Abstract

The measurement and manufacture of gradient index optical materials has been studied. The geometries of the samples are several centimeters in aperture and are applicable to high quality lens systems for the visible portion of the spectrum. The measurements of the index of refraction as a function of spatial coordinate are done using a new type of interferometer. The ac interferometer with its electronics provides an electrical signal which is proportional to the index of refraction at the point being measured. This system is ideally suited for interfacing to a computer. Measurements of the index of refraction profile have been been made on over 60 samples manufactured by Bausch & Lomb (Rochester, New York), Schott Optical (Duryea, Pennsylvania) and University of Rochester. Further, several samples have been measured at many wavelengths within the visible portion of the spectrum. The maximum slope of the gradient is 10% steeper in the blue than in the red. The effects of time and temperature of ion diffusion have been studied. Numerous gradient index materials have been made by Bausch & Lomb. The samples have been used to characterize the ion exchange of silver into soda-rich crown glass. A series of diffusions were performed to detemine the effect of time (13 to 100 h) and temperature (450 to 650 ° C) on the index change and the index of refraction profile. A gradient index glass map is presented.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. B. Saunders, "An Interferometer for Measuring Gradients in Both Refractive Index and Thickness of Large or Small Optics," J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 63, 1–4 (1969).
  2. H. G. Junginger and W. Van Haeringer, "Calculation of Three- Dimensional Refractive-Index Field Using Phase Integrals," Opt. Commun. 5, 1–4, (1972).
  3. Koichi Iwata and Ryo Nagata, "Calculation of Three-Dimensional Refractive Index Distribution from Interferograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 133–135, (1970).
  4. Zygmunt Bodnar and Florian Ratajczjk, "Some Remarks Concerning Optical Glass Heterogeneity Measurement with the Help of the Autocollimation Method," Appl. Opt. 4, 351–353 (1965).
  5. L. V. Kovalskii and V. K. Polanskii, "Application of the Prism Method for Investigating Transparent Media with a Refractive Index Gradient," Opt. Spectrosc. 20, 408–409 (1966).
  6. M. Miller and V. Malisek, "Study of the Distribution of Refractive Index by the Differential Prism Method," Opt. Spectrosc. 25, pp. 70–72 (1968).
  7. D. W. Sweeney and C. M. Vest, "Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Refractive Index Fields by Holographic Interferometry," Appl. Opt. 11, 205–207, (1972).
  8. Gerald Oster, Mark Wasserman, and Craig Zwerling, "Theoretical Interpretation of Moire Patterns," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 169–175 (1964).
  9. Yasunori Nishijima and Gerald Oster, "Moire Patterns: Their Application to Refractive Index and Refractive Index Gradient Measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1–5 (1964).
  10. G. Sommargren, "A New Technique in Phase Microscopy," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rochester, 1972 (unpublished).
  11. J. H. Bruning, J. E. Gallagher, D. R. Herriott, C. L. Nenninger, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, "Real Time Wavefront Measurement System for Rapid Display of Surface Quality and Lens Performance," paper presented at the Optical Society of America Meeting, San Francisco, 1972 (unpublished).
  12. J. Eastman, "Surface Scattering in Optical Interference Coatings," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rochester, 1974 (unpublished).
  13. D. T. Moore, "Gradient Index Optics: Aspects of Design, Testing, Tolerancing, and Fabrication," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rochester, 1974 (unpublished).
  14. D. T. Moore, "Design of Single Element Gradient-Index Collimator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1137–1143 (1977).

1977

1972

D. W. Sweeney and C. M. Vest, "Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Refractive Index Fields by Holographic Interferometry," Appl. Opt. 11, 205–207, (1972).

H. G. Junginger and W. Van Haeringer, "Calculation of Three- Dimensional Refractive-Index Field Using Phase Integrals," Opt. Commun. 5, 1–4, (1972).

1970

1969

J. B. Saunders, "An Interferometer for Measuring Gradients in Both Refractive Index and Thickness of Large or Small Optics," J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 63, 1–4 (1969).

1968

M. Miller and V. Malisek, "Study of the Distribution of Refractive Index by the Differential Prism Method," Opt. Spectrosc. 25, pp. 70–72 (1968).

1966

L. V. Kovalskii and V. K. Polanskii, "Application of the Prism Method for Investigating Transparent Media with a Refractive Index Gradient," Opt. Spectrosc. 20, 408–409 (1966).

1965

1964

Bodnar, Zygmunt

Bruning, J. H.

J. H. Bruning, J. E. Gallagher, D. R. Herriott, C. L. Nenninger, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, "Real Time Wavefront Measurement System for Rapid Display of Surface Quality and Lens Performance," paper presented at the Optical Society of America Meeting, San Francisco, 1972 (unpublished).

Eastman, J.

J. Eastman, "Surface Scattering in Optical Interference Coatings," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rochester, 1974 (unpublished).

Gallagher, J. E.

J. H. Bruning, J. E. Gallagher, D. R. Herriott, C. L. Nenninger, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, "Real Time Wavefront Measurement System for Rapid Display of Surface Quality and Lens Performance," paper presented at the Optical Society of America Meeting, San Francisco, 1972 (unpublished).

Herriott, D. R.

J. H. Bruning, J. E. Gallagher, D. R. Herriott, C. L. Nenninger, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, "Real Time Wavefront Measurement System for Rapid Display of Surface Quality and Lens Performance," paper presented at the Optical Society of America Meeting, San Francisco, 1972 (unpublished).

Iwata, Koichi

Junginger, H. G.

H. G. Junginger and W. Van Haeringer, "Calculation of Three- Dimensional Refractive-Index Field Using Phase Integrals," Opt. Commun. 5, 1–4, (1972).

Kovalskii, L. V.

L. V. Kovalskii and V. K. Polanskii, "Application of the Prism Method for Investigating Transparent Media with a Refractive Index Gradient," Opt. Spectrosc. 20, 408–409 (1966).

Malisek, V.

M. Miller and V. Malisek, "Study of the Distribution of Refractive Index by the Differential Prism Method," Opt. Spectrosc. 25, pp. 70–72 (1968).

Miller, M.

M. Miller and V. Malisek, "Study of the Distribution of Refractive Index by the Differential Prism Method," Opt. Spectrosc. 25, pp. 70–72 (1968).

Moore, D. T.

D. T. Moore, "Design of Single Element Gradient-Index Collimator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1137–1143 (1977).

D. T. Moore, "Gradient Index Optics: Aspects of Design, Testing, Tolerancing, and Fabrication," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rochester, 1974 (unpublished).

Nagata, Ryo

Nenninger, C. L.

J. H. Bruning, J. E. Gallagher, D. R. Herriott, C. L. Nenninger, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, "Real Time Wavefront Measurement System for Rapid Display of Surface Quality and Lens Performance," paper presented at the Optical Society of America Meeting, San Francisco, 1972 (unpublished).

Nishijima, Yasunori

Oster, Gerald

Polanskii, V. K.

L. V. Kovalskii and V. K. Polanskii, "Application of the Prism Method for Investigating Transparent Media with a Refractive Index Gradient," Opt. Spectrosc. 20, 408–409 (1966).

Ratajczjk, Florian

Rosenfeld, D. P.

J. H. Bruning, J. E. Gallagher, D. R. Herriott, C. L. Nenninger, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, "Real Time Wavefront Measurement System for Rapid Display of Surface Quality and Lens Performance," paper presented at the Optical Society of America Meeting, San Francisco, 1972 (unpublished).

Saunders, J. B.

J. B. Saunders, "An Interferometer for Measuring Gradients in Both Refractive Index and Thickness of Large or Small Optics," J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 63, 1–4 (1969).

Sommargren, G.

G. Sommargren, "A New Technique in Phase Microscopy," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rochester, 1972 (unpublished).

Sweeney, D. W.

Van Haeringer, W.

H. G. Junginger and W. Van Haeringer, "Calculation of Three- Dimensional Refractive-Index Field Using Phase Integrals," Opt. Commun. 5, 1–4, (1972).

Vest, C. M.

Wasserman, Mark

White, A. D.

J. H. Bruning, J. E. Gallagher, D. R. Herriott, C. L. Nenninger, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, "Real Time Wavefront Measurement System for Rapid Display of Surface Quality and Lens Performance," paper presented at the Optical Society of America Meeting, San Francisco, 1972 (unpublished).

Zwerling, Craig

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand.

J. B. Saunders, "An Interferometer for Measuring Gradients in Both Refractive Index and Thickness of Large or Small Optics," J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 63, 1–4 (1969).

Opt. Commun.

H. G. Junginger and W. Van Haeringer, "Calculation of Three- Dimensional Refractive-Index Field Using Phase Integrals," Opt. Commun. 5, 1–4, (1972).

Opt. Spectrosc.

L. V. Kovalskii and V. K. Polanskii, "Application of the Prism Method for Investigating Transparent Media with a Refractive Index Gradient," Opt. Spectrosc. 20, 408–409 (1966).

M. Miller and V. Malisek, "Study of the Distribution of Refractive Index by the Differential Prism Method," Opt. Spectrosc. 25, pp. 70–72 (1968).

Other

G. Sommargren, "A New Technique in Phase Microscopy," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rochester, 1972 (unpublished).

J. H. Bruning, J. E. Gallagher, D. R. Herriott, C. L. Nenninger, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, "Real Time Wavefront Measurement System for Rapid Display of Surface Quality and Lens Performance," paper presented at the Optical Society of America Meeting, San Francisco, 1972 (unpublished).

J. Eastman, "Surface Scattering in Optical Interference Coatings," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rochester, 1974 (unpublished).

D. T. Moore, "Gradient Index Optics: Aspects of Design, Testing, Tolerancing, and Fabrication," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rochester, 1974 (unpublished).

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