Abstract

The variation in the 87Rb D1 (λ = 794.8 nm) pumping light profiles due to 85Rb filter cell temperatures (< 80 °C) has been explained by considering both the shift and broadening of the 85Rb absorption spectrum caused by low-pressure foreign gases (< 200 Torr). The coefficients of the pressure shift and broadening by N2 gas were obtained as −8.0 ± 0.5 and 11 ± 1 MHz/Torr, respectively. The intensity ratio and difference of two peaks in the profiles were calculated in order to discuss the variation in the profiles quantitatively. The foreign gas He was examined for comparison. The absorption coefficient of Rb was also discussed.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. L. Bender, E. C. Beaty, and A. R. Chi, “Optical detection of narrow 87Rb hyperfine absorption lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 1, 311–313 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Arditi and T. R. Carver, “Pressure, light, and temperature shifts in optical detection of O-O hyperfine resonance of alkali metals,” Phys. Rev. 124, 800–809 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  3. I. Matsuda, N. Shiomi, N. Kuramochi, and H. Fukuyo, “87Rb resonant frequency change due to the spectral profile of the pumping light,” Bull. P. M. E. (Tokyo Inst. Tech.) No. 40, 7–16 (1977).
  4. P. Davidovits and N. Knable, “Efficiency of a 85Rb filter in optical pumping of 87Rb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35, 857–858 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Missout, R. Vaillancourt, M. Têtu, and J. Vanier, “Études de filters isotopiques pour les masers au rubidium,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 307–311 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Tako, Y. Koga, I. Hirano, and M. Ohi, “Absorption of Rb-D lines by Rb filter cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1641–1646 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. Kuramochi, H. Fukuyo, I. Matsuda, and N. Shiomi, “Spectral profiles of the 87Rb pumping light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 949–954 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. Kuramochi, T. Matsuo, I. Matsuda, and H. Fukuyo, “Spectral profiles of the 87Rb D1 line emitted from a spherical electrodeless lamp,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 673–679 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Ch’en and M. Takeo, “Broadening and shift of spectral lines due to the presence of foreign gases,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 20–73 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. M. Gibbs and R. J. Hull, “Spin-exchange cross sections for 87Rb-87Rb and 87Rb-133Cs collisions,” Phys. Rev. 153, 132–151 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Kopfermann and H. Krüger, “Zur Hyperfinestruktur der Resonanzlinien des Rubidiums,” Z. Phys. 103, 485–490 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. J. Smithells, Metals Reference Book, Vol. 2 (Butterworths, London, 1962), p. 655.
  13. I. Matsuda, N. Kuramochi, N. Shiomi, and H. Fukuyo, “Signal intensity characteristics of the 87Rb double resonance due to the pumping light,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 391–396 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. M. Andres, D. J. Farmer, and G. T. Inouye, “Design studies for a rubidium gas cell frequency standard,” IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-3, 178–183 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  15. E. M. Anderson and V. A. Zilitis, “Semiempirical calculation of oscillator strengths for lithium, rubidium, and cesium atoms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 16, 211–214 (1964).

1977 (2)

N. Kuramochi, T. Matsuo, I. Matsuda, and H. Fukuyo, “Spectral profiles of the 87Rb D1 line emitted from a spherical electrodeless lamp,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 673–679 (1977).
[Crossref]

I. Matsuda, N. Kuramochi, N. Shiomi, and H. Fukuyo, “Signal intensity characteristics of the 87Rb double resonance due to the pumping light,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 391–396 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

N. Kuramochi, H. Fukuyo, I. Matsuda, and N. Shiomi, “Spectral profiles of the 87Rb pumping light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 949–954 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

T. Tako, Y. Koga, I. Hirano, and M. Ohi, “Absorption of Rb-D lines by Rb filter cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1641–1646 (1975).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

G. Missout, R. Vaillancourt, M. Têtu, and J. Vanier, “Études de filters isotopiques pour les masers au rubidium,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 307–311 (1971).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

H. M. Gibbs and R. J. Hull, “Spin-exchange cross sections for 87Rb-87Rb and 87Rb-133Cs collisions,” Phys. Rev. 153, 132–151 (1967).
[Crossref]

1964 (2)

E. M. Anderson and V. A. Zilitis, “Semiempirical calculation of oscillator strengths for lithium, rubidium, and cesium atoms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 16, 211–214 (1964).

P. Davidovits and N. Knable, “Efficiency of a 85Rb filter in optical pumping of 87Rb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35, 857–858 (1964).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

M. Arditi and T. R. Carver, “Pressure, light, and temperature shifts in optical detection of O-O hyperfine resonance of alkali metals,” Phys. Rev. 124, 800–809 (1961).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

J. M. Andres, D. J. Farmer, and G. T. Inouye, “Design studies for a rubidium gas cell frequency standard,” IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-3, 178–183 (1959).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

P. L. Bender, E. C. Beaty, and A. R. Chi, “Optical detection of narrow 87Rb hyperfine absorption lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 1, 311–313 (1958).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

S. Ch’en and M. Takeo, “Broadening and shift of spectral lines due to the presence of foreign gases,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 20–73 (1957).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

H. Kopfermann and H. Krüger, “Zur Hyperfinestruktur der Resonanzlinien des Rubidiums,” Z. Phys. 103, 485–490 (1936).
[Crossref]

Anderson, E. M.

E. M. Anderson and V. A. Zilitis, “Semiempirical calculation of oscillator strengths for lithium, rubidium, and cesium atoms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 16, 211–214 (1964).

Andres, J. M.

J. M. Andres, D. J. Farmer, and G. T. Inouye, “Design studies for a rubidium gas cell frequency standard,” IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-3, 178–183 (1959).
[Crossref]

Arditi, M.

M. Arditi and T. R. Carver, “Pressure, light, and temperature shifts in optical detection of O-O hyperfine resonance of alkali metals,” Phys. Rev. 124, 800–809 (1961).
[Crossref]

Beaty, E. C.

P. L. Bender, E. C. Beaty, and A. R. Chi, “Optical detection of narrow 87Rb hyperfine absorption lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 1, 311–313 (1958).
[Crossref]

Bender, P. L.

P. L. Bender, E. C. Beaty, and A. R. Chi, “Optical detection of narrow 87Rb hyperfine absorption lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 1, 311–313 (1958).
[Crossref]

Carver, T. R.

M. Arditi and T. R. Carver, “Pressure, light, and temperature shifts in optical detection of O-O hyperfine resonance of alkali metals,” Phys. Rev. 124, 800–809 (1961).
[Crossref]

Ch’en, S.

S. Ch’en and M. Takeo, “Broadening and shift of spectral lines due to the presence of foreign gases,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 20–73 (1957).
[Crossref]

Chi, A. R.

P. L. Bender, E. C. Beaty, and A. R. Chi, “Optical detection of narrow 87Rb hyperfine absorption lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 1, 311–313 (1958).
[Crossref]

Davidovits, P.

P. Davidovits and N. Knable, “Efficiency of a 85Rb filter in optical pumping of 87Rb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35, 857–858 (1964).
[Crossref]

Farmer, D. J.

J. M. Andres, D. J. Farmer, and G. T. Inouye, “Design studies for a rubidium gas cell frequency standard,” IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-3, 178–183 (1959).
[Crossref]

Fukuyo, H.

I. Matsuda, N. Kuramochi, N. Shiomi, and H. Fukuyo, “Signal intensity characteristics of the 87Rb double resonance due to the pumping light,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 391–396 (1977).
[Crossref]

N. Kuramochi, T. Matsuo, I. Matsuda, and H. Fukuyo, “Spectral profiles of the 87Rb D1 line emitted from a spherical electrodeless lamp,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 673–679 (1977).
[Crossref]

N. Kuramochi, H. Fukuyo, I. Matsuda, and N. Shiomi, “Spectral profiles of the 87Rb pumping light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 949–954 (1976).
[Crossref]

I. Matsuda, N. Shiomi, N. Kuramochi, and H. Fukuyo, “87Rb resonant frequency change due to the spectral profile of the pumping light,” Bull. P. M. E. (Tokyo Inst. Tech.) No. 40, 7–16 (1977).

Gibbs, H. M.

H. M. Gibbs and R. J. Hull, “Spin-exchange cross sections for 87Rb-87Rb and 87Rb-133Cs collisions,” Phys. Rev. 153, 132–151 (1967).
[Crossref]

Hirano, I.

T. Tako, Y. Koga, I. Hirano, and M. Ohi, “Absorption of Rb-D lines by Rb filter cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1641–1646 (1975).
[Crossref]

Hull, R. J.

H. M. Gibbs and R. J. Hull, “Spin-exchange cross sections for 87Rb-87Rb and 87Rb-133Cs collisions,” Phys. Rev. 153, 132–151 (1967).
[Crossref]

Inouye, G. T.

J. M. Andres, D. J. Farmer, and G. T. Inouye, “Design studies for a rubidium gas cell frequency standard,” IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-3, 178–183 (1959).
[Crossref]

Knable, N.

P. Davidovits and N. Knable, “Efficiency of a 85Rb filter in optical pumping of 87Rb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35, 857–858 (1964).
[Crossref]

Koga, Y.

T. Tako, Y. Koga, I. Hirano, and M. Ohi, “Absorption of Rb-D lines by Rb filter cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1641–1646 (1975).
[Crossref]

Kopfermann, H.

H. Kopfermann and H. Krüger, “Zur Hyperfinestruktur der Resonanzlinien des Rubidiums,” Z. Phys. 103, 485–490 (1936).
[Crossref]

Krüger, H.

H. Kopfermann and H. Krüger, “Zur Hyperfinestruktur der Resonanzlinien des Rubidiums,” Z. Phys. 103, 485–490 (1936).
[Crossref]

Kuramochi, N.

N. Kuramochi, T. Matsuo, I. Matsuda, and H. Fukuyo, “Spectral profiles of the 87Rb D1 line emitted from a spherical electrodeless lamp,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 673–679 (1977).
[Crossref]

I. Matsuda, N. Kuramochi, N. Shiomi, and H. Fukuyo, “Signal intensity characteristics of the 87Rb double resonance due to the pumping light,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 391–396 (1977).
[Crossref]

N. Kuramochi, H. Fukuyo, I. Matsuda, and N. Shiomi, “Spectral profiles of the 87Rb pumping light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 949–954 (1976).
[Crossref]

I. Matsuda, N. Shiomi, N. Kuramochi, and H. Fukuyo, “87Rb resonant frequency change due to the spectral profile of the pumping light,” Bull. P. M. E. (Tokyo Inst. Tech.) No. 40, 7–16 (1977).

Matsuda, I.

N. Kuramochi, T. Matsuo, I. Matsuda, and H. Fukuyo, “Spectral profiles of the 87Rb D1 line emitted from a spherical electrodeless lamp,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 673–679 (1977).
[Crossref]

I. Matsuda, N. Kuramochi, N. Shiomi, and H. Fukuyo, “Signal intensity characteristics of the 87Rb double resonance due to the pumping light,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 391–396 (1977).
[Crossref]

N. Kuramochi, H. Fukuyo, I. Matsuda, and N. Shiomi, “Spectral profiles of the 87Rb pumping light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 949–954 (1976).
[Crossref]

I. Matsuda, N. Shiomi, N. Kuramochi, and H. Fukuyo, “87Rb resonant frequency change due to the spectral profile of the pumping light,” Bull. P. M. E. (Tokyo Inst. Tech.) No. 40, 7–16 (1977).

Matsuo, T.

N. Kuramochi, T. Matsuo, I. Matsuda, and H. Fukuyo, “Spectral profiles of the 87Rb D1 line emitted from a spherical electrodeless lamp,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 673–679 (1977).
[Crossref]

Missout, G.

G. Missout, R. Vaillancourt, M. Têtu, and J. Vanier, “Études de filters isotopiques pour les masers au rubidium,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 307–311 (1971).
[Crossref]

Ohi, M.

T. Tako, Y. Koga, I. Hirano, and M. Ohi, “Absorption of Rb-D lines by Rb filter cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1641–1646 (1975).
[Crossref]

Shiomi, N.

I. Matsuda, N. Kuramochi, N. Shiomi, and H. Fukuyo, “Signal intensity characteristics of the 87Rb double resonance due to the pumping light,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 391–396 (1977).
[Crossref]

N. Kuramochi, H. Fukuyo, I. Matsuda, and N. Shiomi, “Spectral profiles of the 87Rb pumping light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 949–954 (1976).
[Crossref]

I. Matsuda, N. Shiomi, N. Kuramochi, and H. Fukuyo, “87Rb resonant frequency change due to the spectral profile of the pumping light,” Bull. P. M. E. (Tokyo Inst. Tech.) No. 40, 7–16 (1977).

Smithells, C. J.

C. J. Smithells, Metals Reference Book, Vol. 2 (Butterworths, London, 1962), p. 655.

Takeo, M.

S. Ch’en and M. Takeo, “Broadening and shift of spectral lines due to the presence of foreign gases,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 20–73 (1957).
[Crossref]

Tako, T.

T. Tako, Y. Koga, I. Hirano, and M. Ohi, “Absorption of Rb-D lines by Rb filter cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1641–1646 (1975).
[Crossref]

Têtu, M.

G. Missout, R. Vaillancourt, M. Têtu, and J. Vanier, “Études de filters isotopiques pour les masers au rubidium,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 307–311 (1971).
[Crossref]

Vaillancourt, R.

G. Missout, R. Vaillancourt, M. Têtu, and J. Vanier, “Études de filters isotopiques pour les masers au rubidium,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 307–311 (1971).
[Crossref]

Vanier, J.

G. Missout, R. Vaillancourt, M. Têtu, and J. Vanier, “Études de filters isotopiques pour les masers au rubidium,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 307–311 (1971).
[Crossref]

Zilitis, V. A.

E. M. Anderson and V. A. Zilitis, “Semiempirical calculation of oscillator strengths for lithium, rubidium, and cesium atoms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 16, 211–214 (1964).

IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. (1)

J. M. Andres, D. J. Farmer, and G. T. Inouye, “Design studies for a rubidium gas cell frequency standard,” IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-3, 178–183 (1959).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

I. Matsuda, N. Kuramochi, N. Shiomi, and H. Fukuyo, “Signal intensity characteristics of the 87Rb double resonance due to the pumping light,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 391–396 (1977).
[Crossref]

T. Tako, Y. Koga, I. Hirano, and M. Ohi, “Absorption of Rb-D lines by Rb filter cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1641–1646 (1975).
[Crossref]

N. Kuramochi, H. Fukuyo, I. Matsuda, and N. Shiomi, “Spectral profiles of the 87Rb pumping light source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 949–954 (1976).
[Crossref]

N. Kuramochi, T. Matsuo, I. Matsuda, and H. Fukuyo, “Spectral profiles of the 87Rb D1 line emitted from a spherical electrodeless lamp,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 673–679 (1977).
[Crossref]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

E. M. Anderson and V. A. Zilitis, “Semiempirical calculation of oscillator strengths for lithium, rubidium, and cesium atoms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 16, 211–214 (1964).

Phys. Rev. (2)

H. M. Gibbs and R. J. Hull, “Spin-exchange cross sections for 87Rb-87Rb and 87Rb-133Cs collisions,” Phys. Rev. 153, 132–151 (1967).
[Crossref]

M. Arditi and T. R. Carver, “Pressure, light, and temperature shifts in optical detection of O-O hyperfine resonance of alkali metals,” Phys. Rev. 124, 800–809 (1961).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. L. Bender, E. C. Beaty, and A. R. Chi, “Optical detection of narrow 87Rb hyperfine absorption lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 1, 311–313 (1958).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. Ch’en and M. Takeo, “Broadening and shift of spectral lines due to the presence of foreign gases,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 20–73 (1957).
[Crossref]

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

G. Missout, R. Vaillancourt, M. Têtu, and J. Vanier, “Études de filters isotopiques pour les masers au rubidium,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 307–311 (1971).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. Davidovits and N. Knable, “Efficiency of a 85Rb filter in optical pumping of 87Rb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35, 857–858 (1964).
[Crossref]

Z. Phys. (1)

H. Kopfermann and H. Krüger, “Zur Hyperfinestruktur der Resonanzlinien des Rubidiums,” Z. Phys. 103, 485–490 (1936).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

C. J. Smithells, Metals Reference Book, Vol. 2 (Butterworths, London, 1962), p. 655.

I. Matsuda, N. Shiomi, N. Kuramochi, and H. Fukuyo, “87Rb resonant frequency change due to the spectral profile of the pumping light,” Bull. P. M. E. (Tokyo Inst. Tech.) No. 40, 7–16 (1977).

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Figures (10)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Spectral profiles of 87Rb and 85Rb D1 line. Hatched parts are the pumping light filtered by passing through a 85Rb filter cell.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Observd profiles of 87Rb D1 pumping light when the foreign gas in the cell is N2. In each interferogram the left peak is ef′ and the right cd′.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Observed profiles when the foreign gas is He.

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Schematic diagram for analyzing the filtering action.

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

(a) Relative positions and intensities of the components of 87Rb and 85Rb D1. (b) Energy levels and the names of transitions.

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Relation of parameters for a spectral line in the presence of a foreign gas.

FIG. 7
FIG. 7

(a) Calculated profiles when the foreign gas in the cell is N2. Parameter values are K′ = 0.10, α = −8.0, and β = 11. Four curves in each figure correspond to the filter cell temperature of 0, 55, 65, and 75 °C as shown in the center figure. (b) Calculated profiles of 85Rb absorption spectrum corresponding above.

FIG. 8
FIG. 8

(a) Calculated profiles when the foreign gas is He. Parameter values are K′ = 0.10, α = +4.5, and β = 11. Expression for temperature is the same as Fig. 7. (b) Calculated profiles of 85Rb absorption spectrum corresponding above.

FIG. 9
FIG. 9

Dependence of the intensity ratio(Icd/Ief) on the filter cell temperature.

FIG. 10
FIG. 10

Dependence of the intensity difference (IefIcd) on the filter cell temperature. Ordinate is normalized by a maximum value.

Equations (15)

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V i ( ν ) = exp { - ln [ ( ν - ν i ) / ( Δ ν i / 2 ) ] 2 } ;
i = c , d , e , f . V ( ν ) = Σ i I i V i ( ν ) .
Δ ν c = Δ ν d = 1.9 GHz ,             Δ ν e = Δ ν f = 1.65 GHz , I c : I d : I e : I f = 0.67 : 0.67 : 0.2 : 1.0.
W j ( ν ) = 1 π 2 Δ ν j [ 1 + ( ν - ν j Δ ν j / 2 ) 2 ] - 1 ,
j = C , D , E , F ; W ( ν ) = Σ j I j W j ( ν ) ;
0 W ( ν ) d ν = 1.
I C : I D : I E : I F = 1.0 : 0.8 : 0.3 : 1.0.
ν j = ν j 0 + α P = ν j 0 + α P 0 T / T 0 ,
Δ ν j = Δ ν 0 + β P = Δ ν 0 + β P 0 T / T 0 .
Δ V ( ν ) = - K V ( ν ) N W ( ν ) Δ l .
log 10 N = 30.98 - 4560 / T - 2.45 log 10 T .
U ( ν ) = V ( ν ) exp [ - K N W ( ν ) l ] ,
U ( ν ) = V ( ν ) exp [ - K N W ( ν ) ] .
I ( x ) = A ( 1 + 2 n = 1 R n exp ( - n 2 δ ) cos 2 π n x ) ,
U ( ν ) = - I ( ν - ν ) U ( ν ) d ν .