Abstract

The observed density of a photographic record is dependent on the aperture of the illuminating and imaging optics. This effect, due to the scattering by the photographic emulsion, is analyzed using as few assumptions as possible. The results show a reasonable agreement with experiments on Callier effect found in the literature. In the realm of a study about noise and coherence in image processing, the influence of the Callier effect on image contrast is discussed. It is found in particular that contrast variations may be large (over a factor of 10 in some cases) and that the best contrast is obtained for a certin partially coherent illumination.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  3. P. Chavel and S. Lowenthal, "A method of incoherent optical-image processing using synthetic holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 14–23 (1976).
  4. J. W. Goodman, "Noise in Coherent Optical Information Processing," in Optical Information Processing, edited by Yu. E. Nesterikhin, G. W. Stroke, and W. E. Kock (Plenum, New York, 1976), pp. 85–103.
  5. D. Tichenor and J. W. Goodman, "Practical Noise Limitations in Holographic Image Deblurring," in Proceedings of the International Optical Computing Conference (I.E.E.E., Washington, D.C., 1975, I.E.E.E. Catalog No. 75 CH 0941-5C), pp. 82–84.
  6. R. S. Powers and J. W. Goodman, "Error rates in computer-generated holographic memories," Appl. Opt. 14, 1690–1701(1975).
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  8. W. M. W. Abney, "Grease spot photometer measures," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 18–20(1891).
  9. F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "Reply to the preceding communication of Captain Abney, 'On the accuracy of the grease spot photometer for measuring the density of photographic plates, and a note on the sector photometer'," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 9, 725(1890).
  10. F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "The sector and grease spot photometers and their results," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 20–24(1891).
  11. F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "The sector and grease spot photometers," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 98–100(1891).
  12. F. Hurter, "The sector and grease spot photometers," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 318(1891).
  13. A. Callier, "Absorption und Diffusion des Lichtes in der entwickelten photographischen Platte, nach Messungen mit dem Martensschen Polarisationphotometer," Z. Wiss. Photogr. Photophys. Photochem. 8, 257–272(1909).
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  15. p. Vernier, "Sur l'action photographique des électrons—Application aux observations astronomiques," Bull. Astron. 12, 84–127(1959).
  16. P. Vernier, "Etude de l'effet Callier et de sa relation avec la granut larité des plaques photographiques," C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 246, 1527–1530(1958).
  17. P. Vernier, "Conditions for linearity between density and exposure for photographic plates," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 444–454(1969).
  18. F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "Photo-chemical investigations and a new method of determination of the sensitiveness of photographic plates," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 9, 455–469(1890).
  19. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964), Chap. X.
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  23. A. M. Koerner and C. Tuttle, "Experimental determination of photographic density," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 241–256(1937).
  24. C. Tuttle and J. W. McFarlane, "The measurement of density in variable density sound film," J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 15, 345–351(1930).
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  37. J. C. Dainty and R. Shaw, Image Science (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 68–115.
  38. C. Lanczos, Applied Analysis (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1956).
  39. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1965), pp. 887 and 916.
  40. S. Lowenthal and P. Chavel, "Noise Problems in Optical Image Processing," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Holography and Optical Data Processing (International Commission of Optics, Jerusalem, 1976), paper TuA-1.
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  42. R. E. Kinzly, "Partially coherent imaging in a microdensitometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 386–394(1972).

1976

1975

R. S. Powers and J. W. Goodman, "Error rates in computer-generated holographic memories," Appl. Opt. 14, 1690–1701(1975).

G. L. Rogers, "Non-coherent optical processing," Opt. Las. Technol. 7, 153–162(1975).

1972

1971

1970

1969

1967

1962

E. N. Leith, "Photographic film as an element of a coherent optical system," J. Photogr. Soc. Am. 6, 75–80(1962).

1960

P. Vernier, "Définition du contour du spot d'un densitomètre, effet Callier et granulation photographique," Rev. Opt. 39, 505–515(1960).

1959

p. Vernier, "Sur l'action photographique des électrons—Application aux observations astronomiques," Bull. Astron. 12, 84–127(1959).

1958

P. Vernier, "Etude de l'effet Callier et de sa relation avec la granut larité des plaques photographiques," C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 246, 1527–1530(1958).

1955

P. Croce and M. Marquet, "Détermination optique du "bruit de fond" photographique," Opt. Acta 2, 107–108(1955).

1953

R. Görisch, "Untersuchungen uber den Callier-Effekt I," Z. Wiss. Photogr. Photophys. Photochem. 48, 85–102(1953).

1937

1930

C. Tuttle and J. W. McFarlane, "The measurement of density in variable density sound film," J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 15, 345–351(1930).

1928

H. J. McNicholas, "Absolute methods in reflectometry," Natl. Bur. Stand. J. Res. 1, 29–73(1928).

1909

A. Callier, "Absorption und Diffusion des Lichtes in der entwickelten photographischen Platte, nach Messungen mit dem Martensschen Polarisationphotometer," Z. Wiss. Photogr. Photophys. Photochem. 8, 257–272(1909).

1891

W. M. W. Abney, "Grease spot photometer measures," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 18–20(1891).

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "The sector and grease spot photometers and their results," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 20–24(1891).

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "The sector and grease spot photometers," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 98–100(1891).

F. Hurter, "The sector and grease spot photometers," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 318(1891).

1890

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "Reply to the preceding communication of Captain Abney, 'On the accuracy of the grease spot photometer for measuring the density of photographic plates, and a note on the sector photometer'," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 9, 725(1890).

W. M. W. Abney, "On the accuracy of the grease spot photometer for measuring the density of photographic plates, and a note on the sector photometer," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 9, 722–725(1890).

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "Photo-chemical investigations and a new method of determination of the sensitiveness of photographic plates," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 9, 455–469(1890).

Abney, W. M. W.

W. M. W. Abney, "Grease spot photometer measures," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 18–20(1891).

W. M. W. Abney, "On the accuracy of the grease spot photometer for measuring the density of photographic plates, and a note on the sector photometer," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 9, 722–725(1890).

Abramowitz, M.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1965), pp. 887 and 916.

Arm, M.

Bennett, W. R.

Biedermann, K.

K. Biedermann, "The scattered flux spectrum of photographic materials for holography," Optik 31, 367–389(1970).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964), Chap. X.

Brandt, G. B.

Burckhardt, C. B.

Callier, A.

A. Callier, "Absorption und Diffusion des Lichtes in der entwickelten photographischen Platte, nach Messungen mit dem Martensschen Polarisationphotometer," Z. Wiss. Photogr. Photophys. Photochem. 8, 257–272(1909).

A. Callier, Photogr. J. 49(NS33), 200(1909).

Chavel, P.

P. Chavel and S. Lowenthal, "A method of incoherent optical-image processing using synthetic holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 14–23 (1976).

S. Lowenthal and P. Chavel, "Noise Problems in Optical Image Processing," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Holography and Optical Data Processing (International Commission of Optics, Jerusalem, 1976), paper TuA-1.

Croce, P.

P. Croce and M. Marquet, "Détermination optique du "bruit de fond" photographique," Opt. Acta 2, 107–108(1955).

Dainty, J. C.

J. C. Dainty and R. Shaw, Image Science (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 68–115.

Driffield, V. C.

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "The sector and grease spot photometers and their results," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 20–24(1891).

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "The sector and grease spot photometers," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 98–100(1891).

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "Reply to the preceding communication of Captain Abney, 'On the accuracy of the grease spot photometer for measuring the density of photographic plates, and a note on the sector photometer'," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 9, 725(1890).

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "Photo-chemical investigations and a new method of determination of the sensitiveness of photographic plates," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 9, 455–469(1890).

Goodman, J. W.

R. S. Powers and J. W. Goodman, "Error rates in computer-generated holographic memories," Appl. Opt. 14, 1690–1701(1975).

D. Tichenor and J. W. Goodman, "Practical Noise Limitations in Holographic Image Deblurring," in Proceedings of the International Optical Computing Conference (I.E.E.E., Washington, D.C., 1975, I.E.E.E. Catalog No. 75 CH 0941-5C), pp. 82–84.

J. W. Goodman, "Noise in Coherent Optical Information Processing," in Optical Information Processing, edited by Yu. E. Nesterikhin, G. W. Stroke, and W. E. Kock (Plenum, New York, 1976), pp. 85–103.

Görisch, R.

R. Görisch, "Untersuchungen uber den Callier-Effekt I," Z. Wiss. Photogr. Photophys. Photochem. 48, 85–102(1953).

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler and A. W. Lohmann, "Hybrid Image Processing," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of A8 Holography and Optical Data Processing (International Commission of Optics,. Jerusalem, 1976), paper MB-1.

Hurter, F.

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "The sector and grease spot photometers," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 98–100(1891).

F. Hurter, "The sector and grease spot photometers," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 318(1891).

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "The sector and grease spot photometers and their results," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 20–24(1891).

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "Photo-chemical investigations and a new method of determination of the sensitiveness of photographic plates," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 9, 455–469(1890).

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "Reply to the preceding communication of Captain Abney, 'On the accuracy of the grease spot photometer for measuring the density of photographic plates, and a note on the sector photometer'," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 9, 725(1890).

Kinzly, R. E.

Koerner, A. M.

Lanczos, C.

C. Lanczos, Applied Analysis (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1956).

Leith, E. N.

E. N. Leith, "Photographic film as an element of a coherent optical system," J. Photogr. Soc. Am. 6, 75–80(1962).

Lohmann, A. W.

G. Häusler and A. W. Lohmann, "Hybrid Image Processing," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of A8 Holography and Optical Data Processing (International Commission of Optics,. Jerusalem, 1976), paper MB-1.

Lowenthal, S.

P. Chavel and S. Lowenthal, "A method of incoherent optical-image processing using synthetic holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 14–23 (1976).

S. Lowenthal and P. Chavel, "Noise Problems in Optical Image Processing," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Holography and Optical Data Processing (International Commission of Optics, Jerusalem, 1976), paper TuA-1.

Marquet, M.

P. Croce and M. Marquet, "Détermination optique du "bruit de fond" photographique," Opt. Acta 2, 107–108(1955).

McFarlane, J. W.

C. Tuttle and J. W. McFarlane, "The measurement of density in variable density sound film," J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 15, 345–351(1930).

McNicholas, H. J.

H. J. McNicholas, "Absolute methods in reflectometry," Natl. Bur. Stand. J. Res. 1, 29–73(1928).

Powers, R. S.

Rogers, G. L.

G. L. Rogers, "Non-coherent optical processing," Opt. Las. Technol. 7, 153–162(1975).

Shaw, R.

J. C. Dainty and R. Shaw, Image Science (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 68–115.

Smith, H. M.

Stark, H.

Stegun, I. A.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1965), pp. 887 and 916.

Swing, R. E.

Thomas, C. E.

Tichenor, D.

D. Tichenor and J. W. Goodman, "Practical Noise Limitations in Holographic Image Deblurring," in Proceedings of the International Optical Computing Conference (I.E.E.E., Washington, D.C., 1975, I.E.E.E. Catalog No. 75 CH 0941-5C), pp. 82–84.

Tupper, J. L.

J. L. Tupper, "General sensitometry," in The Theory of the Pho- tographic Process, 3rd ed., edited by C. E. K. Mees and T. H. James (Macmillan, New York, 1966), pp. 409–436.

Tuttle, C.

A. M. Koerner and C. Tuttle, "Experimental determination of photographic density," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 241–256(1937).

C. Tuttle and J. W. McFarlane, "The measurement of density in variable density sound film," J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 15, 345–351(1930).

Vernier, P.

P. Vernier, "Conditions for linearity between density and exposure for photographic plates," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 444–454(1969).

P. Vernier, "Définition du contour du spot d'un densitomètre, effet Callier et granulation photographique," Rev. Opt. 39, 505–515(1960).

p. Vernier, "Sur l'action photographique des électrons—Application aux observations astronomiques," Bull. Astron. 12, 84–127(1959).

P. Vernier, "Etude de l'effet Callier et de sa relation avec la granut larité des plaques photographiques," C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 246, 1527–1530(1958).

Vilkomerson, D. H. R.

von Helmholtz, H.

H. von Helmholtz, Handbuch der physiologischen Optik, 1st ed. (Voss, Leipzig, 1856), pp. 166–191.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964), Chap. X.

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Astron.

p. Vernier, "Sur l'action photographique des électrons—Application aux observations astronomiques," Bull. Astron. 12, 84–127(1959).

C. R. Acad. Sci.

P. Vernier, "Etude de l'effet Callier et de sa relation avec la granut larité des plaques photographiques," C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 246, 1527–1530(1958).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Photogr. Soc. Am.

E. N. Leith, "Photographic film as an element of a coherent optical system," J. Photogr. Soc. Am. 6, 75–80(1962).

J. Soc. Chem. Ind.

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "Photo-chemical investigations and a new method of determination of the sensitiveness of photographic plates," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 9, 455–469(1890).

W. M. W. Abney, "On the accuracy of the grease spot photometer for measuring the density of photographic plates, and a note on the sector photometer," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 9, 722–725(1890).

W. M. W. Abney, "Grease spot photometer measures," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 18–20(1891).

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "Reply to the preceding communication of Captain Abney, 'On the accuracy of the grease spot photometer for measuring the density of photographic plates, and a note on the sector photometer'," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 9, 725(1890).

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "The sector and grease spot photometers and their results," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 20–24(1891).

F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield, "The sector and grease spot photometers," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 98–100(1891).

F. Hurter, "The sector and grease spot photometers," J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 10, 318(1891).

J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng.

C. Tuttle and J. W. McFarlane, "The measurement of density in variable density sound film," J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 15, 345–351(1930).

Natl. Bur. Stand. J. Res.

H. J. McNicholas, "Absolute methods in reflectometry," Natl. Bur. Stand. J. Res. 1, 29–73(1928).

Opt. Acta

P. Croce and M. Marquet, "Détermination optique du "bruit de fond" photographique," Opt. Acta 2, 107–108(1955).

Opt. Las. Technol.

G. L. Rogers, "Non-coherent optical processing," Opt. Las. Technol. 7, 153–162(1975).

Optik

K. Biedermann, "The scattered flux spectrum of photographic materials for holography," Optik 31, 367–389(1970).

Rev. Opt.

P. Vernier, "Définition du contour du spot d'un densitomètre, effet Callier et granulation photographique," Rev. Opt. 39, 505–515(1960).

Z. Wiss. Photogr. Photophys. Photochem.

R. Görisch, "Untersuchungen uber den Callier-Effekt I," Z. Wiss. Photogr. Photophys. Photochem. 48, 85–102(1953).

A. Callier, "Absorption und Diffusion des Lichtes in der entwickelten photographischen Platte, nach Messungen mit dem Martensschen Polarisationphotometer," Z. Wiss. Photogr. Photophys. Photochem. 8, 257–272(1909).

Other

A. Callier, Photogr. J. 49(NS33), 200(1909).

J. L. Tupper, "General sensitometry," in The Theory of the Pho- tographic Process, 3rd ed., edited by C. E. K. Mees and T. H. James (Macmillan, New York, 1966), pp. 409–436.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964), Chap. X.

J. W. Goodman, "Noise in Coherent Optical Information Processing," in Optical Information Processing, edited by Yu. E. Nesterikhin, G. W. Stroke, and W. E. Kock (Plenum, New York, 1976), pp. 85–103.

D. Tichenor and J. W. Goodman, "Practical Noise Limitations in Holographic Image Deblurring," in Proceedings of the International Optical Computing Conference (I.E.E.E., Washington, D.C., 1975, I.E.E.E. Catalog No. 75 CH 0941-5C), pp. 82–84.

G. Häusler and A. W. Lohmann, "Hybrid Image Processing," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of A8 Holography and Optical Data Processing (International Commission of Optics,. Jerusalem, 1976), paper MB-1.

H. von Helmholtz, Handbuch der physiologischen Optik, 1st ed. (Voss, Leipzig, 1856), pp. 166–191.

J. C. Dainty and R. Shaw, Image Science (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 68–115.

C. Lanczos, Applied Analysis (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1956).

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1965), pp. 887 and 916.

S. Lowenthal and P. Chavel, "Noise Problems in Optical Image Processing," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Holography and Optical Data Processing (International Commission of Optics, Jerusalem, 1976), paper TuA-1.

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