Abstract

We have measured Doppler shift frequency spectra (DSFS) of laser light scattered from red blood cells (RBC’s) flowing through individual human retinal vessels. Each spectrum exhibits a cutoff frequency which is directly related to the maximum RBC velocity at the measurement site. Meaningful DSFS can be measured in times as short as 0.1 s. DSFS obtained from suspensions of polystyrene spheres and RBC’s flowing through glass capillary tubes are used to illustrate the basic principles of the technique and to aid in the interpretation of the <i>in vivo</i> measurements. Our measurements show that maximum RBC velocities in retinal arteries vary markedly during each cardiac cycle.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. B. Benedek, "Optical mixing spectroscopy, with applications to problems in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering," in Polarisation, Matiére et Rayonnement, volume jubilaire en l'honneur d'Alfred Kastler, edited by the French Physical Society (Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1969), pp. 49–84.
  2. B. Chu, Laser Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1974).
  3. Y. Yeh and H. Z. Cummins, "Localized fluid flow measurements with an He-Ne laser spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 176–178 (1964).
  4. F. Durst, A. Melling, and J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser Doppler Anemometry (Academic, New York, 1976).
  5. C. Riva, B. Ross, and G. Benedek, "Laser Doppler measurements of blood flow in capillary tubes and retinal arteries," Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 936–944 (1972).
  6. T. Tanaka, C. E. Riva, and I. Ben-Sira, "Blood velocity measurements in human retinal vessels," Science 186, 830–831 (1974).
  7. F. Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), pp. 585–587.
  8. D. H. Sliney and B. C. Freasier, "Evaluation of optical radiation hazards," Appl. Opt. 12, 1–24 (1973).
  9. W. H. Li and S. H. Lam, Principles of Fluid Mechanics (Addison- Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1964), pp. 196–198.
  10. G. T. Feke, "Human retinal blood flow and laser velocimetry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1171 A (1975).
  11. C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, and M. Loebl, "Laser Doppler measurement of blood flow in the fundus of the human eye," in Proceedings of the 1976 Electro-Optical Systems Designs/International Laser Conference (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Inc., Chicago, 1976).

1976 (1)

C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, and M. Loebl, "Laser Doppler measurement of blood flow in the fundus of the human eye," in Proceedings of the 1976 Electro-Optical Systems Designs/International Laser Conference (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Inc., Chicago, 1976).

1975 (1)

G. T. Feke, "Human retinal blood flow and laser velocimetry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1171 A (1975).

1974 (1)

T. Tanaka, C. E. Riva, and I. Ben-Sira, "Blood velocity measurements in human retinal vessels," Science 186, 830–831 (1974).

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

C. Riva, B. Ross, and G. Benedek, "Laser Doppler measurements of blood flow in capillary tubes and retinal arteries," Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 936–944 (1972).

1969 (1)

G. B. Benedek, "Optical mixing spectroscopy, with applications to problems in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering," in Polarisation, Matiére et Rayonnement, volume jubilaire en l'honneur d'Alfred Kastler, edited by the French Physical Society (Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1969), pp. 49–84.

1964 (1)

Y. Yeh and H. Z. Cummins, "Localized fluid flow measurements with an He-Ne laser spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 176–178 (1964).

Benedek, G.

C. Riva, B. Ross, and G. Benedek, "Laser Doppler measurements of blood flow in capillary tubes and retinal arteries," Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 936–944 (1972).

Benedek, G. B.

G. B. Benedek, "Optical mixing spectroscopy, with applications to problems in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering," in Polarisation, Matiére et Rayonnement, volume jubilaire en l'honneur d'Alfred Kastler, edited by the French Physical Society (Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1969), pp. 49–84.

Ben-Sira, I.

T. Tanaka, C. E. Riva, and I. Ben-Sira, "Blood velocity measurements in human retinal vessels," Science 186, 830–831 (1974).

Chu, B.

B. Chu, Laser Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1974).

Cummins, H. Z.

Y. Yeh and H. Z. Cummins, "Localized fluid flow measurements with an He-Ne laser spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 176–178 (1964).

Durst, F.

F. Durst, A. Melling, and J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser Doppler Anemometry (Academic, New York, 1976).

Feke, G. T.

C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, and M. Loebl, "Laser Doppler measurement of blood flow in the fundus of the human eye," in Proceedings of the 1976 Electro-Optical Systems Designs/International Laser Conference (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Inc., Chicago, 1976).

G. T. Feke, "Human retinal blood flow and laser velocimetry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1171 A (1975).

Freasier, B. C.

Lam, S. H.

W. H. Li and S. H. Lam, Principles of Fluid Mechanics (Addison- Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1964), pp. 196–198.

Li, W. H.

W. H. Li and S. H. Lam, Principles of Fluid Mechanics (Addison- Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1964), pp. 196–198.

Loebl, M.

C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, and M. Loebl, "Laser Doppler measurement of blood flow in the fundus of the human eye," in Proceedings of the 1976 Electro-Optical Systems Designs/International Laser Conference (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Inc., Chicago, 1976).

Melling, A.

F. Durst, A. Melling, and J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser Doppler Anemometry (Academic, New York, 1976).

Reif, F.

F. Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), pp. 585–587.

Riva, C.

C. Riva, B. Ross, and G. Benedek, "Laser Doppler measurements of blood flow in capillary tubes and retinal arteries," Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 936–944 (1972).

Riva, C. E.

C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, and M. Loebl, "Laser Doppler measurement of blood flow in the fundus of the human eye," in Proceedings of the 1976 Electro-Optical Systems Designs/International Laser Conference (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Inc., Chicago, 1976).

T. Tanaka, C. E. Riva, and I. Ben-Sira, "Blood velocity measurements in human retinal vessels," Science 186, 830–831 (1974).

Ross, B.

C. Riva, B. Ross, and G. Benedek, "Laser Doppler measurements of blood flow in capillary tubes and retinal arteries," Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 936–944 (1972).

Sliney, D. H.

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, C. E. Riva, and I. Ben-Sira, "Blood velocity measurements in human retinal vessels," Science 186, 830–831 (1974).

Whitelaw, J. H.

F. Durst, A. Melling, and J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser Doppler Anemometry (Academic, New York, 1976).

Yeh, Y.

Y. Yeh and H. Z. Cummins, "Localized fluid flow measurements with an He-Ne laser spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 176–178 (1964).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Yeh and H. Z. Cummins, "Localized fluid flow measurements with an He-Ne laser spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 176–178 (1964).

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

C. Riva, B. Ross, and G. Benedek, "Laser Doppler measurements of blood flow in capillary tubes and retinal arteries," Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 936–944 (1972).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

G. T. Feke, "Human retinal blood flow and laser velocimetry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1171 A (1975).

Science (1)

T. Tanaka, C. E. Riva, and I. Ben-Sira, "Blood velocity measurements in human retinal vessels," Science 186, 830–831 (1974).

Other (6)

F. Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), pp. 585–587.

W. H. Li and S. H. Lam, Principles of Fluid Mechanics (Addison- Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1964), pp. 196–198.

F. Durst, A. Melling, and J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser Doppler Anemometry (Academic, New York, 1976).

G. B. Benedek, "Optical mixing spectroscopy, with applications to problems in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering," in Polarisation, Matiére et Rayonnement, volume jubilaire en l'honneur d'Alfred Kastler, edited by the French Physical Society (Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1969), pp. 49–84.

B. Chu, Laser Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1974).

C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, and M. Loebl, "Laser Doppler measurement of blood flow in the fundus of the human eye," in Proceedings of the 1976 Electro-Optical Systems Designs/International Laser Conference (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Inc., Chicago, 1976).

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