Abstract

The effects of wavelength, spectral bandpass, and exposure time on the speckle lens-atmosphere modulation transfer function have been measured using bright stellar sources.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Schneiderman, P. F. Kellen, and M. G. Miller, "Laboratory simulated speckle interferometry", J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1287–1291 (1975).
  2. D. Korff, "Analysis of a method for obtaining near-diffraction limited information in the presence of atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 971–980 (1973).
  3. D. Korff, G. Dryden, and M. G. Miller, "Information retrieval from atmospheric induced speckle patterns," Opt. Comm. 5, 187–192 (1972).
  4. J. C. Dainty, "Diffraction-limited imaging of stellar objects using telescopes of low optical quality", Opt. Comm. 1, 129–134 (1973).
  5. Speckle interferometry consistently recovers near diffraction limited object information but no large telescope can be considered in practice to have close to diffraction limited imaging quality.
  6. D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, "Speckle interferometry with severely aberrated telescopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1277–78 (1977).
  7. D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, "Nonstationarity of the atmospheric transfer function," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1065–1066A (1976).
  8. R. E. Hufnagel and N. R. Stanley, "Modulation transfer function associated with image transmission through turbulent media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 52–61 (1964).
  9. D. L. Fried, "Optical resolution through a randomly inhomogeneous medium for very long and very short exposures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1372–1379 (1966).
  10. V. I. Tatarski, Wave propagation in a turbulent medium (Dover, New York, 1961).
  11. I. Goldstein, P. A. Miles, and A. Chabot, "Heterodyne measurements of light propagation through atmospheric turbulence", Proc. IEEE 53, 1172–1180 (1965).
  12. T. J. Gilmartin and J. Z. Holtz, "Focused beam and atmospheric coherence measurements at 10.6µm and 0.63 µm," Appl. Opt. 13, 1906–1912 (1974).
  13. A. Labeyrie, "High resolution techniques in optical astronomy," in Progress in Optics, edited by E. Wolf (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976) vol. XIV, 47–87.
  14. A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "How to build a speckle interferometer," Opt. Eng. 16, 72–79 (1977).
  15. This prediction has only mixed measurement support. See, for example, the discussion and references in S. Pollaine, A. Buffington, F, S, Crawford, and R. A. Muller, "A Measurement of the Phase Structure Function," paper TuD3 in the Technical Digest of Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, Rain and Fog, Boulder, Colo-rado (1977).
  16. C. Roddier and F. Roddier, "Influence of exposure time on spectral properties of turbulence-degraded astronomical images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 664–667 (1975).
  17. C. Roddier, "Measurements of the atmospheric attenuation of the spectral components of astronomical images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 478–482 (1976).
  18. D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, "Speckle interferometry lens-atmosphere MTF measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1252–1256 (1976).
  19. A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "Double Star Speckle Interferometry Measurements of Atmospheric Non-Isoplanicity," AERL RR 441, May 1977. Also see A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "Speckle interferometry measurements of atmospheric nonisoplanicity using double stars," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 338 (1978).
  20. The possibility (noted in Ref. 18) that approximations exist in the theory (Ref. 2) make the predicted MTF level uncertain by as much

1978 (1)

A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "Double Star Speckle Interferometry Measurements of Atmospheric Non-Isoplanicity," AERL RR 441, May 1977. Also see A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "Speckle interferometry measurements of atmospheric nonisoplanicity using double stars," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 338 (1978).

1977 (3)

A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "How to build a speckle interferometer," Opt. Eng. 16, 72–79 (1977).

This prediction has only mixed measurement support. See, for example, the discussion and references in S. Pollaine, A. Buffington, F, S, Crawford, and R. A. Muller, "A Measurement of the Phase Structure Function," paper TuD3 in the Technical Digest of Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, Rain and Fog, Boulder, Colo-rado (1977).

D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, "Speckle interferometry with severely aberrated telescopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1277–78 (1977).

1976 (4)

C. Roddier, "Measurements of the atmospheric attenuation of the spectral components of astronomical images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 478–482 (1976).

D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, "Speckle interferometry lens-atmosphere MTF measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1252–1256 (1976).

A. Labeyrie, "High resolution techniques in optical astronomy," in Progress in Optics, edited by E. Wolf (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976) vol. XIV, 47–87.

D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, "Nonstationarity of the atmospheric transfer function," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1065–1066A (1976).

1975 (2)

1974 (1)

1973 (2)

J. C. Dainty, "Diffraction-limited imaging of stellar objects using telescopes of low optical quality", Opt. Comm. 1, 129–134 (1973).

D. Korff, "Analysis of a method for obtaining near-diffraction limited information in the presence of atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 971–980 (1973).

1972 (1)

D. Korff, G. Dryden, and M. G. Miller, "Information retrieval from atmospheric induced speckle patterns," Opt. Comm. 5, 187–192 (1972).

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

I. Goldstein, P. A. Miles, and A. Chabot, "Heterodyne measurements of light propagation through atmospheric turbulence", Proc. IEEE 53, 1172–1180 (1965).

1964 (1)

Buffington, A.

This prediction has only mixed measurement support. See, for example, the discussion and references in S. Pollaine, A. Buffington, F, S, Crawford, and R. A. Muller, "A Measurement of the Phase Structure Function," paper TuD3 in the Technical Digest of Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, Rain and Fog, Boulder, Colo-rado (1977).

Chabot, A.

I. Goldstein, P. A. Miles, and A. Chabot, "Heterodyne measurements of light propagation through atmospheric turbulence", Proc. IEEE 53, 1172–1180 (1965).

Crawford, F. S.

This prediction has only mixed measurement support. See, for example, the discussion and references in S. Pollaine, A. Buffington, F, S, Crawford, and R. A. Muller, "A Measurement of the Phase Structure Function," paper TuD3 in the Technical Digest of Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, Rain and Fog, Boulder, Colo-rado (1977).

Dainty, J. C.

J. C. Dainty, "Diffraction-limited imaging of stellar objects using telescopes of low optical quality", Opt. Comm. 1, 129–134 (1973).

Dryden, G.

D. Korff, G. Dryden, and M. G. Miller, "Information retrieval from atmospheric induced speckle patterns," Opt. Comm. 5, 187–192 (1972).

Fried, D. L.

Gilmartin, T. J.

Goldstein, I.

I. Goldstein, P. A. Miles, and A. Chabot, "Heterodyne measurements of light propagation through atmospheric turbulence", Proc. IEEE 53, 1172–1180 (1965).

Holtz, J. Z.

Hufnagel, R. E.

Karo, D. P.

A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "Double Star Speckle Interferometry Measurements of Atmospheric Non-Isoplanicity," AERL RR 441, May 1977. Also see A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "Speckle interferometry measurements of atmospheric nonisoplanicity using double stars," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 338 (1978).

A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "How to build a speckle interferometer," Opt. Eng. 16, 72–79 (1977).

D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, "Speckle interferometry with severely aberrated telescopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1277–78 (1977).

D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, "Nonstationarity of the atmospheric transfer function," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1065–1066A (1976).

D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, "Speckle interferometry lens-atmosphere MTF measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1252–1256 (1976).

Kellen, P. F.

Korff, D.

D. Korff, "Analysis of a method for obtaining near-diffraction limited information in the presence of atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 971–980 (1973).

D. Korff, G. Dryden, and M. G. Miller, "Information retrieval from atmospheric induced speckle patterns," Opt. Comm. 5, 187–192 (1972).

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, "High resolution techniques in optical astronomy," in Progress in Optics, edited by E. Wolf (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976) vol. XIV, 47–87.

Miles, P. A.

I. Goldstein, P. A. Miles, and A. Chabot, "Heterodyne measurements of light propagation through atmospheric turbulence", Proc. IEEE 53, 1172–1180 (1965).

Miller, M. G.

A. M. Schneiderman, P. F. Kellen, and M. G. Miller, "Laboratory simulated speckle interferometry", J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1287–1291 (1975).

D. Korff, G. Dryden, and M. G. Miller, "Information retrieval from atmospheric induced speckle patterns," Opt. Comm. 5, 187–192 (1972).

Muller, R. A.

This prediction has only mixed measurement support. See, for example, the discussion and references in S. Pollaine, A. Buffington, F, S, Crawford, and R. A. Muller, "A Measurement of the Phase Structure Function," paper TuD3 in the Technical Digest of Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, Rain and Fog, Boulder, Colo-rado (1977).

Pollaine, S.

This prediction has only mixed measurement support. See, for example, the discussion and references in S. Pollaine, A. Buffington, F, S, Crawford, and R. A. Muller, "A Measurement of the Phase Structure Function," paper TuD3 in the Technical Digest of Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, Rain and Fog, Boulder, Colo-rado (1977).

Roddier, C.

Roddier, F.

Schneiderman, A. M.

A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "Double Star Speckle Interferometry Measurements of Atmospheric Non-Isoplanicity," AERL RR 441, May 1977. Also see A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "Speckle interferometry measurements of atmospheric nonisoplanicity using double stars," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 338 (1978).

A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "How to build a speckle interferometer," Opt. Eng. 16, 72–79 (1977).

D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, "Speckle interferometry with severely aberrated telescopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1277–78 (1977).

D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, "Nonstationarity of the atmospheric transfer function," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1065–1066A (1976).

D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, "Speckle interferometry lens-atmosphere MTF measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1252–1256 (1976).

A. M. Schneiderman, P. F. Kellen, and M. G. Miller, "Laboratory simulated speckle interferometry", J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1287–1291 (1975).

Stanley, N. R.

Tatarski, V. I.

V. I. Tatarski, Wave propagation in a turbulent medium (Dover, New York, 1961).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (9)

Opt. Comm. (2)

D. Korff, G. Dryden, and M. G. Miller, "Information retrieval from atmospheric induced speckle patterns," Opt. Comm. 5, 187–192 (1972).

J. C. Dainty, "Diffraction-limited imaging of stellar objects using telescopes of low optical quality", Opt. Comm. 1, 129–134 (1973).

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "How to build a speckle interferometer," Opt. Eng. 16, 72–79 (1977).

Other (7)

This prediction has only mixed measurement support. See, for example, the discussion and references in S. Pollaine, A. Buffington, F, S, Crawford, and R. A. Muller, "A Measurement of the Phase Structure Function," paper TuD3 in the Technical Digest of Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, Rain and Fog, Boulder, Colo-rado (1977).

V. I. Tatarski, Wave propagation in a turbulent medium (Dover, New York, 1961).

I. Goldstein, P. A. Miles, and A. Chabot, "Heterodyne measurements of light propagation through atmospheric turbulence", Proc. IEEE 53, 1172–1180 (1965).

A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "Double Star Speckle Interferometry Measurements of Atmospheric Non-Isoplanicity," AERL RR 441, May 1977. Also see A. M. Schneiderman and D. P. Karo, "Speckle interferometry measurements of atmospheric nonisoplanicity using double stars," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 338 (1978).

The possibility (noted in Ref. 18) that approximations exist in the theory (Ref. 2) make the predicted MTF level uncertain by as much

Speckle interferometry consistently recovers near diffraction limited object information but no large telescope can be considered in practice to have close to diffraction limited imaging quality.

A. Labeyrie, "High resolution techniques in optical astronomy," in Progress in Optics, edited by E. Wolf (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976) vol. XIV, 47–87.

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