Abstract

Usually, images and other signals are recorded on photographic media using either density modulation, as in ordinary photographs, or spatial pulse modulation, as in halftone image reproduction. This paper presents an analysis of a modulation technique that combines density and spatial modulation. It is shown that the technique studied can provide a large class of average-transmittance functions. This class includes linear, power, and logarithmic functions. Design formulas for screens that give these functions are derived. It is shown that the average-transmittance function of films exposed through a screen of this design is independent dependent exposure range.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. W. Lohmann, and H. W. Werlich, "Spatial Pulse Modulation," Appl. Opt. 10, 2743–2753 (1971).
  2. John W. Wesner, "Screen Patterns in Reproduction of Continuous- Tone Graphics," Appl. Opt. 13, 1703–1710 (1974).
  3. Hisatoya Kato and J. W. Goodman, "Nonlinear transformations and logarithmic filtering in coherent optical systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1306A (1973); Opt. Commun. 8, 378–381 (1973).
  4. Hisatoyo Kato and J. W. Goodman, "Nonlinear Filtering in Coherent Optical Systems Through Halftone Screen Processes," Appl. Opt. 14, 1813–1824 (1975).
  5. J. W. Goodman and H. B. Strubin, "Increasing the Dynamic Range of Coherent Optical Filters by Means of Modulating Gratings," Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 23, 1024A (1972).
  6. S. R. Dashiell and A. A. Sawchuk, "Optical Synthesis of Nonlinear Nonmonotonic Functions," Opt. Communr. 15, 66–70 (1975).
  7. T. C. Strand, "Non-Monotonic Nonlinear Image Processing Using Halftone Techniques," Opt. Commun. 15, 60–65 (1975).
  8. Hua-Kuang Liu and J. W. Goodman, "A New Coherent Optical Psuedo-Color Encoder," Nouv. Rev. Opt. 7, 286–289 (1976).
  9. H. K. Liu, J. W. Goodman, and J. L-H. Chan, "Equidensiometry by Coherent Optical Filtering," Appl. Opt. 15, 2394–2399 (1976).
  10. S. R. Dashiell and A. A. Sawchuk, "Nonlinear Optical Processing: Effects of Input Medium and Precompensation," Appl. Opt. 16, 2279–2287 (1977).
  11. Robert L. Everett, "Synthesis of average film transfer functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1113–1118 (1978).
  12. G. H. Hardy, J. E. Littlewood, and G. Polya, Inequalities (Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 1959).

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

1976 (2)

H. K. Liu, J. W. Goodman, and J. L-H. Chan, "Equidensiometry by Coherent Optical Filtering," Appl. Opt. 15, 2394–2399 (1976).

Hua-Kuang Liu and J. W. Goodman, "A New Coherent Optical Psuedo-Color Encoder," Nouv. Rev. Opt. 7, 286–289 (1976).

1975 (3)

S. R. Dashiell and A. A. Sawchuk, "Optical Synthesis of Nonlinear Nonmonotonic Functions," Opt. Communr. 15, 66–70 (1975).

T. C. Strand, "Non-Monotonic Nonlinear Image Processing Using Halftone Techniques," Opt. Commun. 15, 60–65 (1975).

Hisatoyo Kato and J. W. Goodman, "Nonlinear Filtering in Coherent Optical Systems Through Halftone Screen Processes," Appl. Opt. 14, 1813–1824 (1975).

1974 (1)

1972 (1)

J. W. Goodman and H. B. Strubin, "Increasing the Dynamic Range of Coherent Optical Filters by Means of Modulating Gratings," Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 23, 1024A (1972).

1971 (1)

Chan, J. L-H.

Dashiell, S. R.

S. R. Dashiell and A. A. Sawchuk, "Nonlinear Optical Processing: Effects of Input Medium and Precompensation," Appl. Opt. 16, 2279–2287 (1977).

S. R. Dashiell and A. A. Sawchuk, "Optical Synthesis of Nonlinear Nonmonotonic Functions," Opt. Communr. 15, 66–70 (1975).

Everett, Robert L.

Goodman, J. W.

H. K. Liu, J. W. Goodman, and J. L-H. Chan, "Equidensiometry by Coherent Optical Filtering," Appl. Opt. 15, 2394–2399 (1976).

Hua-Kuang Liu and J. W. Goodman, "A New Coherent Optical Psuedo-Color Encoder," Nouv. Rev. Opt. 7, 286–289 (1976).

Hisatoyo Kato and J. W. Goodman, "Nonlinear Filtering in Coherent Optical Systems Through Halftone Screen Processes," Appl. Opt. 14, 1813–1824 (1975).

J. W. Goodman and H. B. Strubin, "Increasing the Dynamic Range of Coherent Optical Filters by Means of Modulating Gratings," Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 23, 1024A (1972).

Hisatoya Kato and J. W. Goodman, "Nonlinear transformations and logarithmic filtering in coherent optical systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1306A (1973); Opt. Commun. 8, 378–381 (1973).

Hardy, G. H.

G. H. Hardy, J. E. Littlewood, and G. Polya, Inequalities (Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 1959).

Kato, Hisatoya

Hisatoya Kato and J. W. Goodman, "Nonlinear transformations and logarithmic filtering in coherent optical systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1306A (1973); Opt. Commun. 8, 378–381 (1973).

Kato, Hisatoyo

Littlewood, J. E.

G. H. Hardy, J. E. Littlewood, and G. Polya, Inequalities (Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 1959).

Liu, H. K.

Liu, Hua-Kuang

Hua-Kuang Liu and J. W. Goodman, "A New Coherent Optical Psuedo-Color Encoder," Nouv. Rev. Opt. 7, 286–289 (1976).

Lohmann, A. W.

Polya, G.

G. H. Hardy, J. E. Littlewood, and G. Polya, Inequalities (Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 1959).

Sawchuk, A. A.

S. R. Dashiell and A. A. Sawchuk, "Nonlinear Optical Processing: Effects of Input Medium and Precompensation," Appl. Opt. 16, 2279–2287 (1977).

S. R. Dashiell and A. A. Sawchuk, "Optical Synthesis of Nonlinear Nonmonotonic Functions," Opt. Communr. 15, 66–70 (1975).

Strand, T. C.

T. C. Strand, "Non-Monotonic Nonlinear Image Processing Using Halftone Techniques," Opt. Commun. 15, 60–65 (1975).

Strubin, H. B.

J. W. Goodman and H. B. Strubin, "Increasing the Dynamic Range of Coherent Optical Filters by Means of Modulating Gratings," Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 23, 1024A (1972).

Werlich, H. W.

Wesner, John W.

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nouv. Rev. Opt. (1)

Hua-Kuang Liu and J. W. Goodman, "A New Coherent Optical Psuedo-Color Encoder," Nouv. Rev. Opt. 7, 286–289 (1976).

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. C. Strand, "Non-Monotonic Nonlinear Image Processing Using Halftone Techniques," Opt. Commun. 15, 60–65 (1975).

Opt. Communr. (1)

S. R. Dashiell and A. A. Sawchuk, "Optical Synthesis of Nonlinear Nonmonotonic Functions," Opt. Communr. 15, 66–70 (1975).

Z. Angew. Math. Phys. (1)

J. W. Goodman and H. B. Strubin, "Increasing the Dynamic Range of Coherent Optical Filters by Means of Modulating Gratings," Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 23, 1024A (1972).

Other (2)

Hisatoya Kato and J. W. Goodman, "Nonlinear transformations and logarithmic filtering in coherent optical systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1306A (1973); Opt. Commun. 8, 378–381 (1973).

G. H. Hardy, J. E. Littlewood, and G. Polya, Inequalities (Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 1959).

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