Abstract

Detection and resolution thresholds for two 50 ms square-wave gratings (1.5 and 6.7 cps) were determined as a function of background luminance. Results indicated differential cone and rod involvement in resolution of the two targets at low background levels. Implications for other studies employing similar stimuli in terms of retinal inhomogeneity were suggested.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).
  2. C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).
  3. M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, "Spatial frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).
  4. B. G. Breitmeyer, "Simple reaction time as a measure of the temporal response properties of transient and sustained channels," Vision Res. 15, 1411–1412 (1975).
  5. B. G. Breitmeyer and B. Julesz, "The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response," Vision Res. 15, 411–415 (1975).
  6. B. G. Breitmeyer, and L. Ganz, "Temporal studies with flashed gratings: Inferences about human transient and sustained channels," Vision Res. 17, 861–865 (1977).
  7. J. J. Kulikowski and D. F. Tolhurst, "Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision," J. Physiol. (London) 232, 149–162 (1973).
  8. G. E. Legge, "Adaptation to a spatial impulse: Implications for Fourier transform models of visual processing," Vision Res., 16, 1407–1418 (1976).
  9. C. F. Stromeyer and S. Klein, "Evidence against narrow-band spatial frequency channels in human vision: The detectability of frequency modulated gratings," Vision Res. 15, 899–910 (1975).
  10. C. Blakemore and P. Sutton, "Size adaptation: A new aftereffect," Science 166, 245–247 (1969).
  11. C. F. Stromeyer, "Edge-contingent color aftereffects: Spatial frequency specificity," Vision Res. 12, 717–733 (1972).
  12. B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, "Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing," Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).
  13. N. Weisstein, C. S. Harris, K. Berbaum, J. Tangney, and A. Williams, "Contrast reduction by small localized stimuli: Extensive spatial spread of above-threshold orientation-selective masking," Vision Res. 17, 341–350 (1977).
  14. E. R. Wist, Th. Brandt, H. C. Diener, and J. Dichgans, "Spatial frequency effect on the Pulfrich stereophenomenon," Vision Res. 17, 391–398 (1977).
  15. G. E. Meyer and W. M. Maguire, "Spatial frequency and the mediation of short-term visual storage," Science 198, 524–525 (1977).
  16. G. E. Meyer, R. Lawson, and W. Cohen, "The effects of orientation-specific adaptation on the duration of short-term visual storage," Vision Res. 15, 569–572 (1975).
  17. S. H. Bartley, "The psychophysiology of vision," in Handbook of Experimental Psychology, edited by S. S. Stevens (Wiley, New York, 1951).
  18. J. Nachmias and A. Weber, "Discrimination of simple and complex gratings," Vision Res. 15, 217–223 (1975).
  19. C. S. Furchner, J. P. Thomas, and F. W. Campbell, "Detection and discrimination of simple and complex patterns at low spatial frequencies," Vision Res. 17, 827–836 (1977).
  20. W. S. Stiles, "Color vision: The approach through increment-threshold sensitivity," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 100–114 (1959).
  21. L. A. Riggs, "Visual acuity," in Vision and Visual Perception, edited by C. H. Graham (Wiley, New York, 1965).
  22. J. L. Brown, L. Phares, and D. E. Fletcher, "Spectral energy thresholds for the resolution of acuity targets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 950–960 (1960).
  23. O. Bryngdahl, "Characteristics of the visual system: Psychophysical measurements of the response to spatial sine-wave stimuli in the mesopic region," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1152–1160 (1964).
  24. O. Bryngdahl, "Characteristics of the visual system: Psychophysical measurements of the response to spatial sine-wave stimuli in the photopic region," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 811–821 (1966).
  25. M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta, 1, 59–65 (1954).
  26. B. Sakitt, "Psychophysical correlates of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 16, 129–140 (1976).

1977

B. G. Breitmeyer, and L. Ganz, "Temporal studies with flashed gratings: Inferences about human transient and sustained channels," Vision Res. 17, 861–865 (1977).

N. Weisstein, C. S. Harris, K. Berbaum, J. Tangney, and A. Williams, "Contrast reduction by small localized stimuli: Extensive spatial spread of above-threshold orientation-selective masking," Vision Res. 17, 341–350 (1977).

E. R. Wist, Th. Brandt, H. C. Diener, and J. Dichgans, "Spatial frequency effect on the Pulfrich stereophenomenon," Vision Res. 17, 391–398 (1977).

G. E. Meyer and W. M. Maguire, "Spatial frequency and the mediation of short-term visual storage," Science 198, 524–525 (1977).

C. S. Furchner, J. P. Thomas, and F. W. Campbell, "Detection and discrimination of simple and complex patterns at low spatial frequencies," Vision Res. 17, 827–836 (1977).

1976

G. E. Legge, "Adaptation to a spatial impulse: Implications for Fourier transform models of visual processing," Vision Res., 16, 1407–1418 (1976).

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, "Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing," Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).

B. Sakitt, "Psychophysical correlates of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 16, 129–140 (1976).

1975

C. F. Stromeyer and S. Klein, "Evidence against narrow-band spatial frequency channels in human vision: The detectability of frequency modulated gratings," Vision Res. 15, 899–910 (1975).

B. G. Breitmeyer, "Simple reaction time as a measure of the temporal response properties of transient and sustained channels," Vision Res. 15, 1411–1412 (1975).

B. G. Breitmeyer and B. Julesz, "The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response," Vision Res. 15, 411–415 (1975).

G. E. Meyer, R. Lawson, and W. Cohen, "The effects of orientation-specific adaptation on the duration of short-term visual storage," Vision Res. 15, 569–572 (1975).

J. Nachmias and A. Weber, "Discrimination of simple and complex gratings," Vision Res. 15, 217–223 (1975).

1973

J. J. Kulikowski and D. F. Tolhurst, "Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision," J. Physiol. (London) 232, 149–162 (1973).

1972

C. F. Stromeyer, "Edge-contingent color aftereffects: Spatial frequency specificity," Vision Res. 12, 717–733 (1972).

1971

1969

C. Blakemore and P. Sutton, "Size adaptation: A new aftereffect," Science 166, 245–247 (1969).

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

1968

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).

1966

1964

1960

1959

W. S. Stiles, "Color vision: The approach through increment-threshold sensitivity," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 100–114 (1959).

1954

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta, 1, 59–65 (1954).

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta, 1, 59–65 (1954).

Bartley, S. H.

S. H. Bartley, "The psychophysiology of vision," in Handbook of Experimental Psychology, edited by S. S. Stevens (Wiley, New York, 1951).

Berbaum, K.

N. Weisstein, C. S. Harris, K. Berbaum, J. Tangney, and A. Williams, "Contrast reduction by small localized stimuli: Extensive spatial spread of above-threshold orientation-selective masking," Vision Res. 17, 341–350 (1977).

Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

C. Blakemore and P. Sutton, "Size adaptation: A new aftereffect," Science 166, 245–247 (1969).

Brandt, Th.

E. R. Wist, Th. Brandt, H. C. Diener, and J. Dichgans, "Spatial frequency effect on the Pulfrich stereophenomenon," Vision Res. 17, 391–398 (1977).

Breitmeyer, B. G.

B. G. Breitmeyer, and L. Ganz, "Temporal studies with flashed gratings: Inferences about human transient and sustained channels," Vision Res. 17, 861–865 (1977).

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, "Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing," Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).

B. G. Breitmeyer, "Simple reaction time as a measure of the temporal response properties of transient and sustained channels," Vision Res. 15, 1411–1412 (1975).

B. G. Breitmeyer and B. Julesz, "The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response," Vision Res. 15, 411–415 (1975).

Brown, J. L.

Bryngdahl, O.

Campbell, F. W.

C. S. Furchner, J. P. Thomas, and F. W. Campbell, "Detection and discrimination of simple and complex patterns at low spatial frequencies," Vision Res. 17, 827–836 (1977).

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).

Cohen, W.

G. E. Meyer, R. Lawson, and W. Cohen, "The effects of orientation-specific adaptation on the duration of short-term visual storage," Vision Res. 15, 569–572 (1975).

Dichgans, J.

E. R. Wist, Th. Brandt, H. C. Diener, and J. Dichgans, "Spatial frequency effect on the Pulfrich stereophenomenon," Vision Res. 17, 391–398 (1977).

Diener, H. C.

E. R. Wist, Th. Brandt, H. C. Diener, and J. Dichgans, "Spatial frequency effect on the Pulfrich stereophenomenon," Vision Res. 17, 391–398 (1977).

Fletcher, D. E.

Furchner, C. S.

C. S. Furchner, J. P. Thomas, and F. W. Campbell, "Detection and discrimination of simple and complex patterns at low spatial frequencies," Vision Res. 17, 827–836 (1977).

Ganz, L.

B. G. Breitmeyer, and L. Ganz, "Temporal studies with flashed gratings: Inferences about human transient and sustained channels," Vision Res. 17, 861–865 (1977).

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, "Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing," Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).

Harris, C. S.

N. Weisstein, C. S. Harris, K. Berbaum, J. Tangney, and A. Williams, "Contrast reduction by small localized stimuli: Extensive spatial spread of above-threshold orientation-selective masking," Vision Res. 17, 341–350 (1977).

Julesz, B.

B. G. Breitmeyer and B. Julesz, "The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response," Vision Res. 15, 411–415 (1975).

Klein, S.

C. F. Stromeyer and S. Klein, "Evidence against narrow-band spatial frequency channels in human vision: The detectability of frequency modulated gratings," Vision Res. 15, 899–910 (1975).

Kulikowski, J. J.

J. J. Kulikowski and D. F. Tolhurst, "Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision," J. Physiol. (London) 232, 149–162 (1973).

Lawson, R.

G. E. Meyer, R. Lawson, and W. Cohen, "The effects of orientation-specific adaptation on the duration of short-term visual storage," Vision Res. 15, 569–572 (1975).

Legge, G. E.

G. E. Legge, "Adaptation to a spatial impulse: Implications for Fourier transform models of visual processing," Vision Res., 16, 1407–1418 (1976).

Maguire, W. M.

G. E. Meyer and W. M. Maguire, "Spatial frequency and the mediation of short-term visual storage," Science 198, 524–525 (1977).

Meyer, G. E.

G. E. Meyer and W. M. Maguire, "Spatial frequency and the mediation of short-term visual storage," Science 198, 524–525 (1977).

G. E. Meyer, R. Lawson, and W. Cohen, "The effects of orientation-specific adaptation on the duration of short-term visual storage," Vision Res. 15, 569–572 (1975).

Nachmias, J.

J. Nachmias and A. Weber, "Discrimination of simple and complex gratings," Vision Res. 15, 217–223 (1975).

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, "Spatial frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).

Phares, L.

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs, "Visual acuity," in Vision and Visual Perception, edited by C. H. Graham (Wiley, New York, 1965).

Robson, J. G.

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, "Spatial frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).

Sachs, M. B.

Sakitt, B.

B. Sakitt, "Psychophysical correlates of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 16, 129–140 (1976).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, "Color vision: The approach through increment-threshold sensitivity," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 100–114 (1959).

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta, 1, 59–65 (1954).

Stromeyer, C. F.

C. F. Stromeyer and S. Klein, "Evidence against narrow-band spatial frequency channels in human vision: The detectability of frequency modulated gratings," Vision Res. 15, 899–910 (1975).

C. F. Stromeyer, "Edge-contingent color aftereffects: Spatial frequency specificity," Vision Res. 12, 717–733 (1972).

Sutton, P.

C. Blakemore and P. Sutton, "Size adaptation: A new aftereffect," Science 166, 245–247 (1969).

Tangney, J.

N. Weisstein, C. S. Harris, K. Berbaum, J. Tangney, and A. Williams, "Contrast reduction by small localized stimuli: Extensive spatial spread of above-threshold orientation-selective masking," Vision Res. 17, 341–350 (1977).

Thomas, J. P.

C. S. Furchner, J. P. Thomas, and F. W. Campbell, "Detection and discrimination of simple and complex patterns at low spatial frequencies," Vision Res. 17, 827–836 (1977).

Tolhurst, D. F.

J. J. Kulikowski and D. F. Tolhurst, "Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision," J. Physiol. (London) 232, 149–162 (1973).

Weber, A.

J. Nachmias and A. Weber, "Discrimination of simple and complex gratings," Vision Res. 15, 217–223 (1975).

Weisstein, N.

N. Weisstein, C. S. Harris, K. Berbaum, J. Tangney, and A. Williams, "Contrast reduction by small localized stimuli: Extensive spatial spread of above-threshold orientation-selective masking," Vision Res. 17, 341–350 (1977).

Williams, A.

N. Weisstein, C. S. Harris, K. Berbaum, J. Tangney, and A. Williams, "Contrast reduction by small localized stimuli: Extensive spatial spread of above-threshold orientation-selective masking," Vision Res. 17, 341–350 (1977).

Wist, E. R.

E. R. Wist, Th. Brandt, H. C. Diener, and J. Dichgans, "Spatial frequency effect on the Pulfrich stereophenomenon," Vision Res. 17, 391–398 (1977).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Physiol.

J. J. Kulikowski and D. F. Tolhurst, "Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision," J. Physiol. (London) 232, 149–162 (1973).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

Opt. Acta

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta, 1, 59–65 (1954).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

W. S. Stiles, "Color vision: The approach through increment-threshold sensitivity," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 100–114 (1959).

Psychol. Rev.

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, "Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing," Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).

Science

C. Blakemore and P. Sutton, "Size adaptation: A new aftereffect," Science 166, 245–247 (1969).

G. E. Meyer and W. M. Maguire, "Spatial frequency and the mediation of short-term visual storage," Science 198, 524–525 (1977).

Vision Res.

G. E. Meyer, R. Lawson, and W. Cohen, "The effects of orientation-specific adaptation on the duration of short-term visual storage," Vision Res. 15, 569–572 (1975).

J. Nachmias and A. Weber, "Discrimination of simple and complex gratings," Vision Res. 15, 217–223 (1975).

C. S. Furchner, J. P. Thomas, and F. W. Campbell, "Detection and discrimination of simple and complex patterns at low spatial frequencies," Vision Res. 17, 827–836 (1977).

B. Sakitt, "Psychophysical correlates of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 16, 129–140 (1976).

C. F. Stromeyer, "Edge-contingent color aftereffects: Spatial frequency specificity," Vision Res. 12, 717–733 (1972).

N. Weisstein, C. S. Harris, K. Berbaum, J. Tangney, and A. Williams, "Contrast reduction by small localized stimuli: Extensive spatial spread of above-threshold orientation-selective masking," Vision Res. 17, 341–350 (1977).

E. R. Wist, Th. Brandt, H. C. Diener, and J. Dichgans, "Spatial frequency effect on the Pulfrich stereophenomenon," Vision Res. 17, 391–398 (1977).

G. E. Legge, "Adaptation to a spatial impulse: Implications for Fourier transform models of visual processing," Vision Res., 16, 1407–1418 (1976).

C. F. Stromeyer and S. Klein, "Evidence against narrow-band spatial frequency channels in human vision: The detectability of frequency modulated gratings," Vision Res. 15, 899–910 (1975).

B. G. Breitmeyer, "Simple reaction time as a measure of the temporal response properties of transient and sustained channels," Vision Res. 15, 1411–1412 (1975).

B. G. Breitmeyer and B. Julesz, "The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response," Vision Res. 15, 411–415 (1975).

B. G. Breitmeyer, and L. Ganz, "Temporal studies with flashed gratings: Inferences about human transient and sustained channels," Vision Res. 17, 861–865 (1977).

Other

S. H. Bartley, "The psychophysiology of vision," in Handbook of Experimental Psychology, edited by S. S. Stevens (Wiley, New York, 1951).

L. A. Riggs, "Visual acuity," in Vision and Visual Perception, edited by C. H. Graham (Wiley, New York, 1965).

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