Abstract

The deleterious effects of atmospheric inhomogeneities on telescope angular resolution (seeing effects) were studied at a wavelength of 10 µm with an imaging upconverter. Seeing was found to be systematically better by a factor of 1.9 at 10 µm than in the visible, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. A discussion of the theory of astronomical seeing is included.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. L. Fried, "Optical resolution through a randomly inhomogenious medium for very long and very short exposures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1372–1379 (1966).
  2. P. J. Turon and P. J. Lena, "High Resolution Solar Images at 10 µm: Sunspot Details and Photometry," Solar Phys. 14, 112–124 (1970).
  3. R. W. Boyd and C. H. Townes, "An Infrared Upconverter for Astronomical Imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 440–442 (1977), and R. W. Boyd, "Infrared Upconversion for Astronomy," Opt. Eng. 16, 563–568 (1977).
  4. J. A. Westphal, K. Matthews, and R. J. Terrile, "Five-Micron Pictures of Jupiter," Astrophys. J. 188, L111–L112 (1974).
  5. E. C. Sutton, J. W. V. Storey, A. L. Betz, C. H. Townes, and D. L. Spears, "Spatial Heterodyne Interferometry of VY Canis Majoris, Alpha Orionis, Alpha Scorpii, and R. Leonis at 11 Microns," Astrophys. J. 217, L97–L100 (1977); and D. W. McCarthy, F. J. Low, and R. Howell, "Angular Diameter Measurements of α Orionis, VY Canis Majoris, and IRC + 10216 at 8.3, 10.2, and 11.1 µm," Astrophys. J. 214, L85–L89 (1977).
  6. V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw Hill, New York, 1961), p. 269.
  7. R. E. Hufnagel and N. R. Stanley, "Modulation transfer function associated with image transmission through turbulent media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 52–61 (1964).
  8. A. N. Kolmogorov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 30, 301 (1941); 32, 16 (1941).
  9. A. M. Obukhov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 32, 19(1941); Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geograf. Geofiz. 5, 453 (1941).
  10. V. I. Tatarski, in Ref. 6, p. 40.
  11. C. E. Coulman, "A Quantitative Treatment of Solar Seeing. I," Solar Phys. 7, 122–143 (1969).
  12. See V. I. Tatarski, Ref. 6, Chap. 8, or J. W. Strohbehn, "Optical Propagation through the Turbulent Atmosphere," In Progress in Optics IX, edited by E. Wolf (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1971).
  13. J. L. Lumley and H. A. Panofsky, The Structure of Atmospheric Turbulence (Wiley, New York, 1964).
  14. C. E. Coulman, "A Quantitative Treatment of Solar Seeing. II," Solar Phys. 34, 491–506 (1974).
  15. C. E. Coulman, "Optical image quality in a turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 806–812(1965), and "Dependence of image quality on horizontal range in a turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1232–1238 (1966).
  16. D. L. Fried, "Test of the Rytov approximation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 268–269 (1967).
  17. M. W. Fitzmaurice, J. L. Bufton, and P. O. Minott, "Wavelength dependence of laser-beam scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 7–10 (1969).
  18. M. E. Gracheva and A. S. Gurvich, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 8, 717 (1965).
  19. G. R. Ochs and R. S. Lawrence, "Saturation of laser-beam scintillation under conditions of strong atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 226–227 (1969).
  20. M. W. Fitzmaurice, "Experimental Investigations of Optical Propagation in Atmospheric Turbulence," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, published as NASA TR R-370 (1971).
  21. J. W. Strobehn, in Ref. 12.
  22. G. de Vaucouleurs, "Linearization of Characteristic Curves in Photographic Photometry," Appl. Opt. 7, 1513–1518 (1968).
  23. J. E. Gaustad and J. B. Rogerson, "The Solar Limb Intensity Profile,"Astrophys. J. 134, 323–330 (1961).
  24. N. Johnson, "Solar Infrared Limb Profiles," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Michigan, 1972) (unpublished).
  25. P. Lena, "Le Rayonnement Continu Infrarouge de la Photosphere Solaire" Astron. Astrophys. 4, 202–219 (1970).
  26. V. I. Tatarski, in Ref. 6, Eq. (8.20).

1977 (2)

R. W. Boyd and C. H. Townes, "An Infrared Upconverter for Astronomical Imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 440–442 (1977), and R. W. Boyd, "Infrared Upconversion for Astronomy," Opt. Eng. 16, 563–568 (1977).

E. C. Sutton, J. W. V. Storey, A. L. Betz, C. H. Townes, and D. L. Spears, "Spatial Heterodyne Interferometry of VY Canis Majoris, Alpha Orionis, Alpha Scorpii, and R. Leonis at 11 Microns," Astrophys. J. 217, L97–L100 (1977); and D. W. McCarthy, F. J. Low, and R. Howell, "Angular Diameter Measurements of α Orionis, VY Canis Majoris, and IRC + 10216 at 8.3, 10.2, and 11.1 µm," Astrophys. J. 214, L85–L89 (1977).

1974 (2)

C. E. Coulman, "A Quantitative Treatment of Solar Seeing. II," Solar Phys. 34, 491–506 (1974).

J. A. Westphal, K. Matthews, and R. J. Terrile, "Five-Micron Pictures of Jupiter," Astrophys. J. 188, L111–L112 (1974).

1970 (2)

P. J. Turon and P. J. Lena, "High Resolution Solar Images at 10 µm: Sunspot Details and Photometry," Solar Phys. 14, 112–124 (1970).

P. Lena, "Le Rayonnement Continu Infrarouge de la Photosphere Solaire" Astron. Astrophys. 4, 202–219 (1970).

1969 (3)

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

1964 (1)

1961 (1)

J. E. Gaustad and J. B. Rogerson, "The Solar Limb Intensity Profile,"Astrophys. J. 134, 323–330 (1961).

Betz, A. L.

E. C. Sutton, J. W. V. Storey, A. L. Betz, C. H. Townes, and D. L. Spears, "Spatial Heterodyne Interferometry of VY Canis Majoris, Alpha Orionis, Alpha Scorpii, and R. Leonis at 11 Microns," Astrophys. J. 217, L97–L100 (1977); and D. W. McCarthy, F. J. Low, and R. Howell, "Angular Diameter Measurements of α Orionis, VY Canis Majoris, and IRC + 10216 at 8.3, 10.2, and 11.1 µm," Astrophys. J. 214, L85–L89 (1977).

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd and C. H. Townes, "An Infrared Upconverter for Astronomical Imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 440–442 (1977), and R. W. Boyd, "Infrared Upconversion for Astronomy," Opt. Eng. 16, 563–568 (1977).

Bufton, J. L.

Coulman, C. E.

C. E. Coulman, "A Quantitative Treatment of Solar Seeing. II," Solar Phys. 34, 491–506 (1974).

C. E. Coulman, "A Quantitative Treatment of Solar Seeing. I," Solar Phys. 7, 122–143 (1969).

C. E. Coulman, "Optical image quality in a turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 806–812(1965), and "Dependence of image quality on horizontal range in a turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1232–1238 (1966).

de Vaucouleurs, G.

Fitzmaurice, M. W.

M. W. Fitzmaurice, J. L. Bufton, and P. O. Minott, "Wavelength dependence of laser-beam scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 7–10 (1969).

M. W. Fitzmaurice, "Experimental Investigations of Optical Propagation in Atmospheric Turbulence," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, published as NASA TR R-370 (1971).

Fried, D. L.

Gaustad, J. E.

J. E. Gaustad and J. B. Rogerson, "The Solar Limb Intensity Profile,"Astrophys. J. 134, 323–330 (1961).

Gracheva, M. E.

M. E. Gracheva and A. S. Gurvich, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 8, 717 (1965).

Gurvich, A. S.

M. E. Gracheva and A. S. Gurvich, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 8, 717 (1965).

Hufnagel, R. E.

Johnson, N.

N. Johnson, "Solar Infrared Limb Profiles," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Michigan, 1972) (unpublished).

Kolmogorov, A. N.

A. N. Kolmogorov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 30, 301 (1941); 32, 16 (1941).

Lawrence, R. S.

Lena, P.

P. Lena, "Le Rayonnement Continu Infrarouge de la Photosphere Solaire" Astron. Astrophys. 4, 202–219 (1970).

Lena, P. J.

P. J. Turon and P. J. Lena, "High Resolution Solar Images at 10 µm: Sunspot Details and Photometry," Solar Phys. 14, 112–124 (1970).

Lumley, J. L.

J. L. Lumley and H. A. Panofsky, The Structure of Atmospheric Turbulence (Wiley, New York, 1964).

Matthews, K.

J. A. Westphal, K. Matthews, and R. J. Terrile, "Five-Micron Pictures of Jupiter," Astrophys. J. 188, L111–L112 (1974).

Minott, P. O.

Obukhov, A. M.

A. M. Obukhov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 32, 19(1941); Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geograf. Geofiz. 5, 453 (1941).

Ochs, G. R.

Panofsky, H. A.

J. L. Lumley and H. A. Panofsky, The Structure of Atmospheric Turbulence (Wiley, New York, 1964).

Rogerson, J. B.

J. E. Gaustad and J. B. Rogerson, "The Solar Limb Intensity Profile,"Astrophys. J. 134, 323–330 (1961).

Spears, D. L.

E. C. Sutton, J. W. V. Storey, A. L. Betz, C. H. Townes, and D. L. Spears, "Spatial Heterodyne Interferometry of VY Canis Majoris, Alpha Orionis, Alpha Scorpii, and R. Leonis at 11 Microns," Astrophys. J. 217, L97–L100 (1977); and D. W. McCarthy, F. J. Low, and R. Howell, "Angular Diameter Measurements of α Orionis, VY Canis Majoris, and IRC + 10216 at 8.3, 10.2, and 11.1 µm," Astrophys. J. 214, L85–L89 (1977).

Stanley, N. R.

Storey, J. W. V.

E. C. Sutton, J. W. V. Storey, A. L. Betz, C. H. Townes, and D. L. Spears, "Spatial Heterodyne Interferometry of VY Canis Majoris, Alpha Orionis, Alpha Scorpii, and R. Leonis at 11 Microns," Astrophys. J. 217, L97–L100 (1977); and D. W. McCarthy, F. J. Low, and R. Howell, "Angular Diameter Measurements of α Orionis, VY Canis Majoris, and IRC + 10216 at 8.3, 10.2, and 11.1 µm," Astrophys. J. 214, L85–L89 (1977).

Strobehn, J. W.

J. W. Strobehn, in Ref. 12.

Sutton, E. C.

E. C. Sutton, J. W. V. Storey, A. L. Betz, C. H. Townes, and D. L. Spears, "Spatial Heterodyne Interferometry of VY Canis Majoris, Alpha Orionis, Alpha Scorpii, and R. Leonis at 11 Microns," Astrophys. J. 217, L97–L100 (1977); and D. W. McCarthy, F. J. Low, and R. Howell, "Angular Diameter Measurements of α Orionis, VY Canis Majoris, and IRC + 10216 at 8.3, 10.2, and 11.1 µm," Astrophys. J. 214, L85–L89 (1977).

Tatarski, V. I.

V. I. Tatarski, in Ref. 6, p. 40.

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw Hill, New York, 1961), p. 269.

See V. I. Tatarski, Ref. 6, Chap. 8, or J. W. Strohbehn, "Optical Propagation through the Turbulent Atmosphere," In Progress in Optics IX, edited by E. Wolf (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1971).

V. I. Tatarski, in Ref. 6, Eq. (8.20).

Terrile, R. J.

J. A. Westphal, K. Matthews, and R. J. Terrile, "Five-Micron Pictures of Jupiter," Astrophys. J. 188, L111–L112 (1974).

Townes, C. H.

R. W. Boyd and C. H. Townes, "An Infrared Upconverter for Astronomical Imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 440–442 (1977), and R. W. Boyd, "Infrared Upconversion for Astronomy," Opt. Eng. 16, 563–568 (1977).

E. C. Sutton, J. W. V. Storey, A. L. Betz, C. H. Townes, and D. L. Spears, "Spatial Heterodyne Interferometry of VY Canis Majoris, Alpha Orionis, Alpha Scorpii, and R. Leonis at 11 Microns," Astrophys. J. 217, L97–L100 (1977); and D. W. McCarthy, F. J. Low, and R. Howell, "Angular Diameter Measurements of α Orionis, VY Canis Majoris, and IRC + 10216 at 8.3, 10.2, and 11.1 µm," Astrophys. J. 214, L85–L89 (1977).

Turon, P. J.

P. J. Turon and P. J. Lena, "High Resolution Solar Images at 10 µm: Sunspot Details and Photometry," Solar Phys. 14, 112–124 (1970).

Westphal, J. A.

J. A. Westphal, K. Matthews, and R. J. Terrile, "Five-Micron Pictures of Jupiter," Astrophys. J. 188, L111–L112 (1974).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. W. Boyd and C. H. Townes, "An Infrared Upconverter for Astronomical Imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 440–442 (1977), and R. W. Boyd, "Infrared Upconversion for Astronomy," Opt. Eng. 16, 563–568 (1977).

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

P. Lena, "Le Rayonnement Continu Infrarouge de la Photosphere Solaire" Astron. Astrophys. 4, 202–219 (1970).

Astrophys. J. (3)

J. E. Gaustad and J. B. Rogerson, "The Solar Limb Intensity Profile,"Astrophys. J. 134, 323–330 (1961).

J. A. Westphal, K. Matthews, and R. J. Terrile, "Five-Micron Pictures of Jupiter," Astrophys. J. 188, L111–L112 (1974).

E. C. Sutton, J. W. V. Storey, A. L. Betz, C. H. Townes, and D. L. Spears, "Spatial Heterodyne Interferometry of VY Canis Majoris, Alpha Orionis, Alpha Scorpii, and R. Leonis at 11 Microns," Astrophys. J. 217, L97–L100 (1977); and D. W. McCarthy, F. J. Low, and R. Howell, "Angular Diameter Measurements of α Orionis, VY Canis Majoris, and IRC + 10216 at 8.3, 10.2, and 11.1 µm," Astrophys. J. 214, L85–L89 (1977).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

Solar Phys. (3)

C. E. Coulman, "A Quantitative Treatment of Solar Seeing. II," Solar Phys. 34, 491–506 (1974).

P. J. Turon and P. J. Lena, "High Resolution Solar Images at 10 µm: Sunspot Details and Photometry," Solar Phys. 14, 112–124 (1970).

C. E. Coulman, "A Quantitative Treatment of Solar Seeing. I," Solar Phys. 7, 122–143 (1969).

Other (11)

See V. I. Tatarski, Ref. 6, Chap. 8, or J. W. Strohbehn, "Optical Propagation through the Turbulent Atmosphere," In Progress in Optics IX, edited by E. Wolf (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1971).

J. L. Lumley and H. A. Panofsky, The Structure of Atmospheric Turbulence (Wiley, New York, 1964).

M. E. Gracheva and A. S. Gurvich, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 8, 717 (1965).

A. N. Kolmogorov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 30, 301 (1941); 32, 16 (1941).

A. M. Obukhov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 32, 19(1941); Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geograf. Geofiz. 5, 453 (1941).

V. I. Tatarski, in Ref. 6, p. 40.

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw Hill, New York, 1961), p. 269.

V. I. Tatarski, in Ref. 6, Eq. (8.20).

M. W. Fitzmaurice, "Experimental Investigations of Optical Propagation in Atmospheric Turbulence," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, published as NASA TR R-370 (1971).

J. W. Strobehn, in Ref. 12.

N. Johnson, "Solar Infrared Limb Profiles," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Michigan, 1972) (unpublished).

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