Abstract

The difference in the index of refraction between the receptor outer segment and the interstitial matrix has been determined to be 0.06 by making use of the waveguide properties of rat rod photoreceptors. This was done first by determining the cutoff wavelength for the transition between the bilobe or annulus modal patterns and the single-lobe <i>H E</i><sub>11</sub> modal pattern, and by measuring the diameter of the transmitting cell. These measurements were made on bleached receptors. Enoch, Scandrett, and Tobey had previously shown that bleaching only slightly alters the outer-segment index of refraction and diameter in the frog. Assuming interspecies transfer, and using Sidman’s prior estimate of bleached rat rod outer-segment index of refraction, then the index of refraction of the interstitial matrix of the albino rat is estimated to be 1.3476. This estimate was made using two different media in contact with the retinal preparation, a miscible mountant tissue culture medium believed to be compatible with the rat retina, and an encapsulating nonmiscible silicone oil which allows only ocular media from the same eye in contact with the outer segments.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Enoch, "Waveguide Modes in Retinal Receptors," Science 133, 1353 (1961).
  2. J. M. Enoch, "Visualization of Waveguide Modes in Retinal Receptors," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 1107 (1961).
  3. J. M. Enoch, "Nature of the transmission of energy in the retinal receptors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1122 (1961).
  4. J. M. Enoch, "Optical properties of retinal receptors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 71 (1963).
  5. J. M. Enoch and B. R. Horowitz, "The Vertebrate Retinal Receptor as Waveguide," Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical and Acoustical Microelectronics (1974), Microwave Research Institute Symposium Series, edited by J. Fox, Vol. XXIII (Polytechnic Press) (Halsted, Division of Wiley, New York (1975), p. 133.
  6. J. M. Enoch and L. E. Glismann, "Physical and Optical Changes in Excised Retinal Tissue: Resolution of Retinal Receptors as a Fiber Optics Bundle," Invest. Ophthalmol. 5, 208 (1966).
  7. E. Snitzer, "Cylindrical dielectric waveguide modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961).
  8. E. Snitzer and H. Osterberg, "Observed dielectric waveguide modes in the visible spectrum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 499 (1961).
  9. R. Barer, "Refractometry and interferometry of living cells," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 545 (1957).
  10. R. L. Sidman, "The Structure and Concentration of Solids in Photoreceptor Cells Studied by Refractometry and Interference Microscopy," J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3, 15 (1957).
  11. J. M. Enoch, J. Scandrett, and F. L. Tobey, Jr., "A Study of the Effects of Bleaching on the Width and Index of Refraction of Frog Rod Outer Segments," Vis. Res. 13, 171 (1973).
  12. E. N. Willmer, "The Physiology of Vision," Ann. Rev. Physiol. 17, 339 (1955).
  13. K. Kirschfeld and A. W. Snyder, "Measurement of a Photoreceptor's Characteristic Waveguide Parameter," Vis. Res. 16, 775 (1976);
  14. R. Sammut and A. W. Snyder, "Ambiguity in Determination of Waveguide Parameter V from Mode Cutoffs," Vis. Res. 16, 881 (1976).
  15. R. L. Sidman, "Histochemical studies on photoreceptor cells," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 182 (1958).
  16. J. M. Enoch, "Comments on excitation of waveguide modes in retinal receptors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 548 (1967).

1976

K. Kirschfeld and A. W. Snyder, "Measurement of a Photoreceptor's Characteristic Waveguide Parameter," Vis. Res. 16, 775 (1976);

R. Sammut and A. W. Snyder, "Ambiguity in Determination of Waveguide Parameter V from Mode Cutoffs," Vis. Res. 16, 881 (1976).

1973

J. M. Enoch, J. Scandrett, and F. L. Tobey, Jr., "A Study of the Effects of Bleaching on the Width and Index of Refraction of Frog Rod Outer Segments," Vis. Res. 13, 171 (1973).

1967

1966

J. M. Enoch and L. E. Glismann, "Physical and Optical Changes in Excised Retinal Tissue: Resolution of Retinal Receptors as a Fiber Optics Bundle," Invest. Ophthalmol. 5, 208 (1966).

1963

1961

1958

R. L. Sidman, "Histochemical studies on photoreceptor cells," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 182 (1958).

1957

R. Barer, "Refractometry and interferometry of living cells," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 545 (1957).

R. L. Sidman, "The Structure and Concentration of Solids in Photoreceptor Cells Studied by Refractometry and Interference Microscopy," J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3, 15 (1957).

1955

E. N. Willmer, "The Physiology of Vision," Ann. Rev. Physiol. 17, 339 (1955).

Barer, R.

Enoch, J. M.

J. M. Enoch, J. Scandrett, and F. L. Tobey, Jr., "A Study of the Effects of Bleaching on the Width and Index of Refraction of Frog Rod Outer Segments," Vis. Res. 13, 171 (1973).

J. M. Enoch, "Comments on excitation of waveguide modes in retinal receptors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 548 (1967).

J. M. Enoch and L. E. Glismann, "Physical and Optical Changes in Excised Retinal Tissue: Resolution of Retinal Receptors as a Fiber Optics Bundle," Invest. Ophthalmol. 5, 208 (1966).

J. M. Enoch, "Optical properties of retinal receptors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 71 (1963).

J. M. Enoch, "Waveguide Modes in Retinal Receptors," Science 133, 1353 (1961).

J. M. Enoch, "Visualization of Waveguide Modes in Retinal Receptors," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 1107 (1961).

J. M. Enoch, "Nature of the transmission of energy in the retinal receptors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1122 (1961).

J. M. Enoch and B. R. Horowitz, "The Vertebrate Retinal Receptor as Waveguide," Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical and Acoustical Microelectronics (1974), Microwave Research Institute Symposium Series, edited by J. Fox, Vol. XXIII (Polytechnic Press) (Halsted, Division of Wiley, New York (1975), p. 133.

Glismann, L. E.

J. M. Enoch and L. E. Glismann, "Physical and Optical Changes in Excised Retinal Tissue: Resolution of Retinal Receptors as a Fiber Optics Bundle," Invest. Ophthalmol. 5, 208 (1966).

Horowitz, B. R.

J. M. Enoch and B. R. Horowitz, "The Vertebrate Retinal Receptor as Waveguide," Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical and Acoustical Microelectronics (1974), Microwave Research Institute Symposium Series, edited by J. Fox, Vol. XXIII (Polytechnic Press) (Halsted, Division of Wiley, New York (1975), p. 133.

Kirschfeld, K.

K. Kirschfeld and A. W. Snyder, "Measurement of a Photoreceptor's Characteristic Waveguide Parameter," Vis. Res. 16, 775 (1976);

Osterberg, H.

Sammut, R.

R. Sammut and A. W. Snyder, "Ambiguity in Determination of Waveguide Parameter V from Mode Cutoffs," Vis. Res. 16, 881 (1976).

Scandrett, J.

J. M. Enoch, J. Scandrett, and F. L. Tobey, Jr., "A Study of the Effects of Bleaching on the Width and Index of Refraction of Frog Rod Outer Segments," Vis. Res. 13, 171 (1973).

Sidman, R. L.

R. L. Sidman, "Histochemical studies on photoreceptor cells," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 182 (1958).

R. L. Sidman, "The Structure and Concentration of Solids in Photoreceptor Cells Studied by Refractometry and Interference Microscopy," J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3, 15 (1957).

Snitzer, E.

Snyder, A. W.

K. Kirschfeld and A. W. Snyder, "Measurement of a Photoreceptor's Characteristic Waveguide Parameter," Vis. Res. 16, 775 (1976);

R. Sammut and A. W. Snyder, "Ambiguity in Determination of Waveguide Parameter V from Mode Cutoffs," Vis. Res. 16, 881 (1976).

Tobey, Jr., F. L.

J. M. Enoch, J. Scandrett, and F. L. Tobey, Jr., "A Study of the Effects of Bleaching on the Width and Index of Refraction of Frog Rod Outer Segments," Vis. Res. 13, 171 (1973).

Willmer, E. N.

E. N. Willmer, "The Physiology of Vision," Ann. Rev. Physiol. 17, 339 (1955).

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

J. M. Enoch, "Visualization of Waveguide Modes in Retinal Receptors," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 1107 (1961).

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.

R. L. Sidman, "Histochemical studies on photoreceptor cells," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 182 (1958).

Ann. Rev. Physiol.

E. N. Willmer, "The Physiology of Vision," Ann. Rev. Physiol. 17, 339 (1955).

Invest. Ophthalmol.

J. M. Enoch and L. E. Glismann, "Physical and Optical Changes in Excised Retinal Tissue: Resolution of Retinal Receptors as a Fiber Optics Bundle," Invest. Ophthalmol. 5, 208 (1966).

J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol.

R. L. Sidman, "The Structure and Concentration of Solids in Photoreceptor Cells Studied by Refractometry and Interference Microscopy," J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3, 15 (1957).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Science

J. M. Enoch, "Waveguide Modes in Retinal Receptors," Science 133, 1353 (1961).

Vis. Res.

J. M. Enoch, J. Scandrett, and F. L. Tobey, Jr., "A Study of the Effects of Bleaching on the Width and Index of Refraction of Frog Rod Outer Segments," Vis. Res. 13, 171 (1973).

K. Kirschfeld and A. W. Snyder, "Measurement of a Photoreceptor's Characteristic Waveguide Parameter," Vis. Res. 16, 775 (1976);

R. Sammut and A. W. Snyder, "Ambiguity in Determination of Waveguide Parameter V from Mode Cutoffs," Vis. Res. 16, 881 (1976).

Other

J. M. Enoch and B. R. Horowitz, "The Vertebrate Retinal Receptor as Waveguide," Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical and Acoustical Microelectronics (1974), Microwave Research Institute Symposium Series, edited by J. Fox, Vol. XXIII (Polytechnic Press) (Halsted, Division of Wiley, New York (1975), p. 133.

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