Abstract

After a review of the present state of classification in atomic spectra of lanthanides, the regular evolution of various atomic features along the sequence is traced and supplemented by new examples in the energy differences between configurations, coupling schemes, and energy parameters. This leads to the first “generalized-least-squares” study in the lanthanides, for 4ƒ<sup>N</sup>6<i>p</i> configurations in third spectra.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. F. Wyart, in Gnielin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente Vol. B4 (Springer, Berlin, 1976), p. 211; C. E. Moore, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Spec. Publ. 306–4 (1969); L. Hagan and W. C. Martin, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 363 (1972).
  2. J. Sugar and J. Reader, "Ionization energies of the singly ionized rare earths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1286–1290 (1965).
  3. J. Reader and J. Sugar, "Ionization energies of the neutral rare earths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1189–1194 (1966).
  4. J. Sugar and J. Reader, "Ionization energies of doubly and triply ionized rare earths," J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2083–2089 (1973).
  5. W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, "Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).
  6. L. Brewer, "Energies of the electronic configurations of the lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1101–1111 (1971); "Energies of the electronic configurations of the singly, doubly and triply ionized lanthanides and actinides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1666–1682 (1971).
  7. W. C. Martin, "Energy differences between two spectroscopic systems in neutral, singly ionized and doubly ionized lanthanide atoms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1682–1686 (1971).
  8. W. C. Martin, "Some aspects of the energy level structures of lanthanide atoms and ions," Opt. Pura Appl. 5, 181–191 (1972).
  9. J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Fourth śpectrum of lutetium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 562–570 (1972).
  10. K. L. van der Sluis and L. J. Nugent, "Relative energies of the lowest levels of the ƒqpS2, ƒqds2 and ƒq+1S2 electron configurations of lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms," Phys. Rev. A 6, 86–94 (1972).
  11. F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, "The Argonne thirty-foot spectrograph," Spectrochim. Acta 6, 139–143 (1954); Appl. Opt. 2, 715 (1963).
  12. J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, "Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d'un million de points," Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).
  13. C. Moore-Sitterly, "The present state of atomic spectra," Opt. Pura Appl. 2, 103–113 (1969).
  14. N. Spector and J. Sugar, "Analysis of the fourth spectrum of terbium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 436–438 (1976).
  15. W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, "Table of spectral line intensities," Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. 32, Part I (1975).
  16. J. F. Wyart, "Interprétation du spectre de Dyi. I. Etude des configurations impaires," Physica (Utrecht) 75, 371–385 (1974).
  17. J. G. Conway and B. G. Wybourne, "Low-lying energy levels of lanthanide atoms and intermediate-coupling," Phys. Rev. 130, 2325–2332 (1963).
  18. J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart (unpublished data, 1976).
  19. P. Camus, G. Guelachvili, and J. Vergès, "Etude des spectres d'émission dans l'infrarouge par l'emploi d'un SISAM. II. Spectre d'émission du thulium, " Spectrochim. Acta Part B 24, 373–388 (1969).
  20. J. Blaise, J. F. Wyart, R. Hoekstra, and P. J. G. Kruiver, "Present state of the analysis of Ndi and Ndii," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1335–1342 (1971).
  21. Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Spectroscopic and Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, edited by F. Bloch (Wiley, New York, 1968).
  22. J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Progrès récents dans l'interprétation des configurations 4ƒN(5d + 6s) des lanthanides. I. Configurations 4ƒN5d des spectres II," Phys. Scr. 9, 322–324 (1974).
  23. J. F. Wyart, H. M. Crosswhite, and R. Hussain (unpublished).
  24. B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and H. Crosswhite, "Intraatomic magnetic interactions for ƒ electrons," Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).
  25. S. Feneuille and N. Pelletier-Allard, "Contribution à l'interpretation des configurations 4ƒ26S, 4ƒ25d et 4ƒ26p de Pr III," Physica (Utrecht) 40, 347–356 (1968).
  26. H. M. Crosswhite, "Effective operators for two inequivalent electrons," Phys. Rev. A 4, 485 (1971).
  27. J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Progrés récents dans l'interprétation des configurations 4ƒN(5d+6s) des lanthanides. II. Etude paramétrique des configurations," Phys. Scr. 9, 325–330 (1974).
  28. Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Proceedings of the 5th Conference of European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, Lund, 1973 (unpublished).
  29. P. Camus and J. Sugar, "Etude théorique et interprétation des configurations électroniques de Tm II," Phys. Scr. 4, 257–268 (1971).
  30. Th. A. M. van Kleef, J. J. A. Koot, and J. F. Wyart (unpublished analysis, 1976).
  31. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo-ions," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
  32. H. M. Crosswhite, "Spectroscopie des éléments de transition et des éléments lourds dans les solides," in Proceedings of the CNRSInternations Colloquim, Lyon, 1976, in press (C.N.R.S, Paris, 1977).
  33. A. Carlier, "Contribution à l'étude théorique des spectres d'arc et d'étincelle du samarium," Thèse de Doctorat (3ème cycle), Orsay (1967).
  34. J. Blaise, Th. A. M. van Kleef, and J. F. Wyart, "The analysis of the spark spectrum of gadolinium," J. Phys. (Paris) 32, 617–626 (1971).
  35. G. Racah, "Theory of complex spectra. IV," Phys. Rev. 76, 1352–1365 (1949).
  36. E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, p. 193 in The theory of atomic spectra (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1935).
  37. N. Spector, "Les niveaux 4ƒ11(4I15/2)5d, 6p de l'holmium une fois ionisè," Phys. Scr. 13, 181–183 (1976).
  38. N. Spector, "New odd levels of neutral erbium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 576–577 (1965).
  39. N. Spector, "Level structure of doubly ionized erbium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 358–361 (1973).
  40. J. F. Wyart, J. J. A. Koot, and Th. A. M. van Kleef, "The configuration 4ƒ116p in the lanthanide spectra," Physica (Utrecht) 77, 159–164 (1974).
  41. Y. Shadmi, J. Oreg, and J. Stein, "Effective interactions between d electrons in the second spectra of the iron group," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 909–914 (1968).
  42. J. Sugar and N. Spector, "Spectrum and energy levels of doubly ionized europium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1484–1497 (1974).
  43. J. Sugar, "The third spectrum of praseodymium (PrIII) in the vacuum ultraviolet," J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 73, 333–381 (1969).
  44. W. J. Childs, "Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of 159Tb and the 159Tb nuclear electric-quadrupole moment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970); C. Bauche-Arnoult, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).
  45. P. Camus, "Structure hyperfine des niveaux pairs 4ƒ125d6S2 +4 ƒ136s6p de Tm I," J. Phys. (Paris) 33, 749–754 (1972).
  46. P. Camus, J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, Nationsl Bureau Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).
  47. Z. Ben Ahmed, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. F. Wyart, "Energy levels and hyperfine structures in the (5d+6s)3 configurations of La I," Physica (Utrecht) 77, 148–158 (1974).
  48. J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Spectra and energy levels of three- and four-times ionized hafnium," J. Opt. Soo. Am. 64, 1656–1664 (1974).
  49. V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, "Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized tantalum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 302–309 (1975).
  50. J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Seventh spectrum of tungsten: Resonance lines of Hfv," Phys. Rev. A 12, 994–1012 (1975).

1977 (1)

H. M. Crosswhite, "Spectroscopie des éléments de transition et des éléments lourds dans les solides," in Proceedings of the CNRSInternations Colloquim, Lyon, 1976, in press (C.N.R.S, Paris, 1977).

1976 (4)

Th. A. M. van Kleef, J. J. A. Koot, and J. F. Wyart (unpublished analysis, 1976).

N. Spector, "Les niveaux 4ƒ11(4I15/2)5d, 6p de l'holmium une fois ionisè," Phys. Scr. 13, 181–183 (1976).

J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart (unpublished data, 1976).

N. Spector and J. Sugar, "Analysis of the fourth spectrum of terbium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 436–438 (1976).

1975 (4)

V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, "Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized tantalum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 302–309 (1975).

W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, "Table of spectral line intensities," Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. 32, Part I (1975).

P. Camus, J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, Nationsl Bureau Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Seventh spectrum of tungsten: Resonance lines of Hfv," Phys. Rev. A 12, 994–1012 (1975).

1974 (8)

Z. Ben Ahmed, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. F. Wyart, "Energy levels and hyperfine structures in the (5d+6s)3 configurations of La I," Physica (Utrecht) 77, 148–158 (1974).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Spectra and energy levels of three- and four-times ionized hafnium," J. Opt. Soo. Am. 64, 1656–1664 (1974).

J. F. Wyart, J. J. A. Koot, and Th. A. M. van Kleef, "The configuration 4ƒ116p in the lanthanide spectra," Physica (Utrecht) 77, 159–164 (1974).

J. F. Wyart, "Interprétation du spectre de Dyi. I. Etude des configurations impaires," Physica (Utrecht) 75, 371–385 (1974).

W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, "Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Progrès récents dans l'interprétation des configurations 4ƒN(5d + 6s) des lanthanides. I. Configurations 4ƒN5d des spectres II," Phys. Scr. 9, 322–324 (1974).

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Progrés récents dans l'interprétation des configurations 4ƒN(5d+6s) des lanthanides. II. Etude paramétrique des configurations," Phys. Scr. 9, 325–330 (1974).

J. Sugar and N. Spector, "Spectrum and energy levels of doubly ionized europium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1484–1497 (1974).

1973 (3)

N. Spector, "Level structure of doubly ionized erbium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 358–361 (1973).

Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Proceedings of the 5th Conference of European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, Lund, 1973 (unpublished).

J. Sugar and J. Reader, "Ionization energies of doubly and triply ionized rare earths," J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2083–2089 (1973).

1972 (4)

W. C. Martin, "Some aspects of the energy level structures of lanthanide atoms and ions," Opt. Pura Appl. 5, 181–191 (1972).

K. L. van der Sluis and L. J. Nugent, "Relative energies of the lowest levels of the ƒqpS2, ƒqds2 and ƒq+1S2 electron configurations of lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms," Phys. Rev. A 6, 86–94 (1972).

P. Camus, "Structure hyperfine des niveaux pairs 4ƒ125d6S2 +4 ƒ136s6p de Tm I," J. Phys. (Paris) 33, 749–754 (1972).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Fourth śpectrum of lutetium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 562–570 (1972).

1971 (6)

1970 (2)

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, "Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d'un million de points," Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).

W. J. Childs, "Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of 159Tb and the 159Tb nuclear electric-quadrupole moment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970); C. Bauche-Arnoult, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).

1969 (3)

J. Sugar, "The third spectrum of praseodymium (PrIII) in the vacuum ultraviolet," J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 73, 333–381 (1969).

C. Moore-Sitterly, "The present state of atomic spectra," Opt. Pura Appl. 2, 103–113 (1969).

P. Camus, G. Guelachvili, and J. Vergès, "Etude des spectres d'émission dans l'infrarouge par l'emploi d'un SISAM. II. Spectre d'émission du thulium, " Spectrochim. Acta Part B 24, 373–388 (1969).

1968 (4)

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and H. Crosswhite, "Intraatomic magnetic interactions for ƒ electrons," Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).

S. Feneuille and N. Pelletier-Allard, "Contribution à l'interpretation des configurations 4ƒ26S, 4ƒ25d et 4ƒ26p de Pr III," Physica (Utrecht) 40, 347–356 (1968).

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo-ions," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).

Y. Shadmi, J. Oreg, and J. Stein, "Effective interactions between d electrons in the second spectra of the iron group," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 909–914 (1968).

1967 (1)

A. Carlier, "Contribution à l'étude théorique des spectres d'arc et d'étincelle du samarium," Thèse de Doctorat (3ème cycle), Orsay (1967).

1966 (1)

1965 (2)

1963 (1)

J. G. Conway and B. G. Wybourne, "Low-lying energy levels of lanthanide atoms and intermediate-coupling," Phys. Rev. 130, 2325–2332 (1963).

1954 (1)

F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, "The Argonne thirty-foot spectrograph," Spectrochim. Acta 6, 139–143 (1954); Appl. Opt. 2, 715 (1963).

1949 (1)

G. Racah, "Theory of complex spectra. IV," Phys. Rev. 76, 1352–1365 (1949).

Ahmed, Z. Ben

Z. Ben Ahmed, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. F. Wyart, "Energy levels and hyperfine structures in the (5d+6s)3 configurations of La I," Physica (Utrecht) 77, 148–158 (1974).

Bauche-Arnoult, C.

Z. Ben Ahmed, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. F. Wyart, "Energy levels and hyperfine structures in the (5d+6s)3 configurations of La I," Physica (Utrecht) 77, 148–158 (1974).

Blaise, J.

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Progrès récents dans l'interprétation des configurations 4ƒN(5d + 6s) des lanthanides. I. Configurations 4ƒN5d des spectres II," Phys. Scr. 9, 322–324 (1974).

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Progrés récents dans l'interprétation des configurations 4ƒN(5d+6s) des lanthanides. II. Etude paramétrique des configurations," Phys. Scr. 9, 325–330 (1974).

J. Blaise, J. F. Wyart, R. Hoekstra, and P. J. G. Kruiver, "Present state of the analysis of Ndi and Ndii," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1335–1342 (1971).

J. Blaise, Th. A. M. van Kleef, and J. F. Wyart, "The analysis of the spark spectrum of gadolinium," J. Phys. (Paris) 32, 617–626 (1971).

J. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. F. Wyart, in Gnielin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente Vol. B4 (Springer, Berlin, 1976), p. 211; C. E. Moore, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Spec. Publ. 306–4 (1969); L. Hagan and W. C. Martin, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 363 (1972).

Brewer, L.

Camus, P.

P. Camus, J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, Nationsl Bureau Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Progrès récents dans l'interprétation des configurations 4ƒN(5d + 6s) des lanthanides. I. Configurations 4ƒN5d des spectres II," Phys. Scr. 9, 322–324 (1974).

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Progrés récents dans l'interprétation des configurations 4ƒN(5d+6s) des lanthanides. II. Etude paramétrique des configurations," Phys. Scr. 9, 325–330 (1974).

P. Camus, "Structure hyperfine des niveaux pairs 4ƒ125d6S2 +4 ƒ136s6p de Tm I," J. Phys. (Paris) 33, 749–754 (1972).

P. Camus and J. Sugar, "Etude théorique et interprétation des configurations électroniques de Tm II," Phys. Scr. 4, 257–268 (1971).

P. Camus, G. Guelachvili, and J. Vergès, "Etude des spectres d'émission dans l'infrarouge par l'emploi d'un SISAM. II. Spectre d'émission du thulium, " Spectrochim. Acta Part B 24, 373–388 (1969).

J. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. F. Wyart, in Gnielin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente Vol. B4 (Springer, Berlin, 1976), p. 211; C. E. Moore, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Spec. Publ. 306–4 (1969); L. Hagan and W. C. Martin, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 363 (1972).

Carlier, A.

A. Carlier, "Contribution à l'étude théorique des spectres d'arc et d'étincelle du samarium," Thèse de Doctorat (3ème cycle), Orsay (1967).

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo-ions," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).

Childs, W. J.

W. J. Childs, "Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of 159Tb and the 159Tb nuclear electric-quadrupole moment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970); C. Bauche-Arnoult, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).

Condon, E. U.

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, p. 193 in The theory of atomic spectra (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1935).

Connes, J.

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, "Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d'un million de points," Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).

Connes, P.

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, "Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d'un million de points," Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).

Conway, J. G.

J. G. Conway and B. G. Wybourne, "Low-lying energy levels of lanthanide atoms and intermediate-coupling," Phys. Rev. 130, 2325–2332 (1963).

Corliss, C. H.

W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, "Table of spectral line intensities," Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. 32, Part I (1975).

Crosswhite, H.

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and H. Crosswhite, "Intraatomic magnetic interactions for ƒ electrons," Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).

Crosswhite, H. M.

H. M. Crosswhite, "Spectroscopie des éléments de transition et des éléments lourds dans les solides," in Proceedings of the CNRSInternations Colloquim, Lyon, 1976, in press (C.N.R.S, Paris, 1977).

H. M. Crosswhite, "Effective operators for two inequivalent electrons," Phys. Rev. A 4, 485 (1971).

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and H. Crosswhite, "Intraatomic magnetic interactions for ƒ electrons," Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).

J. F. Wyart, H. M. Crosswhite, and R. Hussain (unpublished).

Delouis, H.

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, "Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d'un million de points," Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).

Feneuille, S.

S. Feneuille and N. Pelletier-Allard, "Contribution à l'interpretation des configurations 4ƒ26S, 4ƒ25d et 4ƒ26p de Pr III," Physica (Utrecht) 40, 347–356 (1968).

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo-ions," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).

Fred, M.

F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, "The Argonne thirty-foot spectrograph," Spectrochim. Acta 6, 139–143 (1954); Appl. Opt. 2, 715 (1963).

Goldschmidt, Z. B.

Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Proceedings of the 5th Conference of European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, Lund, 1973 (unpublished).

Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Spectroscopic and Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, edited by F. Bloch (Wiley, New York, 1968).

Guelachvili, G.

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, "Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d'un million de points," Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).

P. Camus, G. Guelachvili, and J. Vergès, "Etude des spectres d'émission dans l'infrarouge par l'emploi d'un SISAM. II. Spectre d'émission du thulium, " Spectrochim. Acta Part B 24, 373–388 (1969).

Hagan, L.

W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, "Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).

Hoekstra, R.

Hussain, R.

J. F. Wyart, H. M. Crosswhite, and R. Hussain (unpublished).

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and H. Crosswhite, "Intraatomic magnetic interactions for ƒ electrons," Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).

Kaufman, V.

V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, "Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized tantalum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 302–309 (1975).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Seventh spectrum of tungsten: Resonance lines of Hfv," Phys. Rev. A 12, 994–1012 (1975).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Spectra and energy levels of three- and four-times ionized hafnium," J. Opt. Soo. Am. 64, 1656–1664 (1974).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Fourth śpectrum of lutetium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 562–570 (1972).

Koot, J. J. A.

Th. A. M. van Kleef, J. J. A. Koot, and J. F. Wyart (unpublished analysis, 1976).

J. F. Wyart, J. J. A. Koot, and Th. A. M. van Kleef, "The configuration 4ƒ116p in the lanthanide spectra," Physica (Utrecht) 77, 159–164 (1974).

Kruiver, P. J. G.

Maillard, J. P.

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, "Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d'un million de points," Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).

Martin, W. C.

W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, "Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).

W. C. Martin, "Some aspects of the energy level structures of lanthanide atoms and ions," Opt. Pura Appl. 5, 181–191 (1972).

W. C. Martin, "Energy differences between two spectroscopic systems in neutral, singly ionized and doubly ionized lanthanide atoms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1682–1686 (1971).

Meggers, W. F.

W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, "Table of spectral line intensities," Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. 32, Part I (1975).

Michel, G.

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, "Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d'un million de points," Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).

Moore-Sitterly, C.

C. Moore-Sitterly, "The present state of atomic spectra," Opt. Pura Appl. 2, 103–113 (1969).

Nugent, L. J.

K. L. van der Sluis and L. J. Nugent, "Relative energies of the lowest levels of the ƒqpS2, ƒqds2 and ƒq+1S2 electron configurations of lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms," Phys. Rev. A 6, 86–94 (1972).

Oreg, J.

Pelletier-Allard, N.

S. Feneuille and N. Pelletier-Allard, "Contribution à l'interpretation des configurations 4ƒ26S, 4ƒ25d et 4ƒ26p de Pr III," Physica (Utrecht) 40, 347–356 (1968).

Racah, G.

G. Racah, "Theory of complex spectra. IV," Phys. Rev. 76, 1352–1365 (1949).

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo-ions," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).

Reader, J.

W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, "Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).

J. Sugar and J. Reader, "Ionization energies of doubly and triply ionized rare earths," J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2083–2089 (1973).

J. Reader and J. Sugar, "Ionization energies of the neutral rare earths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1189–1194 (1966).

J. Sugar and J. Reader, "Ionization energies of the singly ionized rare earths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1286–1290 (1965).

Scribner, B. F.

W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, "Table of spectral line intensities," Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. 32, Part I (1975).

Shadmi, Y.

Shortley, G. H.

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, p. 193 in The theory of atomic spectra (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1935).

Spector, N.

Stein, J.

Sugar, J.

N. Spector and J. Sugar, "Analysis of the fourth spectrum of terbium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 436–438 (1976).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Seventh spectrum of tungsten: Resonance lines of Hfv," Phys. Rev. A 12, 994–1012 (1975).

V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, "Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized tantalum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 302–309 (1975).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Spectra and energy levels of three- and four-times ionized hafnium," J. Opt. Soo. Am. 64, 1656–1664 (1974).

W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, "Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).

J. Sugar and N. Spector, "Spectrum and energy levels of doubly ionized europium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1484–1497 (1974).

J. Sugar and J. Reader, "Ionization energies of doubly and triply ionized rare earths," J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2083–2089 (1973).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Fourth śpectrum of lutetium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 562–570 (1972).

P. Camus and J. Sugar, "Etude théorique et interprétation des configurations électroniques de Tm II," Phys. Scr. 4, 257–268 (1971).

J. Sugar, "The third spectrum of praseodymium (PrIII) in the vacuum ultraviolet," J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 73, 333–381 (1969).

J. Reader and J. Sugar, "Ionization energies of the neutral rare earths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1189–1194 (1966).

J. Sugar and J. Reader, "Ionization energies of the singly ionized rare earths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1286–1290 (1965).

Tomkins, F. S.

F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, "The Argonne thirty-foot spectrograph," Spectrochim. Acta 6, 139–143 (1954); Appl. Opt. 2, 715 (1963).

van der Sluis, K. L.

K. L. van der Sluis and L. J. Nugent, "Relative energies of the lowest levels of the ƒqpS2, ƒqds2 and ƒq+1S2 electron configurations of lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms," Phys. Rev. A 6, 86–94 (1972).

van Kleef, Th. A. M.

Th. A. M. van Kleef, J. J. A. Koot, and J. F. Wyart (unpublished analysis, 1976).

J. F. Wyart, J. J. A. Koot, and Th. A. M. van Kleef, "The configuration 4ƒ116p in the lanthanide spectra," Physica (Utrecht) 77, 159–164 (1974).

J. Blaise, Th. A. M. van Kleef, and J. F. Wyart, "The analysis of the spark spectrum of gadolinium," J. Phys. (Paris) 32, 617–626 (1971).

Vergès, J.

J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart (unpublished data, 1976).

P. Camus, J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, Nationsl Bureau Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).

P. Camus, G. Guelachvili, and J. Vergès, "Etude des spectres d'émission dans l'infrarouge par l'emploi d'un SISAM. II. Spectre d'émission du thulium, " Spectrochim. Acta Part B 24, 373–388 (1969).

Wyart, J. F.

J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart (unpublished data, 1976).

Th. A. M. van Kleef, J. J. A. Koot, and J. F. Wyart (unpublished analysis, 1976).

P. Camus, J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, Nationsl Bureau Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).

J. F. Wyart, J. J. A. Koot, and Th. A. M. van Kleef, "The configuration 4ƒ116p in the lanthanide spectra," Physica (Utrecht) 77, 159–164 (1974).

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Progrès récents dans l'interprétation des configurations 4ƒN(5d + 6s) des lanthanides. I. Configurations 4ƒN5d des spectres II," Phys. Scr. 9, 322–324 (1974).

Z. Ben Ahmed, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. F. Wyart, "Energy levels and hyperfine structures in the (5d+6s)3 configurations of La I," Physica (Utrecht) 77, 148–158 (1974).

J. F. Wyart, "Interprétation du spectre de Dyi. I. Etude des configurations impaires," Physica (Utrecht) 75, 371–385 (1974).

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Progrés récents dans l'interprétation des configurations 4ƒN(5d+6s) des lanthanides. II. Etude paramétrique des configurations," Phys. Scr. 9, 325–330 (1974).

J. Blaise, J. F. Wyart, R. Hoekstra, and P. J. G. Kruiver, "Present state of the analysis of Ndi and Ndii," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1335–1342 (1971).

J. Blaise, Th. A. M. van Kleef, and J. F. Wyart, "The analysis of the spark spectrum of gadolinium," J. Phys. (Paris) 32, 617–626 (1971).

J. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. F. Wyart, in Gnielin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente Vol. B4 (Springer, Berlin, 1976), p. 211; C. E. Moore, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Spec. Publ. 306–4 (1969); L. Hagan and W. C. Martin, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 363 (1972).

J. F. Wyart, H. M. Crosswhite, and R. Hussain (unpublished).

Wybourne, B. G.

J. G. Conway and B. G. Wybourne, "Low-lying energy levels of lanthanide atoms and intermediate-coupling," Phys. Rev. 130, 2325–2332 (1963).

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

J. Sugar and J. Reader, "Ionization energies of doubly and triply ionized rare earths," J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2083–2089 (1973).

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo-ions," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (12)

J. Sugar and J. Reader, "Ionization energies of the singly ionized rare earths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1286–1290 (1965).

J. Reader and J. Sugar, "Ionization energies of the neutral rare earths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1189–1194 (1966).

L. Brewer, "Energies of the electronic configurations of the lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1101–1111 (1971); "Energies of the electronic configurations of the singly, doubly and triply ionized lanthanides and actinides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1666–1682 (1971).

J. Blaise, J. F. Wyart, R. Hoekstra, and P. J. G. Kruiver, "Present state of the analysis of Ndi and Ndii," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1335–1342 (1971).

W. C. Martin, "Energy differences between two spectroscopic systems in neutral, singly ionized and doubly ionized lanthanide atoms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1682–1686 (1971).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Fourth śpectrum of lutetium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 562–570 (1972).

N. Spector, "Level structure of doubly ionized erbium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 358–361 (1973).

J. Sugar and N. Spector, "Spectrum and energy levels of doubly ionized europium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1484–1497 (1974).

V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, "Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized tantalum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 302–309 (1975).

N. Spector and J. Sugar, "Analysis of the fourth spectrum of terbium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 436–438 (1976).

Y. Shadmi, J. Oreg, and J. Stein, "Effective interactions between d electrons in the second spectra of the iron group," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 909–914 (1968).

N. Spector, "New odd levels of neutral erbium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 576–577 (1965).

J. Opt. Soo. Am. (1)

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Spectra and energy levels of three- and four-times ionized hafnium," J. Opt. Soo. Am. 64, 1656–1664 (1974).

J. Phys. (2)

P. Camus, "Structure hyperfine des niveaux pairs 4ƒ125d6S2 +4 ƒ136s6p de Tm I," J. Phys. (Paris) 33, 749–754 (1972).

J. Blaise, Th. A. M. van Kleef, and J. F. Wyart, "The analysis of the spark spectrum of gadolinium," J. Phys. (Paris) 32, 617–626 (1971).

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, "Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A (1)

J. Sugar, "The third spectrum of praseodymium (PrIII) in the vacuum ultraviolet," J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 73, 333–381 (1969).

Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. (1)

W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, "Table of spectral line intensities," Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. 32, Part I (1975).

Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. (1)

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, "Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d'un million de points," Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).

Opt. Pura Appl. (2)

C. Moore-Sitterly, "The present state of atomic spectra," Opt. Pura Appl. 2, 103–113 (1969).

W. C. Martin, "Some aspects of the energy level structures of lanthanide atoms and ions," Opt. Pura Appl. 5, 181–191 (1972).

Phys. Rev. (3)

J. G. Conway and B. G. Wybourne, "Low-lying energy levels of lanthanide atoms and intermediate-coupling," Phys. Rev. 130, 2325–2332 (1963).

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and H. Crosswhite, "Intraatomic magnetic interactions for ƒ electrons," Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).

G. Racah, "Theory of complex spectra. IV," Phys. Rev. 76, 1352–1365 (1949).

Phys. Rev. A (4)

H. M. Crosswhite, "Effective operators for two inequivalent electrons," Phys. Rev. A 4, 485 (1971).

W. J. Childs, "Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of 159Tb and the 159Tb nuclear electric-quadrupole moment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970); C. Bauche-Arnoult, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, "Seventh spectrum of tungsten: Resonance lines of Hfv," Phys. Rev. A 12, 994–1012 (1975).

K. L. van der Sluis and L. J. Nugent, "Relative energies of the lowest levels of the ƒqpS2, ƒqds2 and ƒq+1S2 electron configurations of lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms," Phys. Rev. A 6, 86–94 (1972).

Phys. Scr. (4)

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Progrès récents dans l'interprétation des configurations 4ƒN(5d + 6s) des lanthanides. I. Configurations 4ƒN5d des spectres II," Phys. Scr. 9, 322–324 (1974).

N. Spector, "Les niveaux 4ƒ11(4I15/2)5d, 6p de l'holmium une fois ionisè," Phys. Scr. 13, 181–183 (1976).

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Progrés récents dans l'interprétation des configurations 4ƒN(5d+6s) des lanthanides. II. Etude paramétrique des configurations," Phys. Scr. 9, 325–330 (1974).

P. Camus and J. Sugar, "Etude théorique et interprétation des configurations électroniques de Tm II," Phys. Scr. 4, 257–268 (1971).

Physica (3)

S. Feneuille and N. Pelletier-Allard, "Contribution à l'interpretation des configurations 4ƒ26S, 4ƒ25d et 4ƒ26p de Pr III," Physica (Utrecht) 40, 347–356 (1968).

J. F. Wyart, "Interprétation du spectre de Dyi. I. Etude des configurations impaires," Physica (Utrecht) 75, 371–385 (1974).

Z. Ben Ahmed, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. F. Wyart, "Energy levels and hyperfine structures in the (5d+6s)3 configurations of La I," Physica (Utrecht) 77, 148–158 (1974).

Physica (Utrecht) (1)

J. F. Wyart, J. J. A. Koot, and Th. A. M. van Kleef, "The configuration 4ƒ116p in the lanthanide spectra," Physica (Utrecht) 77, 159–164 (1974).

Spectrochim. Acta (1)

F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, "The Argonne thirty-foot spectrograph," Spectrochim. Acta 6, 139–143 (1954); Appl. Opt. 2, 715 (1963).

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (1)

P. Camus, G. Guelachvili, and J. Vergès, "Etude des spectres d'émission dans l'infrarouge par l'emploi d'un SISAM. II. Spectre d'émission du thulium, " Spectrochim. Acta Part B 24, 373–388 (1969).

Other (10)

Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Spectroscopic and Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, edited by F. Bloch (Wiley, New York, 1968).

J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart (unpublished data, 1976).

J. F. Wyart, H. M. Crosswhite, and R. Hussain (unpublished).

J. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. F. Wyart, in Gnielin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente Vol. B4 (Springer, Berlin, 1976), p. 211; C. E. Moore, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Spec. Publ. 306–4 (1969); L. Hagan and W. C. Martin, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 363 (1972).

P. Camus, J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, Nationsl Bureau Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).

Th. A. M. van Kleef, J. J. A. Koot, and J. F. Wyart (unpublished analysis, 1976).

Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Proceedings of the 5th Conference of European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, Lund, 1973 (unpublished).

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, p. 193 in The theory of atomic spectra (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1935).

H. M. Crosswhite, "Spectroscopie des éléments de transition et des éléments lourds dans les solides," in Proceedings of the CNRSInternations Colloquim, Lyon, 1976, in press (C.N.R.S, Paris, 1977).

A. Carlier, "Contribution à l'étude théorique des spectres d'arc et d'étincelle du samarium," Thèse de Doctorat (3ème cycle), Orsay (1967).

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