Abstract

The temperature variation of the total hemispherical emissivity ε<sub>h</sub> of an electropolished surface of 3N8 pure tungsten has been investigated with a transient calorimetric technique in the temperature range 180–1000 K. The experimental data are believed to be the first ever obtained on tungsten below 273 K and also the first ever obtained on electropolished tungsten above 273 K. It is found that the data depart in a significant manner at all temperatures investigated from the theory that assumes a zero relaxation time τ for conduction electrons. In the range 180–300 K, ε<sub>h</sub> behaves as though τ is finite and nearly independent of the frequency. At higher temperatures, ε<sub>h</sub> behaves in a manner that indicates qualitatively that τ is frequency dependent. Beginning at 600 K, the slope of the ε<sub>h</sub>-vs-T graph increases steadily up to 1000 K. This increase is belived to be due to the onset of interband excitations.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. A. Estalote and K. G. Ramanathan, "The low-temperature emissivities of copper and aluminum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 39–44 (1977).
  2. K. G. Ramanathan and S. H. Yen, "High-temperature emissivities of copper, aluminum, and silver," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 32–38 (1977).
  3. C. Davisson and J. R. Weeks, Jr., "The relation between the total thermal emissive power of a metal and its electrical resistivity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 8, 581–605 (1924).
  4. K. G. Ramanthan, S. H. Yen, and E. A. Estalote, "Total hemispherical emissivities of copper, aluminum, and silver," Appl. Opt. 16, 2810–2817 (1977).
  5. W. J. Parker and G. L. Abbott, "Theoretical and experimental studies of the total emittance of metals," in Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, edited by S. Katzoff (US GPO, Washington, D.C., NASA SP-55, 1965), pp. 11–28.
  6. W. J. McG. Tegart, The Electrolytic and Chemical Polishing of Metals (Pergamon, New York, 1959), p. 70.
  7. J. C. De Vos, "A new determination of the emissivity of tungsten ribbon," Physica 20, 690–714 (1954).
  8. W. E. Forsythe and A. G. Worthing, "The properties of tungsten and the characteristics of tungsten lamps," Astrophys. J. 61, 146–185 (1925).
  9. W. E. Forsythe and E. M. Watson, "Resistance and radiation of tungsten as a function of temperature," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 114–118 (1934).
  10. I. Langmuir, "The characteristics of tungsten filaments as functions of temperature," Phys. Rev. 7, 302–330 (1961).
  11. W. H. Askwyth, R. J. Yahes, R. D. House, and G. Mikk, "Determination of the emissivity of materials," NASA Technical Report No. PWA-2206 Vols. I-III (National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, Va., 22161, 1962).
  12. G. L. Zuppardo and K. G. Ramanathan, "Anomalous emissivities of nickel and iron near their Curie temperatures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1607–1612 (1971).
  13. K. V. Clusius and P. Franzosini, Z. Naturforsch. A 14, 99–105 (1959); quoted by Y. S. Touloukian and E. H. Buyco, in Specific Heats of Metallic Elements and Alloys (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970), pp. 263–267.
  14. V. A. Kirillin, A. E. Sheindlin, and V. Ya. Chekhovskoi, Teploenerg. 9, 63–66 (1962); quoted by Y. S. Touloukian and E. H. Buyco, in Specific Heats of Metallic Elements and Alloys (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970), pp. 263–267.
  15. The change in the mass and surface area of the sample after the third repolishing was undetectable.
  16. G. K. White and S. B. Woods, "Electrical and thermal resistivity of the transition elements at low temperature," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 251, 273–302 (1959).
  17. In this process a small air burst inside the apparatus could also have occurred through the seal around the specimen pushrod and this could have momentarily raised the pressure well above 10–6 Torr while the specimen was at 1300 K.
  18. A. P. Lenham, "Absorption of low-energy photons in the transition metals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 473–476 (1967).
  19. A. P. Lenham and D. M. Treherne, "Interpretation of the infrared optical constants of metals. II," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 476–480 (1967).
  20. J. H. Weaver, C. G. Olson, and D. W. Lynch, "Optical properties of crystalline tungsten," Phys. Rev. 12, 1293–1297 (1975).
  21. L. F. Mattheiss, "Fermi surface in tungsten," Phys. Rev. 139, 1893–1904(1965).
  22. I. Petroff and C. R. Viswanathan, "Calculation of the photoelectric emission from tungsten, tantalum, and molybdenum," Phys. Rev. 4, 799–816 (1971).
  23. N. E. Christensen and B. Feurbacher, "Volume and surface photoemission from tungsten. I. Calculation of band structure and emission spectra," Phys. Rev. 10, 2349–2372 (1974).
  24. T. L. Loucks, "Relativistic electronic structure in crystals II. Fermi surface of tungsten," Phys. Rev. 139, 506–512 (1966).
  25. L. V. Nomerovannaya, M. M. Kirillova, and M. M. Noskov, "Optical properties of tungsten monocrystals," Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 405–409 (1971).

1977 (3)

1975 (1)

J. H. Weaver, C. G. Olson, and D. W. Lynch, "Optical properties of crystalline tungsten," Phys. Rev. 12, 1293–1297 (1975).

1974 (1)

N. E. Christensen and B. Feurbacher, "Volume and surface photoemission from tungsten. I. Calculation of band structure and emission spectra," Phys. Rev. 10, 2349–2372 (1974).

1971 (3)

I. Petroff and C. R. Viswanathan, "Calculation of the photoelectric emission from tungsten, tantalum, and molybdenum," Phys. Rev. 4, 799–816 (1971).

L. V. Nomerovannaya, M. M. Kirillova, and M. M. Noskov, "Optical properties of tungsten monocrystals," Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 405–409 (1971).

G. L. Zuppardo and K. G. Ramanathan, "Anomalous emissivities of nickel and iron near their Curie temperatures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1607–1612 (1971).

1967 (2)

1966 (1)

T. L. Loucks, "Relativistic electronic structure in crystals II. Fermi surface of tungsten," Phys. Rev. 139, 506–512 (1966).

1965 (1)

L. F. Mattheiss, "Fermi surface in tungsten," Phys. Rev. 139, 1893–1904(1965).

1961 (1)

I. Langmuir, "The characteristics of tungsten filaments as functions of temperature," Phys. Rev. 7, 302–330 (1961).

1959 (1)

G. K. White and S. B. Woods, "Electrical and thermal resistivity of the transition elements at low temperature," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 251, 273–302 (1959).

1954 (1)

J. C. De Vos, "A new determination of the emissivity of tungsten ribbon," Physica 20, 690–714 (1954).

1934 (1)

1925 (1)

W. E. Forsythe and A. G. Worthing, "The properties of tungsten and the characteristics of tungsten lamps," Astrophys. J. 61, 146–185 (1925).

1924 (1)

Abbott, G. L.

W. J. Parker and G. L. Abbott, "Theoretical and experimental studies of the total emittance of metals," in Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, edited by S. Katzoff (US GPO, Washington, D.C., NASA SP-55, 1965), pp. 11–28.

Askwyth, W. H.

W. H. Askwyth, R. J. Yahes, R. D. House, and G. Mikk, "Determination of the emissivity of materials," NASA Technical Report No. PWA-2206 Vols. I-III (National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, Va., 22161, 1962).

Chekhovskoi, V. Ya.

V. A. Kirillin, A. E. Sheindlin, and V. Ya. Chekhovskoi, Teploenerg. 9, 63–66 (1962); quoted by Y. S. Touloukian and E. H. Buyco, in Specific Heats of Metallic Elements and Alloys (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970), pp. 263–267.

Christensen, N. E.

N. E. Christensen and B. Feurbacher, "Volume and surface photoemission from tungsten. I. Calculation of band structure and emission spectra," Phys. Rev. 10, 2349–2372 (1974).

Clusius, K. V.

K. V. Clusius and P. Franzosini, Z. Naturforsch. A 14, 99–105 (1959); quoted by Y. S. Touloukian and E. H. Buyco, in Specific Heats of Metallic Elements and Alloys (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970), pp. 263–267.

Davisson, C.

De Vos, J. C.

J. C. De Vos, "A new determination of the emissivity of tungsten ribbon," Physica 20, 690–714 (1954).

Estalote, E. A.

Feurbacher, B.

N. E. Christensen and B. Feurbacher, "Volume and surface photoemission from tungsten. I. Calculation of band structure and emission spectra," Phys. Rev. 10, 2349–2372 (1974).

Forsythe, W. E.

W. E. Forsythe and E. M. Watson, "Resistance and radiation of tungsten as a function of temperature," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 114–118 (1934).

W. E. Forsythe and A. G. Worthing, "The properties of tungsten and the characteristics of tungsten lamps," Astrophys. J. 61, 146–185 (1925).

Franzosini, P.

K. V. Clusius and P. Franzosini, Z. Naturforsch. A 14, 99–105 (1959); quoted by Y. S. Touloukian and E. H. Buyco, in Specific Heats of Metallic Elements and Alloys (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970), pp. 263–267.

House, R. D.

W. H. Askwyth, R. J. Yahes, R. D. House, and G. Mikk, "Determination of the emissivity of materials," NASA Technical Report No. PWA-2206 Vols. I-III (National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, Va., 22161, 1962).

Kirillin, V. A.

V. A. Kirillin, A. E. Sheindlin, and V. Ya. Chekhovskoi, Teploenerg. 9, 63–66 (1962); quoted by Y. S. Touloukian and E. H. Buyco, in Specific Heats of Metallic Elements and Alloys (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970), pp. 263–267.

Kirillova, M. M.

L. V. Nomerovannaya, M. M. Kirillova, and M. M. Noskov, "Optical properties of tungsten monocrystals," Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 405–409 (1971).

Langmuir, I.

I. Langmuir, "The characteristics of tungsten filaments as functions of temperature," Phys. Rev. 7, 302–330 (1961).

Lenham, A. P.

Loucks, T. L.

T. L. Loucks, "Relativistic electronic structure in crystals II. Fermi surface of tungsten," Phys. Rev. 139, 506–512 (1966).

Lynch, D. W.

J. H. Weaver, C. G. Olson, and D. W. Lynch, "Optical properties of crystalline tungsten," Phys. Rev. 12, 1293–1297 (1975).

Mattheiss, L. F.

L. F. Mattheiss, "Fermi surface in tungsten," Phys. Rev. 139, 1893–1904(1965).

Mikk, G.

W. H. Askwyth, R. J. Yahes, R. D. House, and G. Mikk, "Determination of the emissivity of materials," NASA Technical Report No. PWA-2206 Vols. I-III (National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, Va., 22161, 1962).

Nomerovannaya, L. V.

L. V. Nomerovannaya, M. M. Kirillova, and M. M. Noskov, "Optical properties of tungsten monocrystals," Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 405–409 (1971).

Noskov, M. M.

L. V. Nomerovannaya, M. M. Kirillova, and M. M. Noskov, "Optical properties of tungsten monocrystals," Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 405–409 (1971).

Olson, C. G.

J. H. Weaver, C. G. Olson, and D. W. Lynch, "Optical properties of crystalline tungsten," Phys. Rev. 12, 1293–1297 (1975).

Parker, W. J.

W. J. Parker and G. L. Abbott, "Theoretical and experimental studies of the total emittance of metals," in Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, edited by S. Katzoff (US GPO, Washington, D.C., NASA SP-55, 1965), pp. 11–28.

Petroff, I.

I. Petroff and C. R. Viswanathan, "Calculation of the photoelectric emission from tungsten, tantalum, and molybdenum," Phys. Rev. 4, 799–816 (1971).

Ramanathan, K. G.

Ramanthan, K. G.

Sheindlin, A. E.

V. A. Kirillin, A. E. Sheindlin, and V. Ya. Chekhovskoi, Teploenerg. 9, 63–66 (1962); quoted by Y. S. Touloukian and E. H. Buyco, in Specific Heats of Metallic Elements and Alloys (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970), pp. 263–267.

Tegart, W. J. McG.

W. J. McG. Tegart, The Electrolytic and Chemical Polishing of Metals (Pergamon, New York, 1959), p. 70.

Treherne, D. M.

Viswanathan, C. R.

I. Petroff and C. R. Viswanathan, "Calculation of the photoelectric emission from tungsten, tantalum, and molybdenum," Phys. Rev. 4, 799–816 (1971).

Watson, E. M.

Weaver, J. H.

J. H. Weaver, C. G. Olson, and D. W. Lynch, "Optical properties of crystalline tungsten," Phys. Rev. 12, 1293–1297 (1975).

Weeks, Jr., J. R.

White, G. K.

G. K. White and S. B. Woods, "Electrical and thermal resistivity of the transition elements at low temperature," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 251, 273–302 (1959).

Woods, S. B.

G. K. White and S. B. Woods, "Electrical and thermal resistivity of the transition elements at low temperature," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 251, 273–302 (1959).

Worthing, A. G.

W. E. Forsythe and A. G. Worthing, "The properties of tungsten and the characteristics of tungsten lamps," Astrophys. J. 61, 146–185 (1925).

Yahes, R. J.

W. H. Askwyth, R. J. Yahes, R. D. House, and G. Mikk, "Determination of the emissivity of materials," NASA Technical Report No. PWA-2206 Vols. I-III (National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, Va., 22161, 1962).

Yen, S. H.

Zuppardo, G. L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (1)

W. E. Forsythe and A. G. Worthing, "The properties of tungsten and the characteristics of tungsten lamps," Astrophys. J. 61, 146–185 (1925).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London (1)

G. K. White and S. B. Woods, "Electrical and thermal resistivity of the transition elements at low temperature," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 251, 273–302 (1959).

Phys. Rev. (6)

J. H. Weaver, C. G. Olson, and D. W. Lynch, "Optical properties of crystalline tungsten," Phys. Rev. 12, 1293–1297 (1975).

L. F. Mattheiss, "Fermi surface in tungsten," Phys. Rev. 139, 1893–1904(1965).

I. Petroff and C. R. Viswanathan, "Calculation of the photoelectric emission from tungsten, tantalum, and molybdenum," Phys. Rev. 4, 799–816 (1971).

N. E. Christensen and B. Feurbacher, "Volume and surface photoemission from tungsten. I. Calculation of band structure and emission spectra," Phys. Rev. 10, 2349–2372 (1974).

T. L. Loucks, "Relativistic electronic structure in crystals II. Fermi surface of tungsten," Phys. Rev. 139, 506–512 (1966).

I. Langmuir, "The characteristics of tungsten filaments as functions of temperature," Phys. Rev. 7, 302–330 (1961).

Physica (1)

J. C. De Vos, "A new determination of the emissivity of tungsten ribbon," Physica 20, 690–714 (1954).

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

L. V. Nomerovannaya, M. M. Kirillova, and M. M. Noskov, "Optical properties of tungsten monocrystals," Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 405–409 (1971).

Other (7)

W. H. Askwyth, R. J. Yahes, R. D. House, and G. Mikk, "Determination of the emissivity of materials," NASA Technical Report No. PWA-2206 Vols. I-III (National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, Va., 22161, 1962).

In this process a small air burst inside the apparatus could also have occurred through the seal around the specimen pushrod and this could have momentarily raised the pressure well above 10–6 Torr while the specimen was at 1300 K.

W. J. Parker and G. L. Abbott, "Theoretical and experimental studies of the total emittance of metals," in Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, edited by S. Katzoff (US GPO, Washington, D.C., NASA SP-55, 1965), pp. 11–28.

W. J. McG. Tegart, The Electrolytic and Chemical Polishing of Metals (Pergamon, New York, 1959), p. 70.

K. V. Clusius and P. Franzosini, Z. Naturforsch. A 14, 99–105 (1959); quoted by Y. S. Touloukian and E. H. Buyco, in Specific Heats of Metallic Elements and Alloys (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970), pp. 263–267.

V. A. Kirillin, A. E. Sheindlin, and V. Ya. Chekhovskoi, Teploenerg. 9, 63–66 (1962); quoted by Y. S. Touloukian and E. H. Buyco, in Specific Heats of Metallic Elements and Alloys (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970), pp. 263–267.

The change in the mass and surface area of the sample after the third repolishing was undetectable.

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