Abstract

King-Smith and Carden have postulated a “luminance system” or achromatic channel in the visual system which has a temporal response better than the other channels, and which also responds to high spatial frequencies better than the other channels. All evidence, both psychophysical and electrophysiological, indicates that these properties are contradictory.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. E. King-Smith and D. Carden, “Luminance and opponent-color contributions to visual detection and adaptation and to temporal and spatial integration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 709–717 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. C. R. Ingling and B. A. Drum, “Retinal receptive fields: correlations between psychophysics and electrophysiology,” Vision Res. 13, 1151–1163 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. K. J. Myers, C. R. Ingling, and B. A. Drum, “Brightness additivity for a grating target,” Vision Res. 13, 1165–1173 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. M. Enoch, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 381–412.
  5. L. E. Marks and M. H. Bornstein, “Spectral sensitivity by constant CFF: Effect of chromatic adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 220–226 (1973); L. E. Marks and M. H. Bornstein, “Spectral sensitivity of the modulation sensitivity mechanism of vision,” Vision Res. 14, 665–669 (1974); and M. H. Bornstein and L. E. Marks, “Photopic luminosity measured by the method of critical frequency,” Vision Res. 12, 2023–2033 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. L. Guth, “On Luminance,” paper presented at the Renshaw Vision Conference, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1967 (unpublished); B. V. Graham and S. L. Guth, “Red-plus green heterochromatic additivity as applied to the acuity response,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1573 (1970); and S. L. Guth and B. V. Graham, “Heterochromatic additivity and the acuity response,” Vision Res. 15, 317–319 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. R. L. D. Valois and P. L. Pease, “Contours and contrast: Responses of monkey lateral geniculate nucleus cells to luminance and color figures,” Science 171, 694–696 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, “Heterochromatic additivity, foveal spectral sensitivity, and a new color model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.63, 450–462 (1973); J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971); D. Jameson, “Theoretical issues of color vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 537–567; S. L. Guth, J. V. Alexander, J. I. Chumbly, C. B. Gilman, and M. M. Patterson, “Factors affecting luminance additivity at threshold among normal and color blind subjects and elaborations of a trichromatic opponent colors theory,” Vision Res. 8, 913–928 (1968); S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, “On luminance additivity and related topics,” Vision Res. 9, 537–575 (1969); D. Regan and C. W. Tyler, “Temporal summation and its limit for wavelength changes: An analog of Bloch’s law for color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1414–1421 (1971); J. J. Kulikowski and D. J. Tolhurst, “Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient neutrons in human vision,” J. Physiol. London 232, 149–162 (1973); B. Breitmeyer and B. Julesz, “The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response,” Vision Res. 15, 411–415 (1975); B. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, “Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic supression, and information processing,” Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976); D. J. Tolhurst, “Separate channels for the analysis of the shape and the movement of a moving visual stimulus,” J. Physiol. London 231, 385–402 (1973); D. J. Tolhurst, “Reaction times in the detection of gratings by human observers: A probabilistic mechanism,” Vision Res. 15, 1143–1149 (1975); R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, “Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966–977 (1966); P. Gouras, “Identification of cone mechanisms in monkey ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. 199, 533–547 (1968);T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966); F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 167–195 (1975);B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with x-like and y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976);P. Gouras, “Antidromic responses of orthodromically identified ganglion cells in monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 204, 409–419 (1969); R. T. Marrocco and J. B. Brown, “Correlation of receptive field properties of monkey LGN cells with the conduction velocity of retinal afferent input,” Brain Res. 92, 137–144 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

1973 (3)

1971 (1)

R. L. D. Valois and P. L. Pease, “Contours and contrast: Responses of monkey lateral geniculate nucleus cells to luminance and color figures,” Science 171, 694–696 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bornstein, M. H.

Carden, D.

Drum, B. A.

C. R. Ingling and B. A. Drum, “Retinal receptive fields: correlations between psychophysics and electrophysiology,” Vision Res. 13, 1151–1163 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Myers, C. R. Ingling, and B. A. Drum, “Brightness additivity for a grating target,” Vision Res. 13, 1165–1173 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enoch, J. M.

J. M. Enoch, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 381–412.

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth, “On Luminance,” paper presented at the Renshaw Vision Conference, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1967 (unpublished); B. V. Graham and S. L. Guth, “Red-plus green heterochromatic additivity as applied to the acuity response,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1573 (1970); and S. L. Guth and B. V. Graham, “Heterochromatic additivity and the acuity response,” Vision Res. 15, 317–319 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, “Heterochromatic additivity, foveal spectral sensitivity, and a new color model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.63, 450–462 (1973); J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971); D. Jameson, “Theoretical issues of color vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 537–567; S. L. Guth, J. V. Alexander, J. I. Chumbly, C. B. Gilman, and M. M. Patterson, “Factors affecting luminance additivity at threshold among normal and color blind subjects and elaborations of a trichromatic opponent colors theory,” Vision Res. 8, 913–928 (1968); S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, “On luminance additivity and related topics,” Vision Res. 9, 537–575 (1969); D. Regan and C. W. Tyler, “Temporal summation and its limit for wavelength changes: An analog of Bloch’s law for color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1414–1421 (1971); J. J. Kulikowski and D. J. Tolhurst, “Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient neutrons in human vision,” J. Physiol. London 232, 149–162 (1973); B. Breitmeyer and B. Julesz, “The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response,” Vision Res. 15, 411–415 (1975); B. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, “Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic supression, and information processing,” Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976); D. J. Tolhurst, “Separate channels for the analysis of the shape and the movement of a moving visual stimulus,” J. Physiol. London 231, 385–402 (1973); D. J. Tolhurst, “Reaction times in the detection of gratings by human observers: A probabilistic mechanism,” Vision Res. 15, 1143–1149 (1975); R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, “Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966–977 (1966); P. Gouras, “Identification of cone mechanisms in monkey ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. 199, 533–547 (1968);T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966); F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 167–195 (1975);B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with x-like and y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976);P. Gouras, “Antidromic responses of orthodromically identified ganglion cells in monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 204, 409–419 (1969); R. T. Marrocco and J. B. Brown, “Correlation of receptive field properties of monkey LGN cells with the conduction velocity of retinal afferent input,” Brain Res. 92, 137–144 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ingling, C. R.

C. R. Ingling and B. A. Drum, “Retinal receptive fields: correlations between psychophysics and electrophysiology,” Vision Res. 13, 1151–1163 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Myers, C. R. Ingling, and B. A. Drum, “Brightness additivity for a grating target,” Vision Res. 13, 1165–1173 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

King-Smith, P. E.

Lodge, H. R.

S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, “Heterochromatic additivity, foveal spectral sensitivity, and a new color model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.63, 450–462 (1973); J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971); D. Jameson, “Theoretical issues of color vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 537–567; S. L. Guth, J. V. Alexander, J. I. Chumbly, C. B. Gilman, and M. M. Patterson, “Factors affecting luminance additivity at threshold among normal and color blind subjects and elaborations of a trichromatic opponent colors theory,” Vision Res. 8, 913–928 (1968); S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, “On luminance additivity and related topics,” Vision Res. 9, 537–575 (1969); D. Regan and C. W. Tyler, “Temporal summation and its limit for wavelength changes: An analog of Bloch’s law for color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1414–1421 (1971); J. J. Kulikowski and D. J. Tolhurst, “Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient neutrons in human vision,” J. Physiol. London 232, 149–162 (1973); B. Breitmeyer and B. Julesz, “The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response,” Vision Res. 15, 411–415 (1975); B. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, “Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic supression, and information processing,” Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976); D. J. Tolhurst, “Separate channels for the analysis of the shape and the movement of a moving visual stimulus,” J. Physiol. London 231, 385–402 (1973); D. J. Tolhurst, “Reaction times in the detection of gratings by human observers: A probabilistic mechanism,” Vision Res. 15, 1143–1149 (1975); R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, “Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966–977 (1966); P. Gouras, “Identification of cone mechanisms in monkey ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. 199, 533–547 (1968);T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966); F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 167–195 (1975);B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with x-like and y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976);P. Gouras, “Antidromic responses of orthodromically identified ganglion cells in monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 204, 409–419 (1969); R. T. Marrocco and J. B. Brown, “Correlation of receptive field properties of monkey LGN cells with the conduction velocity of retinal afferent input,” Brain Res. 92, 137–144 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marks, L. E.

Myers, K. J.

K. J. Myers, C. R. Ingling, and B. A. Drum, “Brightness additivity for a grating target,” Vision Res. 13, 1165–1173 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pease, P. L.

R. L. D. Valois and P. L. Pease, “Contours and contrast: Responses of monkey lateral geniculate nucleus cells to luminance and color figures,” Science 171, 694–696 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valois, R. L. D.

R. L. D. Valois and P. L. Pease, “Contours and contrast: Responses of monkey lateral geniculate nucleus cells to luminance and color figures,” Science 171, 694–696 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Science (1)

R. L. D. Valois and P. L. Pease, “Contours and contrast: Responses of monkey lateral geniculate nucleus cells to luminance and color figures,” Science 171, 694–696 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

C. R. Ingling and B. A. Drum, “Retinal receptive fields: correlations between psychophysics and electrophysiology,” Vision Res. 13, 1151–1163 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Myers, C. R. Ingling, and B. A. Drum, “Brightness additivity for a grating target,” Vision Res. 13, 1165–1173 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. M. Enoch, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 381–412.

S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, “Heterochromatic additivity, foveal spectral sensitivity, and a new color model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.63, 450–462 (1973); J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971); D. Jameson, “Theoretical issues of color vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 537–567; S. L. Guth, J. V. Alexander, J. I. Chumbly, C. B. Gilman, and M. M. Patterson, “Factors affecting luminance additivity at threshold among normal and color blind subjects and elaborations of a trichromatic opponent colors theory,” Vision Res. 8, 913–928 (1968); S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, “On luminance additivity and related topics,” Vision Res. 9, 537–575 (1969); D. Regan and C. W. Tyler, “Temporal summation and its limit for wavelength changes: An analog of Bloch’s law for color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1414–1421 (1971); J. J. Kulikowski and D. J. Tolhurst, “Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient neutrons in human vision,” J. Physiol. London 232, 149–162 (1973); B. Breitmeyer and B. Julesz, “The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response,” Vision Res. 15, 411–415 (1975); B. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, “Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic supression, and information processing,” Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976); D. J. Tolhurst, “Separate channels for the analysis of the shape and the movement of a moving visual stimulus,” J. Physiol. London 231, 385–402 (1973); D. J. Tolhurst, “Reaction times in the detection of gratings by human observers: A probabilistic mechanism,” Vision Res. 15, 1143–1149 (1975); R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, “Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966–977 (1966); P. Gouras, “Identification of cone mechanisms in monkey ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. 199, 533–547 (1968);T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966); F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 167–195 (1975);B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with x-like and y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976);P. Gouras, “Antidromic responses of orthodromically identified ganglion cells in monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 204, 409–419 (1969); R. T. Marrocco and J. B. Brown, “Correlation of receptive field properties of monkey LGN cells with the conduction velocity of retinal afferent input,” Brain Res. 92, 137–144 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Guth, “On Luminance,” paper presented at the Renshaw Vision Conference, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1967 (unpublished); B. V. Graham and S. L. Guth, “Red-plus green heterochromatic additivity as applied to the acuity response,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1573 (1970); and S. L. Guth and B. V. Graham, “Heterochromatic additivity and the acuity response,” Vision Res. 15, 317–319 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

[Taken from Ingling and Drum (Ref. 1).] Inferred responses of retinal receptive fields to brightness and chromatic edges. There is no type of edge which the achromatic unit detects and the chromatic unit does not; however, the chromatic unit does not enhance any inhomogeneity that has approximately equal brightness.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

A conventional opponent-color diagram indicating the subsequent cortical analysis of the signals carried by each of the channels. The dotted lines indicate nonpreferred or comparatively insensitive pathways, which can be used for discrimination if conditions are unfavorable for other pathways. R, G, and B represent a three-receptor trichromatic first stage; the cone signals are transformed to opponent-color and luminance signals at the stage labeled r-g, y-b, and Vλ.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Summary of literature supporting the view that the flicker system is not the high acuity system.