Abstract

The effects on image quality due to polarization changes of the illuminating beam after scattering by an object are studied. These effects include a decrease in signal-to-noise ratio (decrease in fringe visibility) of the hologram and, for an extended object, a loss of information of those segments of the object that have large curvature (edges, discontinuities, etc.). The autocorrelation function of the transmittance of a nonlinearly recorded hologram of a diffuse object is obtained. It is shown that the change of polarization of the illuminating beam by the object not only reduces the signal-to-noise ratio but also fortifies the distortion of the images due to the nonlinearity of the recording medium. This new distorting effect, which appears as a multiplicative factor, is dependent on the irradiance distribution of the object’s cross-polarized component. A simple way of decreasing the above-mentioned degradation effects is suggested.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Y. Ufimtsef, Method of Fringe Waves in Physical Theory of Diffraction (Sovetskoye Radio Press, Moscow, 1962), p. 192.
  2. M. L. Varshavchuk and V. O. Kobak, "Cross correlation of orthogonally polarized components of electromagnetic field scattered by an extended object," Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 16, 201–205 (1971).
  3. G. L. Rogers, "Polarization effects in holography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 831 (1966).
  4. R. J. Collier et al., Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 10.
  5. The fringe visibility is given by V = (Emax - Emin)/(Emax + Emin). V will have its maximum value (=1) if Emin = 0, i.e., when the strengths of the two interfering beams are equal.
  6. J. W. Goodman and G. R. Knight, "Effects of film nonlinearities on wavefront-reconstruction images of diffuse objects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1276–1283 (1968).
  7. H. Ghandeharian and V. M. Boerner, "Autocorrelation of transmittance of holograms made of diffuse objects," Opt. Acta 24, 1087–1097 (1977).
  8. J. W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Topics in Applied Physics, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, Vol.9, edited by J. C. Dainty (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975).
  9. W. B. Davenport, Jr. and W. L. Root, Random Signals and Noise (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958), p. 289.
  10. J. W. Goodman, "Some effects of target-induced scintillation on optical radar performance," Proc. IEEE 53, 1688–1700 (1965).
  11. G. N. Watson, "Notes on generating functions of polynomials: (1) Laguerre polynomials," J. Lond. Math. Soc. 8, 189–192 (1933).
  12. J. F. Barrett and D. G. Lampard, "An expansion for some secondorder probability distributions and its application to noise problems," IRE Trans. Inform. Theory IT-1, 10–15 (1955).
  13. G. E. Roberts and H. Kaufman, Tables of Laplace Transforms (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1966).
  14. R. C. Waag and K. T. Knox, "Power-spectrum analysis of exponential diffusers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 877–881 (1972).

1977 (1)

H. Ghandeharian and V. M. Boerner, "Autocorrelation of transmittance of holograms made of diffuse objects," Opt. Acta 24, 1087–1097 (1977).

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

M. L. Varshavchuk and V. O. Kobak, "Cross correlation of orthogonally polarized components of electromagnetic field scattered by an extended object," Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 16, 201–205 (1971).

1968 (1)

1966 (1)

1955 (1)

J. F. Barrett and D. G. Lampard, "An expansion for some secondorder probability distributions and its application to noise problems," IRE Trans. Inform. Theory IT-1, 10–15 (1955).

1933 (1)

G. N. Watson, "Notes on generating functions of polynomials: (1) Laguerre polynomials," J. Lond. Math. Soc. 8, 189–192 (1933).

Barrett, J. F.

J. F. Barrett and D. G. Lampard, "An expansion for some secondorder probability distributions and its application to noise problems," IRE Trans. Inform. Theory IT-1, 10–15 (1955).

Boerner, V. M.

H. Ghandeharian and V. M. Boerner, "Autocorrelation of transmittance of holograms made of diffuse objects," Opt. Acta 24, 1087–1097 (1977).

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier et al., Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 10.

Davenport, Jr., W. B.

W. B. Davenport, Jr. and W. L. Root, Random Signals and Noise (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958), p. 289.

Ghandeharian, H.

H. Ghandeharian and V. M. Boerner, "Autocorrelation of transmittance of holograms made of diffuse objects," Opt. Acta 24, 1087–1097 (1977).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman and G. R. Knight, "Effects of film nonlinearities on wavefront-reconstruction images of diffuse objects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1276–1283 (1968).

J. W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Topics in Applied Physics, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, Vol.9, edited by J. C. Dainty (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975).

J. W. Goodman, "Some effects of target-induced scintillation on optical radar performance," Proc. IEEE 53, 1688–1700 (1965).

Kaufman, H.

G. E. Roberts and H. Kaufman, Tables of Laplace Transforms (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1966).

Knight, G. R.

Knox, K. T.

Kobak, V. O.

M. L. Varshavchuk and V. O. Kobak, "Cross correlation of orthogonally polarized components of electromagnetic field scattered by an extended object," Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 16, 201–205 (1971).

Lampard, D. G.

J. F. Barrett and D. G. Lampard, "An expansion for some secondorder probability distributions and its application to noise problems," IRE Trans. Inform. Theory IT-1, 10–15 (1955).

Roberts, G. E.

G. E. Roberts and H. Kaufman, Tables of Laplace Transforms (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1966).

Rogers, G. L.

Root, W. L.

W. B. Davenport, Jr. and W. L. Root, Random Signals and Noise (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958), p. 289.

Ufimtsef, P. Y.

P. Y. Ufimtsef, Method of Fringe Waves in Physical Theory of Diffraction (Sovetskoye Radio Press, Moscow, 1962), p. 192.

Varshavchuk, M. L.

M. L. Varshavchuk and V. O. Kobak, "Cross correlation of orthogonally polarized components of electromagnetic field scattered by an extended object," Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 16, 201–205 (1971).

Waag, R. C.

Watson, G. N.

G. N. Watson, "Notes on generating functions of polynomials: (1) Laguerre polynomials," J. Lond. Math. Soc. 8, 189–192 (1933).

IRE Trans. Inform. Theory (1)

J. F. Barrett and D. G. Lampard, "An expansion for some secondorder probability distributions and its application to noise problems," IRE Trans. Inform. Theory IT-1, 10–15 (1955).

J. Lond. Math. Soc. (1)

G. N. Watson, "Notes on generating functions of polynomials: (1) Laguerre polynomials," J. Lond. Math. Soc. 8, 189–192 (1933).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Opt. Acta (1)

H. Ghandeharian and V. M. Boerner, "Autocorrelation of transmittance of holograms made of diffuse objects," Opt. Acta 24, 1087–1097 (1977).

Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. (1)

M. L. Varshavchuk and V. O. Kobak, "Cross correlation of orthogonally polarized components of electromagnetic field scattered by an extended object," Radio Eng. Electron. Phys. 16, 201–205 (1971).

Other (7)

P. Y. Ufimtsef, Method of Fringe Waves in Physical Theory of Diffraction (Sovetskoye Radio Press, Moscow, 1962), p. 192.

R. J. Collier et al., Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 10.

The fringe visibility is given by V = (Emax - Emin)/(Emax + Emin). V will have its maximum value (=1) if Emin = 0, i.e., when the strengths of the two interfering beams are equal.

J. W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Topics in Applied Physics, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, Vol.9, edited by J. C. Dainty (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975).

W. B. Davenport, Jr. and W. L. Root, Random Signals and Noise (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958), p. 289.

J. W. Goodman, "Some effects of target-induced scintillation on optical radar performance," Proc. IEEE 53, 1688–1700 (1965).

G. E. Roberts and H. Kaufman, Tables of Laplace Transforms (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1966).

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