Abstract

We have applied Kramers-Kronig analysis to reflection spectra to determine the optical constants of ammonium hydroxide and of aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride and bromide. From considerations of the absorption indices k (<i>v</i>) we conclude that ammonium hydroxide consists of a solution of NH <sub>3</sub> in water, in which NH<sub>3</sub> molecules are hydrogen bonded to neighboring water molecules. The spectrum of ammonium hydroxide differs from the spectra of ammonium salts, in which bands characteristic of NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> ions are prominent. The existence of ammonium hydroxide as an aerosol in planetary atmospheres is briefly discussed.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. S. Garing (private communication).
  2. H. D. Downing and D. Williams, "Optical Constants of Water in the Infrared," J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).
  3. L. W. Pinkley, P. P. Sethna, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of water in the infrared: Influence of temperature," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 494–499 (1977).
  4. P. P. Sethna, L. W. Pinkley, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of ammonium sulfate in the infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am 67, 186–190 (1977).
  5. P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. H. Hale, and M. R. Querry, "Infrared Optical Constants of Aqueous Solutions of Electrolytes," J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238–246 (1974).
  6. G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure (Van Nostrand, New York, 1945), p. 167.
  7. W. L. France and D. Williams, "Total absorptance of ammonia in the infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 70–74 (1966).
  8. C. W. Robertson and D. Williams, "Optical constants of liquid ammonia in the infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 188–193 (1973).
  9. C. W. Robertson, H. D. Downing, B. Curnutte, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of solid ammonia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 432–435 (1975).

1977 (2)

L. W. Pinkley, P. P. Sethna, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of water in the infrared: Influence of temperature," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 494–499 (1977).

P. P. Sethna, L. W. Pinkley, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of ammonium sulfate in the infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am 67, 186–190 (1977).

1975 (2)

H. D. Downing and D. Williams, "Optical Constants of Water in the Infrared," J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).

C. W. Robertson, H. D. Downing, B. Curnutte, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of solid ammonia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 432–435 (1975).

1974 (1)

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. H. Hale, and M. R. Querry, "Infrared Optical Constants of Aqueous Solutions of Electrolytes," J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238–246 (1974).

1973 (1)

1966 (1)

Curnutte, B.

Downing, H. D.

C. W. Robertson, H. D. Downing, B. Curnutte, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of solid ammonia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 432–435 (1975).

H. D. Downing and D. Williams, "Optical Constants of Water in the Infrared," J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).

France, W. L.

Garing, J. S.

J. S. Garing (private communication).

Hale, G. H.

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. H. Hale, and M. R. Querry, "Infrared Optical Constants of Aqueous Solutions of Electrolytes," J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238–246 (1974).

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure (Van Nostrand, New York, 1945), p. 167.

Pinkley, L. W.

P. P. Sethna, L. W. Pinkley, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of ammonium sulfate in the infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am 67, 186–190 (1977).

L. W. Pinkley, P. P. Sethna, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of water in the infrared: Influence of temperature," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 494–499 (1977).

Querry, M. R.

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. H. Hale, and M. R. Querry, "Infrared Optical Constants of Aqueous Solutions of Electrolytes," J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238–246 (1974).

Rhine, P.

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. H. Hale, and M. R. Querry, "Infrared Optical Constants of Aqueous Solutions of Electrolytes," J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238–246 (1974).

Robertson, C. W.

Sethna, P. P.

L. W. Pinkley, P. P. Sethna, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of water in the infrared: Influence of temperature," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 494–499 (1977).

P. P. Sethna, L. W. Pinkley, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of ammonium sulfate in the infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am 67, 186–190 (1977).

Williams, D.

P. P. Sethna, L. W. Pinkley, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of ammonium sulfate in the infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am 67, 186–190 (1977).

L. W. Pinkley, P. P. Sethna, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of water in the infrared: Influence of temperature," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 494–499 (1977).

H. D. Downing and D. Williams, "Optical Constants of Water in the Infrared," J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).

C. W. Robertson, H. D. Downing, B. Curnutte, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of solid ammonia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 432–435 (1975).

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. H. Hale, and M. R. Querry, "Infrared Optical Constants of Aqueous Solutions of Electrolytes," J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238–246 (1974).

C. W. Robertson and D. Williams, "Optical constants of liquid ammonia in the infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 188–193 (1973).

W. L. France and D. Williams, "Total absorptance of ammonia in the infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 70–74 (1966).

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

H. D. Downing and D. Williams, "Optical Constants of Water in the Infrared," J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).

J. Opt. Soc. Am (1)

P. P. Sethna, L. W. Pinkley, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of ammonium sulfate in the infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am 67, 186–190 (1977).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. H. Hale, and M. R. Querry, "Infrared Optical Constants of Aqueous Solutions of Electrolytes," J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238–246 (1974).

Other (2)

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure (Van Nostrand, New York, 1945), p. 167.

J. S. Garing (private communication).

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