061 (1977).
  10. D. L. Fried, "Propagation of the mutual coherence function for an infinite plane wave through a turbid medium," Opt. Lett. 1, 104–106 (1977).
  11. R. F. Lutomirski, "Atmospheric degradation of electro-optical system performance," Appl. Opt. 17, 3915–3921 (1978).
  12. G. N. Plass and G. W. Kattawar, "Monte Carlo calculations of light scattering from clouds," Appl. Opt. 7, 415–419 (1968).
  13. E. A. Bucher, "Computer simulation of light pulse propagation for communication through thick clouds," Appl. Opt. 12, 2391–2400 (1973).
  14. E. A. Bucher, "Propagation models for optical communications through fog and clouds," Proc. Nat. Electron. Conf. 29, 180–185 (1974).
  15. E. A. Bucher and R. M. Lerner, "Experiments on light pulse communication through atmospheric clouds," Appl. Opt. 12, 2401–2414 (1973).
  16. W. H. Paik, M. Tebyani, D. J. Epstein, R. S. Kennedy, and J. H. Shapiro, "Propagation experiments in low-visibility atmospheres," Appl. Opt. 17, 899–905 (1978).
  17. J. S. Ryan and A. I. Carswell, "Laser beam broadening and depolarization in dense fogs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 900–908 (1978).
  18. G. C. Mooradian, M. Geller, L. B. Stotts, D. H. Stephens, and R. A. Krautwald, "B/G Pulse Propagation through Maritime Fogs," Appl. Opt. 18, 429–448 (1979).
  19. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, 1960) (reprinted by Dover, New York, 1960).
  20. V. Kourganoff, Basic Methods in Transfer Problems (Dover, New York, 1963).
  21. R. Preisendorfer, Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces (Pergamon, New York, 1965).
  22. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1964), pp. 486–487.
  23. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chaps. 12 and 13.
  24. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).
  25. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1964), p. 303.
  26. Ibid. Chap. 7.
  27. R. M. Lerner and A. E. Holland, "The Optical Scatter Channel," Proc. IEEE 58, 1547–1563 (1970).
  28. M. A. Box and A. Deepak, "Multiple Scattering Corrections to the Solar Aureole," Proceedings of the Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, 28–30 June 1978, Davis California (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1978), pp. 12 and 13.

1979

1978

1977

1976

S. T. Hong and A. Ishimaru, "Two frequency mutual coherence function, coherence bandwidth, and coherence time of millimeter and optical waves in rain, fog, and turbulence," Radio Sci. 11 (6), 551–559 (1976).

1975

A. Ishimaru and S. T. Hong, "Multiple scattering effects on coherent bandwidth and pulse distortion of a wave propagating in a random distribution of particles," Radio Sci. 10, 637–644 (1975).

1974

E. A. Bucher, "Propagation models for optical communications through fog and clouds," Proc. Nat. Electron. Conf. 29, 180–185 (1974).

1973

1972

1971

1969

D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchmin, and V. A. Sarelyev, "Structure of a narrow light beam in sea water," Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, (2), 160–167 (1969) [translated by P. A. Kaehnl.

1968

Abramowitz, M.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1964), pp. 486–487.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1964), p. 303.

Arnush, D.

Box, M. A.

M. A. Box and A. Deepak, "Multiple Scattering Corrections to the Solar Aureole," Proceedings of the Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, 28–30 June 1978, Davis California (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1978), pp. 12 and 13.

Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, D. M.

D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchmin, and V. A. Sarelyev, "Structure of a narrow light beam in sea water," Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, (2), 160–167 (1969) [translated by P. A. Kaehnl.

Bucher, E. A.

Carswell, A. I.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, 1960) (reprinted by Dover, New York, 1960).

Deepak, A.

M. A. Box and A. Deepak, "Multiple Scattering Corrections to the Solar Aureole," Proceedings of the Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, 28–30 June 1978, Davis California (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1978), pp. 12 and 13.

Dell-Imagine, R. A.

R. A. Dell-Imagine, "A study of multiple scattering of optical radiation with applications to laser communications," in Advances in Communication Systems, edited by V. A. Balakrishnar (Academic, New York, 1966) Vol. II, p. 1.

Dolin, L. S.

D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchmin, and V. A. Sarelyev, "Structure of a narrow light beam in sea water," Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, (2), 160–167 (1969) [translated by P. A. Kaehnl.

Epstein, D. J.

Fante, R. L.

R. L. Fante, "Propagation of electromagnetic waves through turbulent plasma using transport theory," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-21, 750–755 (1973).

Fried, D. L.

Geller, M.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

Heggestad, H. M.

Holland, A. E.

R. M. Lerner and A. E. Holland, "The Optical Scatter Channel," Proc. IEEE 58, 1547–1563 (1970).

Hong, S. T.

S. T. Hong and A. Ishimaru, "Two frequency mutual coherence function, coherence bandwidth, and coherence time of millimeter and optical waves in rain, fog, and turbulence," Radio Sci. 11 (6), 551–559 (1976).

A. Ishimaru and S. T. Hong, "Multiple scattering effects on coherent bandwidth and pulse distortion of a wave propagating in a random distribution of particles," Radio Sci. 10, 637–644 (1975).

Ishimaru, A.

S. T. Hong and A. Ishimaru, "Two frequency mutual coherence function, coherence bandwidth, and coherence time of millimeter and optical waves in rain, fog, and turbulence," Radio Sci. 11 (6), 551–559 (1976).

A. Ishimaru and S. T. Hong, "Multiple scattering effects on coherent bandwidth and pulse distortion of a wave propagating in a random distribution of particles," Radio Sci. 10, 637–644 (1975).

A. Ishimaru, "Theory and application of wave propagation and scattering in random media," Proc. IEEE 65, 1030–1061 (1977).

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chaps. 12 and 13.

Kattawar, G. W.

Kennedy, R. S.

Kourganoff, V.

V. Kourganoff, Basic Methods in Transfer Problems (Dover, New York, 1963).

Krautwald, R. A.

Lerner, R. M.

E. A. Bucher and R. M. Lerner, "Experiments on light pulse communication through atmospheric clouds," Appl. Opt. 12, 2401–2414 (1973).

R. M. Lerner and A. E. Holland, "The Optical Scatter Channel," Proc. IEEE 58, 1547–1563 (1970).

Luchmin, A. G.

D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchmin, and V. A. Sarelyev, "Structure of a narrow light beam in sea water," Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, (2), 160–167 (1969) [translated by P. A. Kaehnl.

Lutomirski, R. F.

Mooradian, G. C.

Paik, W. H.

Plass, G. N.

Preisendorfer, R.

R. Preisendorfer, Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces (Pergamon, New York, 1965).

Ryan, J. S.

Sarelyev, V. A.

D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchmin, and V. A. Sarelyev, "Structure of a narrow light beam in sea water," Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, (2), 160–167 (1969) [translated by P. A. Kaehnl.

Shapiro, J. H.

Stegun, I. A.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1964), pp. 486–487.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1964), p. 303.

Stephens, D. H.

Stotts, L. B.

Tebyani, M.

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Oceanic Phys.

D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchmin, and V. A. Sarelyev, "Structure of a narrow light beam in sea water," Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, (2), 160–167 (1969) [translated by P. A. Kaehnl.

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

R. L. Fante, "Propagation of electromagnetic waves through turbulent plasma using transport theory," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-21, 750–755 (1973).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Nat. Electron. Conf.

E. A. Bucher, "Propagation models for optical communications through fog and clouds," Proc. Nat. Electron. Conf. 29, 180–185 (1974).

Radio Sci.

A. Ishimaru and S. T. Hong, "Multiple scattering effects on coherent bandwidth and pulse distortion of a wave propagating in a random distribution of particles," Radio Sci. 10, 637–644 (1975).

S. T. Hong and A. Ishimaru, "Two frequency mutual coherence function, coherence bandwidth, and coherence time of millimeter and optical waves in rain, fog, and turbulence," Radio Sci. 11 (6), 551–559 (1976).

Other

A. Ishimaru, "Theory and application of wave propagation and scattering in random media," Proc. IEEE 65, 1030–1061 (1977).

R. A. Dell-Imagine, "A study of multiple scattering of optical radiation with applications to laser communications," in Advances in Communication Systems, edited by V. A. Balakrishnar (Academic, New York, 1966) Vol. II, p. 1.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, 1960) (reprinted by Dover, New York, 1960).

V. Kourganoff, Basic Methods in Transfer Problems (Dover, New York, 1963).

R. Preisendorfer, Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces (Pergamon, New York, 1965).

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1964), pp. 486–487.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chaps. 12 and 13.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1964), p. 303.

Ibid. Chap. 7.

R. M. Lerner and A. E. Holland, "The Optical Scatter Channel," Proc. IEEE 58, 1547–1563 (1970).

M. A. Box and A. Deepak, "Multiple Scattering Corrections to the Solar Aureole," Proceedings of the Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, 28–30 June 1978, Davis California (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1978), pp. 12 and 13.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.