J. C. Leader, "The generalized partial coherence of a radiation source and its far-field," Optica Acta 25, 395–413 (1978).

J. C. Leader, "Atmospheric propagation of partially coherent radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 175–185 (1978).

P A. Pincus, M. E. Fossey, J. F. Holmes, and J. R. Kerr, "Speckle propagation through turbulence: Experimental," 3. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 760–762 (1978).

J. C. Leader, "An analysis of the spatial coherence of laser light scattered from a surface with two scales of roughness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 536–546 (1976).

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, and Y. Shindo, "Measurements of surface roughness properties by means of laser speckle techniques," Opt. Comm. 16, 68–72 (1976).

R. L. Fante, "Two-source spherical wave structure functions in atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66,74 (1976).

M. H. Lee, 3. F. Holmes, and 3. R. Kerr, "Statistics of speckle propagation through the turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1164–1172 (1976).

H. M. Pedersen, "Theory of speckle dependence on surface roughness," *J. Opt. Soc. Am.* 66, 1204–1210 (1976).

A. V. Artem'ev and A. S. Gurvich, "Experimental study of coherence function spectra," Radiophys. Quantum Electron. (USSR) 14, 580–583 (1971).

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, "A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications," IEEE Proc. 58, 1523–1545 (1970).

A. Ishimaru, "Fluctuations of a beam wave propagating through a locally homogeneous medium," Radio Sci. 4, 295–305 (1969).

Z. 1. Feizulin and Yu. A. Kravtsov, "Broadening of a laser beam in a turbulent medium," Radiophys. and Quantum Electron. (USSR) 10, 68–73 (1967).

M. Abramowitz and I. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, (Dover, New York, 1968), pp 556–566.

A. V. Artem'ev and A. S. Gurvich, "Experimental study of coherence function spectra," Radiophys. Quantum Electron. (USSR) 14, 580–583 (1971).

P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces, (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

M. J. Beran and G. B. Parrent, Jr., Theory of Partial Coherence (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1964), pp 7–11, 27–35.

J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975).

Z. 1. Feizulin and Yu. A. Kravtsov, "Broadening of a laser beam in a turbulent medium," Radiophys. and Quantum Electron. (USSR) 10, 68–73 (1967).

P A. Pincus, M. E. Fossey, J. F. Holmes, and J. R. Kerr, "Speckle propagation through turbulence: Experimental," 3. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 760–762 (1978).

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, and Y. Shindo, "Measurements of surface roughness properties by means of laser speckle techniques," Opt. Comm. 16, 68–72 (1976).

M. E. Gracheva, A. S. Gurvich, S. S. Kashkarov, and V. V. Pakasov, "Similarity correlations and their experimental verification in the case of strong intensity fluctuations of the laser radiation," Akademiia Nauk SSSR. Otdelenie Okeanologii, Fiziki, Atmosfery; Geografii. (Preprint, Moscow, (1973). Aerospace Corp., translation No. LRG-73-T-28).

A. S. Gurvich and V. I. Tatarskii, "Coherence and intensity fluctu- ations of light in the turbulent atmosphere," Radio Sci. 10, 3–14 (1975).

A. V. Artem'ev and A. S. Gurvich, "Experimental study of coherence function spectra," Radiophys. Quantum Electron. (USSR) 14, 580–583 (1971).

M. E. Gracheva, A. S. Gurvich, S. S. Kashkarov, and V. V. Pakasov, "Similarity correlations and their experimental verification in the case of strong intensity fluctuations of the laser radiation," Akademiia Nauk SSSR. Otdelenie Okeanologii, Fiziki, Atmosfery; Geografii. (Preprint, Moscow, (1973). Aerospace Corp., translation No. LRG-73-T-28).

P A. Pincus, M. E. Fossey, J. F. Holmes, and J. R. Kerr, "Speckle propagation through turbulence: Experimental," 3. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 760–762 (1978).

M. H. Lee, 3. F. Holmes, and 3. R. Kerr, "Statistics of speckle propagation through the turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1164–1172 (1976).

A. Ishimaru, "Fluctuations of a beam wave propagating through a locally homogeneous medium," Radio Sci. 4, 295–305 (1969).

M. E. Gracheva, A. S. Gurvich, S. S. Kashkarov, and V. V. Pakasov, "Similarity correlations and their experimental verification in the case of strong intensity fluctuations of the laser radiation," Akademiia Nauk SSSR. Otdelenie Okeanologii, Fiziki, Atmosfery; Geografii. (Preprint, Moscow, (1973). Aerospace Corp., translation No. LRG-73-T-28).

P A. Pincus, M. E. Fossey, J. F. Holmes, and J. R. Kerr, "Speckle propagation through turbulence: Experimental," 3. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 760–762 (1978).

M. H. Lee, 3. F. Holmes, and 3. R. Kerr, "Statistics of speckle propagation through the turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1164–1172 (1976).

Z. 1. Feizulin and Yu. A. Kravtsov, "Broadening of a laser beam in a turbulent medium," Radiophys. and Quantum Electron. (USSR) 10, 68–73 (1967).

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, "A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications," IEEE Proc. 58, 1523–1545 (1970).

J. C. Leader, "The generalized partial coherence of a radiation source and its far-field," Optica Acta 25, 395–413 (1978).

J. C. Leader, "Atmospheric propagation of partially coherent radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 175–185 (1978).

J. C. Leader, "An analysis of the frequency spectrum of laser light scattered from moving rough objects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1091–1098 (1977).

J. C. Leader, "An analysis of the spatial coherence of laser light scattered from a surface with two scales of roughness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 536–546 (1976).

J. C. Leader, "Spatial coherence measurements of Rayleigh-scattered light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 740–741 (1975).

R. K. Luneburg, Mathematical Theory of Optics (University of California, Berkeley, 1964), pp 311–319.

M. E. Gracheva, A. S. Gurvich, S. S. Kashkarov, and V. V. Pakasov, "Similarity correlations and their experimental verification in the case of strong intensity fluctuations of the laser radiation," Akademiia Nauk SSSR. Otdelenie Okeanologii, Fiziki, Atmosfery; Geografii. (Preprint, Moscow, (1973). Aerospace Corp., translation No. LRG-73-T-28).

M. J. Beran and G. B. Parrent, Jr., Theory of Partial Coherence (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1964), pp 7–11, 27–35.

P A. Pincus, M. E. Fossey, J. F. Holmes, and J. R. Kerr, "Speckle propagation through turbulence: Experimental," 3. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 760–762 (1978).

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, and Y. Shindo, "Measurements of surface roughness properties by means of laser speckle techniques," Opt. Comm. 16, 68–72 (1976).

A. Sommerfeld, "Optics", Lectures on Theoretical Physics (Academic, New York, 1954) Vol. IV, pp 197–201.

P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces, (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

M. Abramowitz and I. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, (Dover, New York, 1968), pp 556–566.

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, "A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications," IEEE Proc. 58, 1523–1545 (1970).

A. S. Gurvich and V. I. Tatarskii, "Coherence and intensity fluctu- ations of light in the turbulent atmosphere," Radio Sci. 10, 3–14 (1975).

P A. Pincus, M. E. Fossey, J. F. Holmes, and J. R. Kerr, "Speckle propagation through turbulence: Experimental," 3. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 760–762 (1978).

R. L. Fante, "Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media," IEEE Proc. 63,1669–1692 (1975).

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, "A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications," IEEE Proc. 58, 1523–1545 (1970).

H. M. Pedersen, "Theory of speckle dependence on surface roughness," *J. Opt. Soc. Am.* 66, 1204–1210 (1976).

M. H. Lee, 3. F. Holmes, and 3. R. Kerr, "Statistics of speckle propagation through the turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1164–1172 (1976).

J. C. Leader, "Spatial coherence measurements of Rayleigh-scattered light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 740–741 (1975).

J. C. Leader, "An analysis of the spatial coherence of laser light scattered from a surface with two scales of roughness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 536–546 (1976).

J. C. Leader, "Atmospheric propagation of partially coherent radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 175–185 (1978).

J. C. Leader, "An analysis of the frequency spectrum of laser light scattered from moving rough objects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1091–1098 (1977).

R. L. Fante, "Two-source spherical wave structure functions in atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66,74 (1976).

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, and Y. Shindo, "Measurements of surface roughness properties by means of laser speckle techniques," Opt. Comm. 16, 68–72 (1976).

J. C. Leader, "The generalized partial coherence of a radiation source and its far-field," Optica Acta 25, 395–413 (1978).

A. S. Gurvich and V. I. Tatarskii, "Coherence and intensity fluctu- ations of light in the turbulent atmosphere," Radio Sci. 10, 3–14 (1975).

A. Ishimaru, "Fluctuations of a beam wave propagating through a locally homogeneous medium," Radio Sci. 4, 295–305 (1969).

Z. 1. Feizulin and Yu. A. Kravtsov, "Broadening of a laser beam in a turbulent medium," Radiophys. and Quantum Electron. (USSR) 10, 68–73 (1967).

A. V. Artem'ev and A. S. Gurvich, "Experimental study of coherence function spectra," Radiophys. Quantum Electron. (USSR) 14, 580–583 (1971).

P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces, (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

The unit vectors are evaluated using the formulas in Appendix C of Ref. 7.

J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975).

A. Sommerfeld, "Optics", Lectures on Theoretical Physics (Academic, New York, 1954) Vol. IV, pp 197–201.

R. K. Luneburg, Mathematical Theory of Optics (University of California, Berkeley, 1964), pp 311–319.

M. J. Beran and G. B. Parrent, Jr., Theory of Partial Coherence (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1964), pp 7–11, 27–35.

M. Abramowitz and I. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, (Dover, New York, 1968), pp 556–566.

Ibid., pp 504–535.

The phase deviation for transmission experiments is one half the value predicted by Eq. (21). The experiments reported in Ref. 16 were transmission experiments.

M. E. Gracheva, A. S. Gurvich, S. S. Kashkarov, and V. V. Pakasov, "Similarity correlations and their experimental verification in the case of strong intensity fluctuations of the laser radiation," Akademiia Nauk SSSR. Otdelenie Okeanologii, Fiziki, Atmosfery; Geografii. (Preprint, Moscow, (1973). Aerospace Corp., translation No. LRG-73-T-28).

Note added in review.

A phase deviation of σ_{ø} = 5.0 and coherence length of ρu = 5.0 μm was assumed commensurate with the diffuse nature of the scattering target (Scotchlite).