Starting from the electromagnetic theory, we derive an asymptotic formalism to investigate the behavior of perfectly conducting gratings used at small wavelengths to groove pitch ratios and near normal incidence. The theory is applied to study three classical types of profiles: sinusoidal, lamellar, and blazed gratings. Results are given for both -1 and -2 Littrow (or near Littrow) mounts. The accuracy of the theory and the limits of the domain where it applies are studied by the use of rigorous electromagnetic computations. The role of a finite conductivity of the surface is also investigated.
© 1978 Optical Society of AmericaPDF Article