Abstract

After a review of the present state of classification in atomic spectra of lanthanides, the regular evolution of various atomic features along the sequence is traced and supplemented by new examples in the energy differences between configurations, coupling schemes, and energy parameters. This leads to the first “generalized-least-squares” study in the lanthanides, for 4fN6p configurations in third spectra.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. F. Wyart, in Gmelin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente Vol. B4 (Springer, Berlin, 1976), p. 211; C. E. Moore, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Spec. Publ. 306–4 (1969); L. Hagan and W. C. Martin, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 363(1972).
  2. J. Sugar and J. Reader, “Ionization energies of the singly ionized rare earths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1286–1290 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Reader and J. Sugar, “Ionization energies of the neutral rare earths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1189–1194 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Sugar and J. Reader, “Ionization energies of doubly and triply ionized rare earths,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2083–2089 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, “Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Brewer, “Energies of the electronic configurations of the lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1101–1111 (1971); “Energies of the electronic configurations of the singly, doubly and triply ionized lanthanides and actinides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1666–1682 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. C. Martin, “Energy differences between two spectroscopic systems in neutral, singly ionized and doubly ionized lanthanide atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1682–1686 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. C. Martin, “Some aspects of the energy level structures of lanthanide atoms and ions,” Opt. Pura Appl. 5, 181–191 (1972).
  9. J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Fourth spectrum of lutetium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 562–570 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. L. van der Sluis and L. J. Nugent, “Relative energies of the lowest levels of the fqps2, fqds2 and fq+1s2 electron configurations of lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 86–94 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, “The Argonne thirty-foot spectrograph,” Spectrochim. Acta 6, 139–143 (1954); Appl. Opt. 2, 715 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, “Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d’un million de points,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Moore-Sitterly, “The present state of atomic spectra,” Opt. Pura Appl. 2, 103–113 (1969).
  14. N. Spector and J. Sugar, “Analysis of the fourth spectrum of terbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 436–438 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, “Table of spectral line intensities,” Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. 32, Part I (1975).
  16. J. F. Wyart, “Interprétation du spectre de Dy i. I. Etude des configurations impaires,” Physica (Utrecht) 75, 371–385 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. G. Conway and B. G. Wybourne, “Low-lying energy levels of lanthanide atoms and intermediate-coupling,” Phys. Rev. 130, 2325–2332 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart (unpublished data, 1976).
  19. P. Camus, G. Guelachvili, and J. Vergès, “Etude des spectres d’émission dans l’infrarouge par l’emploi d’un SISAM. II. Spectre d’émission du thulium,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 24, 373–388 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Blaise, J. F. Wyart, R. Hoekstra, and P. J. G. Kruiver, “Present state of the analysis of Nd i and Nd ii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1335–1342 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Spectroscopic and Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, edited by F. Bloch (Wiley, New York, 1968).
  22. J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, “Progrès récents dans l’interprétation des configurations 4fN(5d+ 6s) des lanthanides. I. Configurations 4fN 5d des spectres ii,” Phys. Scr. 9, 322–324 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. F. Wyart, H. M. Crosswhite, and R. Hussain (unpublished).
  24. B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and H. Crosswhite, “Intra-atomic magnetic interactions for f electrons,” Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Feneuille and N. Pelletier-Allard, “Contribution à l’interprétation des configurations 4f26s, 4f25d et 4f26p de Pr iii,” Physica (Utrecht) 40, 347–356 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. M. Crosswhite, “Effective operators for two inequivalent electrons,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 485 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, “Progrès récents dans l’interprétation des configurations 4fN(5d+ 6s) des lanthanides. II. Etude paramétrique des configurations,” Phys. Scr. 9, 325–330 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Proceedings of the 5th Conference of European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, Lund, 1973 (unpublished).
  29. P. Camus and J. Sugar, “Etude théorique et interprétation des configurations électroniques de Tm ii,” Phys. Scr. 4, 257–268 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Th. A. M. van Kleef, J. J. A. Koot, and J. F. Wyart (unpublished analysis, 1976).
  31. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo–ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. M. Crosswhite, “Spectroscopie des éléments de transition et des éléments lourds dans les solides,” in Proceedings of the CNRS Internations Colloquim, Lyon, 1976, in press (C.N.R.S, Paris, 1977).
  33. A. Carlier, “Contribution à l’étude théorique des spectres d’arc et d’étincelle du samarium,” Thèse de Doctorat (3ème cycle), Orsay (1967).
  34. J. Blaise, Th. A. M. van Kleef, and J. F. Wyart, “The analysis of the spark spectrum of gadolinium,” J. Phys. (Paris) 32, 617–626 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  35. G. Racah, “Theory of complex spectra. IV,” Phys. Rev. 76, 1352–1365 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  36. E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, p. 193 in The theory of atomic spectra (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1935).
  37. N. Spector, “Les niveaux 4f11(4I15/2)5d, 6p de l’holmium une fois ionisé,” Phys. Scr. 13, 181–183 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  38. N. Spector, “New odd levels of neutral erbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 576–577 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  39. N. Spector, “Level structure of doubly ionized erbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 358–361 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  40. J. F. Wyart, J. J. A. Koot, and Th. A. M. van Kleef, “The configuration 4f116p in the lanthanide spectra,” Physica (Utrecht) 77, 159–164 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  41. Y. Shadmi, J. Oreg, and J. Stein, “Effective interactions between d electrons in the second spectra of the iron group,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 909–914 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  42. J. Sugar and N. Spector, “Spectrum and energy levels of doubly ionized europium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1484–1497 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  43. J. Sugar, “The third spectrum of praseodymium (Pr iii) in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 73, 333–381 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  44. W. J. Childs, “Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of 159Tb and the 159Tb nuclear electric-quadrupole moment,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970); C. Bauche-Arnoult, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).
    [CrossRef]
  45. P. Camus, “Structure hyperfine des niveaux pairs 4f125d 6s2+ 4f136s 6p de Tm i,” J. Phys. (Paris) 33, 749–754 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  46. P. Camus, J. Vergès, and J. F. Wyart, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, Nationsl Bureau Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).
  47. Z. Ben Ahmed, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. F. Wyart, “Energy levels and hyperfine structures in the (5d+6s)3 configurations of La i,” Physica (Utrecht) 77, 148–158 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  48. J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Spectra and energy levels of three- and four-times ionized hafnium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1656–1664 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  49. V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, “Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized tantalum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 302–309 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  50. J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Seventh spectrum of tungsten: Resonance lines of Hf v,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 994–1012 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

1976 (2)

N. Spector and J. Sugar, “Analysis of the fourth spectrum of terbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 436–438 (1976).
[CrossRef]

N. Spector, “Les niveaux 4f11(4I15/2)5d, 6p de l’holmium une fois ionisé,” Phys. Scr. 13, 181–183 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (3)

W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, “Table of spectral line intensities,” Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. 32, Part I (1975).

V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, “Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized tantalum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 302–309 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Seventh spectrum of tungsten: Resonance lines of Hf v,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 994–1012 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (8)

Z. Ben Ahmed, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. F. Wyart, “Energy levels and hyperfine structures in the (5d+6s)3 configurations of La i,” Physica (Utrecht) 77, 148–158 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Spectra and energy levels of three- and four-times ionized hafnium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1656–1664 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wyart, “Interprétation du spectre de Dy i. I. Etude des configurations impaires,” Physica (Utrecht) 75, 371–385 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, “Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wyart, J. J. A. Koot, and Th. A. M. van Kleef, “The configuration 4f116p in the lanthanide spectra,” Physica (Utrecht) 77, 159–164 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and N. Spector, “Spectrum and energy levels of doubly ionized europium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1484–1497 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, “Progrès récents dans l’interprétation des configurations 4fN(5d+ 6s) des lanthanides. I. Configurations 4fN 5d des spectres ii,” Phys. Scr. 9, 322–324 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, “Progrès récents dans l’interprétation des configurations 4fN(5d+ 6s) des lanthanides. II. Etude paramétrique des configurations,” Phys. Scr. 9, 325–330 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

N. Spector, “Level structure of doubly ionized erbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 358–361 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and J. Reader, “Ionization energies of doubly and triply ionized rare earths,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2083–2089 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (4)

W. C. Martin, “Some aspects of the energy level structures of lanthanide atoms and ions,” Opt. Pura Appl. 5, 181–191 (1972).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Fourth spectrum of lutetium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 562–570 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. L. van der Sluis and L. J. Nugent, “Relative energies of the lowest levels of the fqps2, fqds2 and fq+1s2 electron configurations of lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 86–94 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, “Structure hyperfine des niveaux pairs 4f125d 6s2+ 4f136s 6p de Tm i,” J. Phys. (Paris) 33, 749–754 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (6)

1970 (2)

W. J. Childs, “Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of 159Tb and the 159Tb nuclear electric-quadrupole moment,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970); C. Bauche-Arnoult, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).
[CrossRef]

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, “Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d’un million de points,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (3)

C. Moore-Sitterly, “The present state of atomic spectra,” Opt. Pura Appl. 2, 103–113 (1969).

P. Camus, G. Guelachvili, and J. Vergès, “Etude des spectres d’émission dans l’infrarouge par l’emploi d’un SISAM. II. Spectre d’émission du thulium,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 24, 373–388 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar, “The third spectrum of praseodymium (Pr iii) in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 73, 333–381 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (4)

Y. Shadmi, J. Oreg, and J. Stein, “Effective interactions between d electrons in the second spectra of the iron group,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 909–914 (1968).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and H. Crosswhite, “Intra-atomic magnetic interactions for f electrons,” Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).
[CrossRef]

S. Feneuille and N. Pelletier-Allard, “Contribution à l’interprétation des configurations 4f26s, 4f25d et 4f26p de Pr iii,” Physica (Utrecht) 40, 347–356 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo–ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1965 (2)

1963 (1)

J. G. Conway and B. G. Wybourne, “Low-lying energy levels of lanthanide atoms and intermediate-coupling,” Phys. Rev. 130, 2325–2332 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, “The Argonne thirty-foot spectrograph,” Spectrochim. Acta 6, 139–143 (1954); Appl. Opt. 2, 715 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

G. Racah, “Theory of complex spectra. IV,” Phys. Rev. 76, 1352–1365 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Bauche-Arnoult, C.

Z. Ben Ahmed, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. F. Wyart, “Energy levels and hyperfine structures in the (5d+6s)3 configurations of La i,” Physica (Utrecht) 77, 148–158 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ben Ahmed, Z.

Z. Ben Ahmed, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. F. Wyart, “Energy levels and hyperfine structures in the (5d+6s)3 configurations of La i,” Physica (Utrecht) 77, 148–158 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Blaise, J.

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, “Progrès récents dans l’interprétation des configurations 4fN(5d+ 6s) des lanthanides. I. Configurations 4fN 5d des spectres ii,” Phys. Scr. 9, 322–324 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, “Progrès récents dans l’interprétation des configurations 4fN(5d+ 6s) des lanthanides. II. Etude paramétrique des configurations,” Phys. Scr. 9, 325–330 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Blaise, Th. A. M. van Kleef, and J. F. Wyart, “The analysis of the spark spectrum of gadolinium,” J. Phys. (Paris) 32, 617–626 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Blaise, J. F. Wyart, R. Hoekstra, and P. J. G. Kruiver, “Present state of the analysis of Nd i and Nd ii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1335–1342 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. F. Wyart, in Gmelin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente Vol. B4 (Springer, Berlin, 1976), p. 211; C. E. Moore, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Spec. Publ. 306–4 (1969); L. Hagan and W. C. Martin, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 363(1972).

Brewer, L.

Camus, P.

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, “Progrès récents dans l’interprétation des configurations 4fN(5d+ 6s) des lanthanides. II. Etude paramétrique des configurations,” Phys. Scr. 9, 325–330 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, “Progrès récents dans l’interprétation des configurations 4fN(5d+ 6s) des lanthanides. I. Configurations 4fN 5d des spectres ii,” Phys. Scr. 9, 322–324 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, “Structure hyperfine des niveaux pairs 4f125d 6s2+ 4f136s 6p de Tm i,” J. Phys. (Paris) 33, 749–754 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus and J. Sugar, “Etude théorique et interprétation des configurations électroniques de Tm ii,” Phys. Scr. 4, 257–268 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, G. Guelachvili, and J. Vergès, “Etude des spectres d’émission dans l’infrarouge par l’emploi d’un SISAM. II. Spectre d’émission du thulium,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 24, 373–388 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. F. Wyart, in Gmelin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente Vol. B4 (Springer, Berlin, 1976), p. 211; C. E. Moore, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Spec. Publ. 306–4 (1969); L. Hagan and W. C. Martin, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 363(1972).

P. Camus, J. Vergès, and J. F. Wyart, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, Nationsl Bureau Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).

Carlier, A.

A. Carlier, “Contribution à l’étude théorique des spectres d’arc et d’étincelle du samarium,” Thèse de Doctorat (3ème cycle), Orsay (1967).

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo–ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Childs, W. J.

W. J. Childs, “Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of 159Tb and the 159Tb nuclear electric-quadrupole moment,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970); C. Bauche-Arnoult, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).
[CrossRef]

Condon, E. U.

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, p. 193 in The theory of atomic spectra (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1935).

Connes, J.

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, “Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d’un million de points,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Connes, P.

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, “Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d’un million de points,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Conway, J. G.

J. G. Conway and B. G. Wybourne, “Low-lying energy levels of lanthanide atoms and intermediate-coupling,” Phys. Rev. 130, 2325–2332 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Corliss, C. H.

W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, “Table of spectral line intensities,” Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. 32, Part I (1975).

Crosswhite, H.

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and H. Crosswhite, “Intra-atomic magnetic interactions for f electrons,” Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Crosswhite, H. M.

H. M. Crosswhite, “Effective operators for two inequivalent electrons,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 485 (1971).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and H. Crosswhite, “Intra-atomic magnetic interactions for f electrons,” Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Crosswhite, “Spectroscopie des éléments de transition et des éléments lourds dans les solides,” in Proceedings of the CNRS Internations Colloquim, Lyon, 1976, in press (C.N.R.S, Paris, 1977).

J. F. Wyart, H. M. Crosswhite, and R. Hussain (unpublished).

Delouis, H.

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, “Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d’un million de points,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Feneuille, S.

S. Feneuille and N. Pelletier-Allard, “Contribution à l’interprétation des configurations 4f26s, 4f25d et 4f26p de Pr iii,” Physica (Utrecht) 40, 347–356 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo–ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Fred, M.

F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, “The Argonne thirty-foot spectrograph,” Spectrochim. Acta 6, 139–143 (1954); Appl. Opt. 2, 715 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Goldschmidt, Z. B.

Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Spectroscopic and Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, edited by F. Bloch (Wiley, New York, 1968).

Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Proceedings of the 5th Conference of European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, Lund, 1973 (unpublished).

Guelachvili, G.

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, “Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d’un million de points,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, G. Guelachvili, and J. Vergès, “Etude des spectres d’émission dans l’infrarouge par l’emploi d’un SISAM. II. Spectre d’émission du thulium,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 24, 373–388 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, L.

W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, “Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, R.

Hussain, R.

J. F. Wyart, H. M. Crosswhite, and R. Hussain (unpublished).

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and H. Crosswhite, “Intra-atomic magnetic interactions for f electrons,” Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, V.

Koot, J. J. A.

J. F. Wyart, J. J. A. Koot, and Th. A. M. van Kleef, “The configuration 4f116p in the lanthanide spectra,” Physica (Utrecht) 77, 159–164 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Th. A. M. van Kleef, J. J. A. Koot, and J. F. Wyart (unpublished analysis, 1976).

Kruiver, P. J. G.

Maillard, J. P.

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, “Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d’un million de points,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Martin, W. C.

W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, “Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Martin, “Some aspects of the energy level structures of lanthanide atoms and ions,” Opt. Pura Appl. 5, 181–191 (1972).

W. C. Martin, “Energy differences between two spectroscopic systems in neutral, singly ionized and doubly ionized lanthanide atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1682–1686 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Meggers, W. F.

W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, “Table of spectral line intensities,” Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. 32, Part I (1975).

Michel, G.

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, “Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d’un million de points,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Moore-Sitterly, C.

C. Moore-Sitterly, “The present state of atomic spectra,” Opt. Pura Appl. 2, 103–113 (1969).

Nugent, L. J.

K. L. van der Sluis and L. J. Nugent, “Relative energies of the lowest levels of the fqps2, fqds2 and fq+1s2 electron configurations of lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 86–94 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Oreg, J.

Pelletier-Allard, N.

S. Feneuille and N. Pelletier-Allard, “Contribution à l’interprétation des configurations 4f26s, 4f25d et 4f26p de Pr iii,” Physica (Utrecht) 40, 347–356 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Racah, G.

G. Racah, “Theory of complex spectra. IV,” Phys. Rev. 76, 1352–1365 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo–ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Reader, J.

W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, “Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and J. Reader, “Ionization energies of doubly and triply ionized rare earths,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2083–2089 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Reader and J. Sugar, “Ionization energies of the neutral rare earths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1189–1194 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and J. Reader, “Ionization energies of the singly ionized rare earths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1286–1290 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Scribner, B. F.

W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, “Table of spectral line intensities,” Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. 32, Part I (1975).

Shadmi, Y.

Shortley, G. H.

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, p. 193 in The theory of atomic spectra (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1935).

Spector, N.

Stein, J.

Sugar, J.

N. Spector and J. Sugar, “Analysis of the fourth spectrum of terbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 436–438 (1976).
[CrossRef]

V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, “Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized tantalum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 302–309 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Seventh spectrum of tungsten: Resonance lines of Hf v,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 994–1012 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and N. Spector, “Spectrum and energy levels of doubly ionized europium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1484–1497 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Spectra and energy levels of three- and four-times ionized hafnium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1656–1664 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, “Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and J. Reader, “Ionization energies of doubly and triply ionized rare earths,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2083–2089 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Fourth spectrum of lutetium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 562–570 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus and J. Sugar, “Etude théorique et interprétation des configurations électroniques de Tm ii,” Phys. Scr. 4, 257–268 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar, “The third spectrum of praseodymium (Pr iii) in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 73, 333–381 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Reader and J. Sugar, “Ionization energies of the neutral rare earths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1189–1194 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and J. Reader, “Ionization energies of the singly ionized rare earths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1286–1290 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tomkins, F. S.

F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, “The Argonne thirty-foot spectrograph,” Spectrochim. Acta 6, 139–143 (1954); Appl. Opt. 2, 715 (1963).
[CrossRef]

van der Sluis, K. L.

K. L. van der Sluis and L. J. Nugent, “Relative energies of the lowest levels of the fqps2, fqds2 and fq+1s2 electron configurations of lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 86–94 (1972).
[CrossRef]

van Kleef, Th. A. M.

J. F. Wyart, J. J. A. Koot, and Th. A. M. van Kleef, “The configuration 4f116p in the lanthanide spectra,” Physica (Utrecht) 77, 159–164 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Blaise, Th. A. M. van Kleef, and J. F. Wyart, “The analysis of the spark spectrum of gadolinium,” J. Phys. (Paris) 32, 617–626 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Th. A. M. van Kleef, J. J. A. Koot, and J. F. Wyart (unpublished analysis, 1976).

Vergès, J.

P. Camus, G. Guelachvili, and J. Vergès, “Etude des spectres d’émission dans l’infrarouge par l’emploi d’un SISAM. II. Spectre d’émission du thulium,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 24, 373–388 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart (unpublished data, 1976).

P. Camus, J. Vergès, and J. F. Wyart, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, Nationsl Bureau Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).

Wyart, J. F.

J. F. Wyart, J. J. A. Koot, and Th. A. M. van Kleef, “The configuration 4f116p in the lanthanide spectra,” Physica (Utrecht) 77, 159–164 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wyart, “Interprétation du spectre de Dy i. I. Etude des configurations impaires,” Physica (Utrecht) 75, 371–385 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, “Progrès récents dans l’interprétation des configurations 4fN(5d+ 6s) des lanthanides. II. Etude paramétrique des configurations,” Phys. Scr. 9, 325–330 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, “Progrès récents dans l’interprétation des configurations 4fN(5d+ 6s) des lanthanides. I. Configurations 4fN 5d des spectres ii,” Phys. Scr. 9, 322–324 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ben Ahmed, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. F. Wyart, “Energy levels and hyperfine structures in the (5d+6s)3 configurations of La i,” Physica (Utrecht) 77, 148–158 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Blaise, J. F. Wyart, R. Hoekstra, and P. J. G. Kruiver, “Present state of the analysis of Nd i and Nd ii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1335–1342 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Blaise, Th. A. M. van Kleef, and J. F. Wyart, “The analysis of the spark spectrum of gadolinium,” J. Phys. (Paris) 32, 617–626 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wyart, H. M. Crosswhite, and R. Hussain (unpublished).

Th. A. M. van Kleef, J. J. A. Koot, and J. F. Wyart (unpublished analysis, 1976).

P. Camus, J. Vergès, and J. F. Wyart, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, Nationsl Bureau Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).

J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart (unpublished data, 1976).

J. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. F. Wyart, in Gmelin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente Vol. B4 (Springer, Berlin, 1976), p. 211; C. E. Moore, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Spec. Publ. 306–4 (1969); L. Hagan and W. C. Martin, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 363(1972).

Wybourne, B. G.

J. G. Conway and B. G. Wybourne, “Low-lying energy levels of lanthanide atoms and intermediate-coupling,” Phys. Rev. 130, 2325–2332 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

J. Sugar and J. Reader, “Ionization energies of doubly and triply ionized rare earths,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2083–2089 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo–ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (13)

N. Spector, “New odd levels of neutral erbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 576–577 (1965).
[CrossRef]

N. Spector, “Level structure of doubly ionized erbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 358–361 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Blaise, J. F. Wyart, R. Hoekstra, and P. J. G. Kruiver, “Present state of the analysis of Nd i and Nd ii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1335–1342 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and J. Reader, “Ionization energies of the singly ionized rare earths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1286–1290 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Reader and J. Sugar, “Ionization energies of the neutral rare earths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1189–1194 (1966).
[CrossRef]

L. Brewer, “Energies of the electronic configurations of the lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1101–1111 (1971); “Energies of the electronic configurations of the singly, doubly and triply ionized lanthanides and actinides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1666–1682 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Martin, “Energy differences between two spectroscopic systems in neutral, singly ionized and doubly ionized lanthanide atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1682–1686 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Fourth spectrum of lutetium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 562–570 (1972).
[CrossRef]

N. Spector and J. Sugar, “Analysis of the fourth spectrum of terbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 436–438 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shadmi, J. Oreg, and J. Stein, “Effective interactions between d electrons in the second spectra of the iron group,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 909–914 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and N. Spector, “Spectrum and energy levels of doubly ionized europium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1484–1497 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Spectra and energy levels of three- and four-times ionized hafnium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1656–1664 (1974).
[CrossRef]

V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, “Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized tantalum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 302–309 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (Paris) (2)

P. Camus, “Structure hyperfine des niveaux pairs 4f125d 6s2+ 4f136s 6p de Tm i,” J. Phys. (Paris) 33, 749–754 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Blaise, Th. A. M. van Kleef, and J. F. Wyart, “The analysis of the spark spectrum of gadolinium,” J. Phys. (Paris) 32, 617–626 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

W. C. Martin, L. Hagan, J. Reader, and J. Sugar, “Ground levels and ionization potentials for lanthanide and actinide atoms and ions,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 771–780 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A (1)

J. Sugar, “The third spectrum of praseodymium (Pr iii) in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 73, 333–381 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. (1)

W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, “Table of spectral line intensities,” Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Monogr. 32, Part I (1975).

Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. (1)

J. Connes, H. Delouis, P. Connes, G. Guelachvili, J. P. Maillard, and G. Michel, “Spectroscopie de Fourier avec transformation d’un million de points,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 1, 3–22 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Pura Appl. (2)

C. Moore-Sitterly, “The present state of atomic spectra,” Opt. Pura Appl. 2, 103–113 (1969).

W. C. Martin, “Some aspects of the energy level structures of lanthanide atoms and ions,” Opt. Pura Appl. 5, 181–191 (1972).

Phys. Rev. (3)

J. G. Conway and B. G. Wybourne, “Low-lying energy levels of lanthanide atoms and intermediate-coupling,” Phys. Rev. 130, 2325–2332 (1963).
[CrossRef]

G. Racah, “Theory of complex spectra. IV,” Phys. Rev. 76, 1352–1365 (1949).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and H. Crosswhite, “Intra-atomic magnetic interactions for f electrons,” Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

H. M. Crosswhite, “Effective operators for two inequivalent electrons,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 485 (1971).
[CrossRef]

K. L. van der Sluis and L. J. Nugent, “Relative energies of the lowest levels of the fqps2, fqds2 and fq+1s2 electron configurations of lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 86–94 (1972).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Childs, “Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of 159Tb and the 159Tb nuclear electric-quadrupole moment,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970); C. Bauche-Arnoult, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Seventh spectrum of tungsten: Resonance lines of Hf v,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 994–1012 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (4)

N. Spector, “Les niveaux 4f11(4I15/2)5d, 6p de l’holmium une fois ionisé,” Phys. Scr. 13, 181–183 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, “Progrès récents dans l’interprétation des configurations 4fN(5d+ 6s) des lanthanides. II. Etude paramétrique des configurations,” Phys. Scr. 9, 325–330 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wyart, J. Blaise, and P. Camus, “Progrès récents dans l’interprétation des configurations 4fN(5d+ 6s) des lanthanides. I. Configurations 4fN 5d des spectres ii,” Phys. Scr. 9, 322–324 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus and J. Sugar, “Etude théorique et interprétation des configurations électroniques de Tm ii,” Phys. Scr. 4, 257–268 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Physica (Utrecht) (4)

J. F. Wyart, J. J. A. Koot, and Th. A. M. van Kleef, “The configuration 4f116p in the lanthanide spectra,” Physica (Utrecht) 77, 159–164 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. Feneuille and N. Pelletier-Allard, “Contribution à l’interprétation des configurations 4f26s, 4f25d et 4f26p de Pr iii,” Physica (Utrecht) 40, 347–356 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wyart, “Interprétation du spectre de Dy i. I. Etude des configurations impaires,” Physica (Utrecht) 75, 371–385 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ben Ahmed, C. Bauche-Arnoult, and J. F. Wyart, “Energy levels and hyperfine structures in the (5d+6s)3 configurations of La i,” Physica (Utrecht) 77, 148–158 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta (1)

F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, “The Argonne thirty-foot spectrograph,” Spectrochim. Acta 6, 139–143 (1954); Appl. Opt. 2, 715 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (1)

P. Camus, G. Guelachvili, and J. Vergès, “Etude des spectres d’émission dans l’infrarouge par l’emploi d’un SISAM. II. Spectre d’émission du thulium,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 24, 373–388 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

J. Blaise, P. Camus, and J. F. Wyart, in Gmelin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente Vol. B4 (Springer, Berlin, 1976), p. 211; C. E. Moore, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Spec. Publ. 306–4 (1969); L. Hagan and W. C. Martin, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 363(1972).

J. Vergès and J. F. Wyart (unpublished data, 1976).

Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Proceedings of the 5th Conference of European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, Lund, 1973 (unpublished).

J. F. Wyart, H. M. Crosswhite, and R. Hussain (unpublished).

Z. B. Goldschmidt, in Spectroscopic and Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, edited by F. Bloch (Wiley, New York, 1968).

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, p. 193 in The theory of atomic spectra (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1935).

Th. A. M. van Kleef, J. J. A. Koot, and J. F. Wyart (unpublished analysis, 1976).

H. M. Crosswhite, “Spectroscopie des éléments de transition et des éléments lourds dans les solides,” in Proceedings of the CNRS Internations Colloquim, Lyon, 1976, in press (C.N.R.S, Paris, 1977).

A. Carlier, “Contribution à l’étude théorique des spectres d’arc et d’étincelle du samarium,” Thèse de Doctorat (3ème cycle), Orsay (1967).

P. Camus, J. Vergès, and J. F. Wyart, in Proceedings of the Atomic Spectroscopy Symposium, Nationsl Bureau Standards, Gaithersburg, 1975 (unpublished).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Relative position of the lowest levels for 3 configurations in neutral atoms: 4fN6s2 1, 4fN6s6p 2, 4fN−15d6s2 3. The strongest lines classified by 4fN6s2 (wavelength λ1 in Å, intensity I1) and by 4fN−15d6s22, I2), or 4fN−15d26s for La and Ce, are indicated. A remarkable similarity exists between 3 and log(I1/I2) 4.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Relative position of the lowest energy levels for 4fN6s6p and 4fN5d6s in neutral atoms. The point for Ho i corresponds to the new level value 18 867.54 cm−1 (4f115d6s 6G13/2).

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Relative position of the levels of highest J value in the lowest subconfigurations of 4fN6s7s and 4fN6s7p from N = 7 to 14.

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Different kinds of transitions in the Ho i spectrum. Upper trace: Fourier transform spectrometer (Ref. 12) operated in air (1970). The intensities (around 5423 cm−1) are plagued by H2O absorption bands. The electrodeless discharge tube has been more highly excited than that below; lower trace: Fourier transform spectrometer in vacuum (1974) and moderate excitation of the sample. The shape of the transitions is considerably broadened for 7s – 7p at high power. The unique “forbidden” line of Ho i stands at 5419.7 cm−1.

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Ground terms of 4fN6s2 configurations in neutral atoms. J values are spaced according to the Landé interval rule and the same scale of energy has been used for the whole sequence.

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Emission spectra of praseodymium and holmium (Zeeman spectrograms, Argonne National Laboratory). The center exposure is for zero magnetic field; the upper and lower ones are for π and σ polarizations, respectively. Exposures have been taken at a field strength B = 2.4 T.

FIG. 7
FIG. 7

J-j coupling scheme in 4f45d(6s2). Term splitting of (fN ground level J1, d = 3/2) in first, second, and third spectra (8 ≤ N ≤ 13). The missing term is for Dy iii. J values increase from left to right in abscissa. A common energy scale is used for all terms.

FIG. 8
FIG. 8

Two coupling schemes in Ho i: 4f11(4I15/2)6s6p(3,1PJ) and (4f11(4I15/2)6s)J1=8,77pj2. The energy scale is five times larger for the upper configuration.

FIG. 9
FIG. 9

The 4f11(4I15/2)5d5/2 terms in Er i, Ho ii, and Er iii. Energy levels of Ho ii are from Refs. 18, 22, and 35.

FIG. 10
FIG. 10

Hyperfine structure in Ho i (Fourier transform spectroscopy). The line is classified as indicated (Ref. 18).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Present state of the analysis of atomic spectra in lanthanides. Spectra are ranked 1 through 8 by decreasing order of achievement, taking into account experimental descriptions and theoretical interpretations.

Tables Icon

TABLE II Nine parameters of 4fN(5d + 6s) configurations in singly ionized lanthanides. Fitted values and final rms deviations are in cm−1. Interpolated values are in brackets.

Tables Icon

TABLE III Generalized least-squares for 4fN6p (N = 10 to 14). The constant (A), linear (B), and quadratic (C) terms associated with each parameter are given, together with their standard deviations (in cm−1).

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P K = A ( P K ) + B ( P K ) ( N - 7 ) + C ( P K ) ( N - 7 ) 2 .