Abstract

Previous studies of the effects of color on the accommodation response are reviewed. The monocular,steady-state response to targets under various colors of illumination is investigated. It is shown that trainedobservers change their level of accommodation, when viewing a target at a constant distance, to compensatefor the varying ocular longitudinal chromatic aberration as the color of the target is changed. Untrainedsubjects, however, may initially show inconsistent responses. Results in white and green are closelycomparable. Dynamic aspects of these effects are illustrated and it is shown that the ocular longitudinalchromatic aberration increases slightly with accommodation. The results are related to current ideas on theaccommodative system.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. F: Fincham, "The accommodation reflex and its stimulus," Brit. J. Ophthal. 35, 381–393 (1951).
  2. A. Polack, "Le chromatisme de l'oeil, " Bull. Soc. Ophtalmol. Paris 35, 401–563 (1923).
  3. H. D. Crane, "A theoretical analysis of the visual accommodation system in humans," Stanford Res. Inst. Project 5454 NASA CR-606 (1966) (unpublished).
  4. E. F. Fincham, "Defects of the colour-sense mechanism as indicated by the accommodation reflex," J. Physiol. London 121, 570–580 (1953).
  5. G. G. Heath, "Accommodative responses of totally colour-blind observers," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom.33, 457–465 (1956).
  6. F. W. Campbell, "The minimum quantity of light required to elicit the accommodation reflex in man, " J. Physiol. London 123, 357–366 (1954).
  7. C. A. Johnson, "Effects of luminance and stimulus distance on accommodation and visual resolution," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 138–142 (1976).
  8. G. G. Heath, "The influence of visual acuity on the accommodative responses of the eye," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 513–524 (1956).
  9. A. König, "Über den menschlichen Sehpurpur und seine Bedeutung für das Sehen, " Sitz. preuss. Akad. Wiss. 30, 577–598 (1894).
  10. G. Wald, "Blue blindness in the normal fovea," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1289–1301 (1967).
  11. F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, "Factors influencing accommodation responses of the human eye, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 568–571 (1959).
  12. A. Troelstra, B. I. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, "Accommodative tracking: a trial and error function, " VisionRes. 4, 585–594 (1964).
  13. G. J. Van Der Wildt, M. A. Bouman, and J. Van De Kraats, "The effect of anticipation on the transfer function of the human lens system, " Opt. Acta 21, 843–860 (1974).
  14. A. Ivanoff, Les aberrations de l'oeil (Editions Rev. d'Optique, Paris, 1953).
  15. G. A. Fry, Blur of the Retinal Image (Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 1955).
  16. R. T. Hennessy, T. Iida, K. Shiina, and H. W. Leibowitz, "The effect of pupil size on accommodation, " Vision Res. 16, 587–589 (1976).
  17. F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions," J. Physiol. London 145, 479–494 (1959).
  18. A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, "Contribution à I'étude des microfluctuations d'accommodation de l'oeil," Rev. Opt. 39, 195–208 (1960).
  19. M. Alpern, "Variability of accommodation during steady fixation at various levels of illuminance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 193–197 (1958).
  20. F. W. Campbell, "The depth of field of the human eye," Opt. Acta 4, 157–164 (1957).
  21. Y. Le Grand, Form and Space Vision, translated by M. Millodot and G. G. Heath (Indiana U. P., Bloomington, 1967).
  22. J. M. Otero, "Influence of the state of accommodation on the visual performance of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 942–948 (1951).
  23. H. A. W. Schober, "Über die Akkommodationsruhelage," Optik 11, 282–290 (1954).
  24. M. W. Morgan, "The resting state of accommodation, " Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 34, 347–353 (1957).
  25. F. M. Toates, "Accommodation function of the human eye," Physiol. Rev. 52, 828–863 (1972).
  26. G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, "Accommodation of the eye during sleep and anaesthesia, " Vision Res. 13, 1035–1040 (1973).
  27. H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, "Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark-focus of accommodation," Science 189, 646–648 (1975).
  28. R. T. Hennessy, "Instrument myopia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1114–1120 (1975).
  29. H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, "Night myopia and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation, " J. Opt. Soc.Am. 65, 1121–1128 (1975).
  30. M. Millodot and J. G. Sivak, "Influence of accommodation on the chromatic aberration of the eye," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 28, 169–174 (1973).
  31. T. C. A. Jenkins, "Aberrations of the eye and their effects upon vision, Pt. II," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 20, 161–201 (1963).
  32. P. G. Nutting, "The axial chromatic aberration of the human eye," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 90, 440–443 (1914).
  33. J. G. Sivak, and M. Millodot, "Axial chromatic aberration of the eye with an achromatizing lens, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1724–1725 (1974).
  34. G. Wald and D. R. Griffin, "The change in refractive power of the human eye in dim and bright light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 321–326 (1947).
  35. R. E. Bedford and G. Wyszecki, "Axial chromatic aberration of the human eye, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 564–565 (1957).
  36. W. N. Charman and J. Tucker, "Dependence of accommodation response on the spatial frequency spectrum of the observed object," Vision Res. 17, 129–139 (1977).
  37. H. A. Knoll, "Measuring ametropia with a gas laser, " Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 43, 415–418 (1966).
  38. W. R. Baldwin and W. B. Stover, "Observation of laser standing wave patterns to determine refractive status," Am.J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 143–151 (1969).
  39. E. Ingelstam and S. Ragnarsson, "Eye refraction examined by aid of speckle pattern produced by coherent light," Vision Res. 12, 411–429 (1972).
  40. R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, "Subjective measurement of accommodation with laser light, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1700–1701 (1970).
  41. J. A. M. Jennings and W. N. Charman, "A comparison of errors in some methods of subjective refraction," Ophthalmic Optician 13, 8–18 (1973).
  42. W. N. Charman and G. Heron, "A simple optometer for accommodation studies," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 30, 1–12 (1975).
  43. M. W. Morgan, "Accommodation and its relationship to convergence," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 21,183–195 (1944).
  44. H. Lowery, R. Hall, and H. Moores, "On dynamic retinoscopy," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 10, 49–55 (1936).
  45. M. C. Nadell and H. A. Knoll, "The effect of luminance, target configuration and lenses upon the refractive state of the eye, Pts. I and II," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 24–42; 33, 86–95 (1956).
  46. W. N. Charman and J. A. M. Jennings, "Objective measurements of the longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye," Vision Res. 16, 999–1005 (1976).
  47. R. B. Provine and J. M. Enoch, "On voluntary ocular accomodation," Percept. Psychophys. 17, 209–212 (1975).
  48. T. N. Cornsweet and H. D. Crane, "Training the visual accommodation system, " Vision Res. 13, 713–715 (1973).
  49. H. E. Roaf, "Visual acuity in light of different colours," Proc. B. Soc. London Ser. B 106, 276–292 (1930).
  50. A. Arnulf and F. Flamaht, "Limites de résolution de l'oeil en lumière monochromatiques et applications à vision instrumentale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 230, 1791–1793 (1950).
  51. D. C. Sinclair, "Demonstration of chromatic aberration in the eye using coherent light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 575–576 (1965).

1977 (1)

W. N. Charman and J. Tucker, "Dependence of accommodation response on the spatial frequency spectrum of the observed object," Vision Res. 17, 129–139 (1977).

1976 (3)

R. T. Hennessy, T. Iida, K. Shiina, and H. W. Leibowitz, "The effect of pupil size on accommodation, " Vision Res. 16, 587–589 (1976).

C. A. Johnson, "Effects of luminance and stimulus distance on accommodation and visual resolution," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 138–142 (1976).

W. N. Charman and J. A. M. Jennings, "Objective measurements of the longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye," Vision Res. 16, 999–1005 (1976).

1975 (5)

R. B. Provine and J. M. Enoch, "On voluntary ocular accomodation," Percept. Psychophys. 17, 209–212 (1975).

W. N. Charman and G. Heron, "A simple optometer for accommodation studies," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 30, 1–12 (1975).

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, "Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark-focus of accommodation," Science 189, 646–648 (1975).

R. T. Hennessy, "Instrument myopia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1114–1120 (1975).

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, "Night myopia and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation, " J. Opt. Soc.Am. 65, 1121–1128 (1975).

1974 (2)

J. G. Sivak, and M. Millodot, "Axial chromatic aberration of the eye with an achromatizing lens, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1724–1725 (1974).

G. J. Van Der Wildt, M. A. Bouman, and J. Van De Kraats, "The effect of anticipation on the transfer function of the human lens system, " Opt. Acta 21, 843–860 (1974).

1973 (4)

G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, "Accommodation of the eye during sleep and anaesthesia, " Vision Res. 13, 1035–1040 (1973).

M. Millodot and J. G. Sivak, "Influence of accommodation on the chromatic aberration of the eye," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 28, 169–174 (1973).

T. N. Cornsweet and H. D. Crane, "Training the visual accommodation system, " Vision Res. 13, 713–715 (1973).

J. A. M. Jennings and W. N. Charman, "A comparison of errors in some methods of subjective refraction," Ophthalmic Optician 13, 8–18 (1973).

1972 (2)

E. Ingelstam and S. Ragnarsson, "Eye refraction examined by aid of speckle pattern produced by coherent light," Vision Res. 12, 411–429 (1972).

F. M. Toates, "Accommodation function of the human eye," Physiol. Rev. 52, 828–863 (1972).

1970 (1)

1969 (1)

W. R. Baldwin and W. B. Stover, "Observation of laser standing wave patterns to determine refractive status," Am.J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 143–151 (1969).

1967 (1)

1966 (2)

H. D. Crane, "A theoretical analysis of the visual accommodation system in humans," Stanford Res. Inst. Project 5454 NASA CR-606 (1966) (unpublished).

H. A. Knoll, "Measuring ametropia with a gas laser, " Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 43, 415–418 (1966).

1965 (1)

1964 (1)

A. Troelstra, B. I. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, "Accommodative tracking: a trial and error function, " VisionRes. 4, 585–594 (1964).

1963 (1)

T. C. A. Jenkins, "Aberrations of the eye and their effects upon vision, Pt. II," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 20, 161–201 (1963).

1960 (1)

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, "Contribution à I'étude des microfluctuations d'accommodation de l'oeil," Rev. Opt. 39, 195–208 (1960).

1959 (2)

F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, "Factors influencing accommodation responses of the human eye, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 568–571 (1959).

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions," J. Physiol. London 145, 479–494 (1959).

1958 (1)

1957 (3)

F. W. Campbell, "The depth of field of the human eye," Opt. Acta 4, 157–164 (1957).

M. W. Morgan, "The resting state of accommodation, " Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 34, 347–353 (1957).

R. E. Bedford and G. Wyszecki, "Axial chromatic aberration of the human eye, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 564–565 (1957).

1956 (3)

G. G. Heath, "The influence of visual acuity on the accommodative responses of the eye," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 513–524 (1956).

G. G. Heath, "Accommodative responses of totally colour-blind observers," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom.33, 457–465 (1956).

M. C. Nadell and H. A. Knoll, "The effect of luminance, target configuration and lenses upon the refractive state of the eye, Pts. I and II," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 24–42; 33, 86–95 (1956).

1954 (2)

F. W. Campbell, "The minimum quantity of light required to elicit the accommodation reflex in man, " J. Physiol. London 123, 357–366 (1954).

H. A. W. Schober, "Über die Akkommodationsruhelage," Optik 11, 282–290 (1954).

1953 (1)

E. F. Fincham, "Defects of the colour-sense mechanism as indicated by the accommodation reflex," J. Physiol. London 121, 570–580 (1953).

1951 (2)

E. F: Fincham, "The accommodation reflex and its stimulus," Brit. J. Ophthal. 35, 381–393 (1951).

J. M. Otero, "Influence of the state of accommodation on the visual performance of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 942–948 (1951).

1950 (1)

A. Arnulf and F. Flamaht, "Limites de résolution de l'oeil en lumière monochromatiques et applications à vision instrumentale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 230, 1791–1793 (1950).

1947 (1)

1944 (1)

M. W. Morgan, "Accommodation and its relationship to convergence," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 21,183–195 (1944).

1936 (1)

H. Lowery, R. Hall, and H. Moores, "On dynamic retinoscopy," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 10, 49–55 (1936).

1930 (1)

H. E. Roaf, "Visual acuity in light of different colours," Proc. B. Soc. London Ser. B 106, 276–292 (1930).

1923 (1)

A. Polack, "Le chromatisme de l'oeil, " Bull. Soc. Ophtalmol. Paris 35, 401–563 (1923).

1914 (1)

P. G. Nutting, "The axial chromatic aberration of the human eye," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 90, 440–443 (1914).

1894 (1)

A. König, "Über den menschlichen Sehpurpur und seine Bedeutung für das Sehen, " Sitz. preuss. Akad. Wiss. 30, 577–598 (1894).

Alpern, M.

Arnulf, A.

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, "Contribution à I'étude des microfluctuations d'accommodation de l'oeil," Rev. Opt. 39, 195–208 (1960).

A. Arnulf and F. Flamaht, "Limites de résolution de l'oeil en lumière monochromatiques et applications à vision instrumentale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 230, 1791–1793 (1950).

Baldwin, W. R.

W. R. Baldwin and W. B. Stover, "Observation of laser standing wave patterns to determine refractive status," Am.J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 143–151 (1969).

Bedford, R. E.

Blair, S. M.

G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, "Accommodation of the eye during sleep and anaesthesia, " Vision Res. 13, 1035–1040 (1973).

Bouman, M. A.

G. J. Van Der Wildt, M. A. Bouman, and J. Van De Kraats, "The effect of anticipation on the transfer function of the human lens system, " Opt. Acta 21, 843–860 (1974).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, "Factors influencing accommodation responses of the human eye, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 568–571 (1959).

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions," J. Physiol. London 145, 479–494 (1959).

F. W. Campbell, "The depth of field of the human eye," Opt. Acta 4, 157–164 (1957).

F. W. Campbell, "The minimum quantity of light required to elicit the accommodation reflex in man, " J. Physiol. London 123, 357–366 (1954).

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman and J. Tucker, "Dependence of accommodation response on the spatial frequency spectrum of the observed object," Vision Res. 17, 129–139 (1977).

W. N. Charman and J. A. M. Jennings, "Objective measurements of the longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye," Vision Res. 16, 999–1005 (1976).

W. N. Charman and G. Heron, "A simple optometer for accommodation studies," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 30, 1–12 (1975).

J. A. M. Jennings and W. N. Charman, "A comparison of errors in some methods of subjective refraction," Ophthalmic Optician 13, 8–18 (1973).

Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet and H. D. Crane, "Training the visual accommodation system, " Vision Res. 13, 713–715 (1973).

Crane, H. D.

T. N. Cornsweet and H. D. Crane, "Training the visual accommodation system, " Vision Res. 13, 713–715 (1973).

H. D. Crane, "A theoretical analysis of the visual accommodation system in humans," Stanford Res. Inst. Project 5454 NASA CR-606 (1966) (unpublished).

Dupuy, O.

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, "Contribution à I'étude des microfluctuations d'accommodation de l'oeil," Rev. Opt. 39, 195–208 (1960).

Enoch, J. M.

R. B. Provine and J. M. Enoch, "On voluntary ocular accomodation," Percept. Psychophys. 17, 209–212 (1975).

Fincham, E. F.

E. F. Fincham, "Defects of the colour-sense mechanism as indicated by the accommodation reflex," J. Physiol. London 121, 570–580 (1953).

E. F: Fincham, "The accommodation reflex and its stimulus," Brit. J. Ophthal. 35, 381–393 (1951).

Flamant, F.

A. Arnulf and F. Flamaht, "Limites de résolution de l'oeil en lumière monochromatiques et applications à vision instrumentale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 230, 1791–1793 (1950).

Fry, G. A.

G. A. Fry, Blur of the Retinal Image (Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 1955).

Grand, Y. Le

Y. Le Grand, Form and Space Vision, translated by M. Millodot and G. G. Heath (Indiana U. P., Bloomington, 1967).

Griffin, D. R.

Hall, R.

H. Lowery, R. Hall, and H. Moores, "On dynamic retinoscopy," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 10, 49–55 (1936).

Heath, G. G.

G. G. Heath, "Accommodative responses of totally colour-blind observers," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom.33, 457–465 (1956).

G. G. Heath, "The influence of visual acuity on the accommodative responses of the eye," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 513–524 (1956).

Hennessy, R. T.

Heron, G.

W. N. Charman and G. Heron, "A simple optometer for accommodation studies," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 30, 1–12 (1975).

Iida, T.

R. T. Hennessy, T. Iida, K. Shiina, and H. W. Leibowitz, "The effect of pupil size on accommodation, " Vision Res. 16, 587–589 (1976).

Ingelstam, E.

E. Ingelstam and S. Ragnarsson, "Eye refraction examined by aid of speckle pattern produced by coherent light," Vision Res. 12, 411–429 (1972).

Ivanoff, A.

A. Ivanoff, Les aberrations de l'oeil (Editions Rev. d'Optique, Paris, 1953).

Jenkins, T. C. A.

T. C. A. Jenkins, "Aberrations of the eye and their effects upon vision, Pt. II," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 20, 161–201 (1963).

Jennings, J. A. M.

W. N. Charman and J. A. M. Jennings, "Objective measurements of the longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye," Vision Res. 16, 999–1005 (1976).

J. A. M. Jennings and W. N. Charman, "A comparison of errors in some methods of subjective refraction," Ophthalmic Optician 13, 8–18 (1973).

Johnson, C. A.

Knoll, H. A.

H. A. Knoll, "Measuring ametropia with a gas laser, " Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 43, 415–418 (1966).

M. C. Nadell and H. A. Knoll, "The effect of luminance, target configuration and lenses upon the refractive state of the eye, Pts. I and II," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 24–42; 33, 86–95 (1956).

König, A.

A. König, "Über den menschlichen Sehpurpur und seine Bedeutung für das Sehen, " Sitz. preuss. Akad. Wiss. 30, 577–598 (1894).

Leibowitz, H. W.

R. T. Hennessy, T. Iida, K. Shiina, and H. W. Leibowitz, "The effect of pupil size on accommodation, " Vision Res. 16, 587–589 (1976).

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, "Night myopia and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation, " J. Opt. Soc.Am. 65, 1121–1128 (1975).

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, "Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark-focus of accommodation," Science 189, 646–648 (1975).

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, "Subjective measurement of accommodation with laser light, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1700–1701 (1970).

Lowery, H.

H. Lowery, R. Hall, and H. Moores, "On dynamic retinoscopy," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 10, 49–55 (1936).

Miller, D.

A. Troelstra, B. I. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, "Accommodative tracking: a trial and error function, " VisionRes. 4, 585–594 (1964).

Millodot, M.

J. G. Sivak, and M. Millodot, "Axial chromatic aberration of the eye with an achromatizing lens, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1724–1725 (1974).

M. Millodot and J. G. Sivak, "Influence of accommodation on the chromatic aberration of the eye," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 28, 169–174 (1973).

Moores, H.

H. Lowery, R. Hall, and H. Moores, "On dynamic retinoscopy," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 10, 49–55 (1936).

Morgan, M. W.

M. W. Morgan, "The resting state of accommodation, " Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 34, 347–353 (1957).

M. W. Morgan, "Accommodation and its relationship to convergence," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 21,183–195 (1944).

Nadell, M. C.

M. C. Nadell and H. A. Knoll, "The effect of luminance, target configuration and lenses upon the refractive state of the eye, Pts. I and II," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 24–42; 33, 86–95 (1956).

Nutting, P. G.

P. G. Nutting, "The axial chromatic aberration of the human eye," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 90, 440–443 (1914).

Otero, J. M.

Owens, D. A.

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, "Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark-focus of accommodation," Science 189, 646–648 (1975).

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, "Night myopia and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation, " J. Opt. Soc.Am. 65, 1121–1128 (1975).

Polack, A.

A. Polack, "Le chromatisme de l'oeil, " Bull. Soc. Ophtalmol. Paris 35, 401–563 (1923).

Provine, R. R.

R. B. Provine and J. M. Enoch, "On voluntary ocular accomodation," Percept. Psychophys. 17, 209–212 (1975).

Ragnarsson, S.

E. Ingelstam and S. Ragnarsson, "Eye refraction examined by aid of speckle pattern produced by coherent light," Vision Res. 12, 411–429 (1972).

Roaf, H. E.

H. E. Roaf, "Visual acuity in light of different colours," Proc. B. Soc. London Ser. B 106, 276–292 (1930).

Robson, J. G.

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions," J. Physiol. London 145, 479–494 (1959).

Schober, H. A. W.

H. A. W. Schober, "Über die Akkommodationsruhelage," Optik 11, 282–290 (1954).

Shiina, K.

R. T. Hennessy, T. Iida, K. Shiina, and H. W. Leibowitz, "The effect of pupil size on accommodation, " Vision Res. 16, 587–589 (1976).

Sinclair, D. C.

Sivak, J. G.

J. G. Sivak, and M. Millodot, "Axial chromatic aberration of the eye with an achromatizing lens, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1724–1725 (1974).

M. Millodot and J. G. Sivak, "Influence of accommodation on the chromatic aberration of the eye," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 28, 169–174 (1973).

Stark, L.

A. Troelstra, B. I. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, "Accommodative tracking: a trial and error function, " VisionRes. 4, 585–594 (1964).

Stover, W. B.

W. R. Baldwin and W. B. Stover, "Observation of laser standing wave patterns to determine refractive status," Am.J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 143–151 (1969).

Toates, F. M.

F. M. Toates, "Accommodation function of the human eye," Physiol. Rev. 52, 828–863 (1972).

Troelstra, A.

A. Troelstra, B. I. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, "Accommodative tracking: a trial and error function, " VisionRes. 4, 585–594 (1964).

Tucker, J.

W. N. Charman and J. Tucker, "Dependence of accommodation response on the spatial frequency spectrum of the observed object," Vision Res. 17, 129–139 (1977).

Van De Kraats, J.

G. J. Van Der Wildt, M. A. Bouman, and J. Van De Kraats, "The effect of anticipation on the transfer function of the human lens system, " Opt. Acta 21, 843–860 (1974).

Van Der Wildt, G. J.

G. J. Van Der Wildt, M. A. Bouman, and J. Van De Kraats, "The effect of anticipation on the transfer function of the human lens system, " Opt. Acta 21, 843–860 (1974).

Wald, G.

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, "Accommodation of the eye during sleep and anaesthesia, " Vision Res. 13, 1035–1040 (1973).

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions," J. Physiol. London 145, 479–494 (1959).

F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, "Factors influencing accommodation responses of the human eye, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 568–571 (1959).

Wyszecki, G.

Zuber, B. I.

A. Troelstra, B. I. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, "Accommodative tracking: a trial and error function, " VisionRes. 4, 585–594 (1964).

Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. (7)

G. G. Heath, "Accommodative responses of totally colour-blind observers," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom.33, 457–465 (1956).

G. G. Heath, "The influence of visual acuity on the accommodative responses of the eye," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 513–524 (1956).

M. W. Morgan, "The resting state of accommodation, " Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 34, 347–353 (1957).

M. W. Morgan, "Accommodation and its relationship to convergence," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 21,183–195 (1944).

M. C. Nadell and H. A. Knoll, "The effect of luminance, target configuration and lenses upon the refractive state of the eye, Pts. I and II," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 33, 24–42; 33, 86–95 (1956).

H. A. Knoll, "Measuring ametropia with a gas laser, " Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 43, 415–418 (1966).

W. R. Baldwin and W. B. Stover, "Observation of laser standing wave patterns to determine refractive status," Am.J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 143–151 (1969).

Brit. J. Ophthal. (1)

E. F: Fincham, "The accommodation reflex and its stimulus," Brit. J. Ophthal. 35, 381–393 (1951).

Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. (4)

W. N. Charman and G. Heron, "A simple optometer for accommodation studies," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 30, 1–12 (1975).

H. Lowery, R. Hall, and H. Moores, "On dynamic retinoscopy," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 10, 49–55 (1936).

M. Millodot and J. G. Sivak, "Influence of accommodation on the chromatic aberration of the eye," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 28, 169–174 (1973).

T. C. A. Jenkins, "Aberrations of the eye and their effects upon vision, Pt. II," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 20, 161–201 (1963).

Bull. Soc. Ophtalmol. Paris (1)

A. Polack, "Le chromatisme de l'oeil, " Bull. Soc. Ophtalmol. Paris 35, 401–563 (1923).

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

A. Arnulf and F. Flamaht, "Limites de résolution de l'oeil en lumière monochromatiques et applications à vision instrumentale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 230, 1791–1793 (1950).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (12)

J. M. Otero, "Influence of the state of accommodation on the visual performance of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 942–948 (1951).

R. E. Bedford and G. Wyszecki, "Axial chromatic aberration of the human eye, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 564–565 (1957).

F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, "Factors influencing accommodation responses of the human eye, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 568–571 (1959).

R. T. Hennessy, "Instrument myopia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1114–1120 (1975).

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, "Night myopia and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation, " J. Opt. Soc.Am. 65, 1121–1128 (1975).

C. A. Johnson, "Effects of luminance and stimulus distance on accommodation and visual resolution," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 138–142 (1976).

G. Wald, "Blue blindness in the normal fovea," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1289–1301 (1967).

M. Alpern, "Variability of accommodation during steady fixation at various levels of illuminance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 193–197 (1958).

G. Wald and D. R. Griffin, "The change in refractive power of the human eye in dim and bright light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 321–326 (1947).

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, "Subjective measurement of accommodation with laser light, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1700–1701 (1970).

J. G. Sivak, and M. Millodot, "Axial chromatic aberration of the eye with an achromatizing lens, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1724–1725 (1974).

D. C. Sinclair, "Demonstration of chromatic aberration in the eye using coherent light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 575–576 (1965).

J. Physiol. London (3)

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions," J. Physiol. London 145, 479–494 (1959).

F. W. Campbell, "The minimum quantity of light required to elicit the accommodation reflex in man, " J. Physiol. London 123, 357–366 (1954).

E. F. Fincham, "Defects of the colour-sense mechanism as indicated by the accommodation reflex," J. Physiol. London 121, 570–580 (1953).

Ophthalmic Optician (1)

J. A. M. Jennings and W. N. Charman, "A comparison of errors in some methods of subjective refraction," Ophthalmic Optician 13, 8–18 (1973).

Opt. Acta (2)

F. W. Campbell, "The depth of field of the human eye," Opt. Acta 4, 157–164 (1957).

G. J. Van Der Wildt, M. A. Bouman, and J. Van De Kraats, "The effect of anticipation on the transfer function of the human lens system, " Opt. Acta 21, 843–860 (1974).

Optik (1)

H. A. W. Schober, "Über die Akkommodationsruhelage," Optik 11, 282–290 (1954).

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

R. B. Provine and J. M. Enoch, "On voluntary ocular accomodation," Percept. Psychophys. 17, 209–212 (1975).

Physiol. Rev. (1)

F. M. Toates, "Accommodation function of the human eye," Physiol. Rev. 52, 828–863 (1972).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

P. G. Nutting, "The axial chromatic aberration of the human eye," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 90, 440–443 (1914).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B (1)

H. E. Roaf, "Visual acuity in light of different colours," Proc. B. Soc. London Ser. B 106, 276–292 (1930).

Rev. Opt. (1)

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, "Contribution à I'étude des microfluctuations d'accommodation de l'oeil," Rev. Opt. 39, 195–208 (1960).

Science (1)

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, "Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark-focus of accommodation," Science 189, 646–648 (1975).

Sitz. preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1)

A. König, "Über den menschlichen Sehpurpur und seine Bedeutung für das Sehen, " Sitz. preuss. Akad. Wiss. 30, 577–598 (1894).

Vision Res. (7)

A. Troelstra, B. I. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, "Accommodative tracking: a trial and error function, " VisionRes. 4, 585–594 (1964).

R. T. Hennessy, T. Iida, K. Shiina, and H. W. Leibowitz, "The effect of pupil size on accommodation, " Vision Res. 16, 587–589 (1976).

G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, "Accommodation of the eye during sleep and anaesthesia, " Vision Res. 13, 1035–1040 (1973).

W. N. Charman and J. Tucker, "Dependence of accommodation response on the spatial frequency spectrum of the observed object," Vision Res. 17, 129–139 (1977).

T. N. Cornsweet and H. D. Crane, "Training the visual accommodation system, " Vision Res. 13, 713–715 (1973).

W. N. Charman and J. A. M. Jennings, "Objective measurements of the longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye," Vision Res. 16, 999–1005 (1976).

E. Ingelstam and S. Ragnarsson, "Eye refraction examined by aid of speckle pattern produced by coherent light," Vision Res. 12, 411–429 (1972).

Other (4)

A. Ivanoff, Les aberrations de l'oeil (Editions Rev. d'Optique, Paris, 1953).

G. A. Fry, Blur of the Retinal Image (Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 1955).

H. D. Crane, "A theoretical analysis of the visual accommodation system in humans," Stanford Res. Inst. Project 5454 NASA CR-606 (1966) (unpublished).

Y. Le Grand, Form and Space Vision, translated by M. Millodot and G. G. Heath (Indiana U. P., Bloomington, 1967).

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