Abstract

The complex dielectric constant of Fe has a large imaginary part and small real part throughout most of the visible region (ε<sub>i</sub>≫ |ε<sub>r</sub>|). Under this condition a thin film of Fe(≤ 20 nm), bounded by a dielectric, can support a surface polariton. For p-polarized fields the antisymmetric solution to the dispersion relation has a nearly real propagation vector parallel to the surface. Hence this antisymmetric polariton can be excited optically. We use the attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration with three successive layers, cryolite-Fe-cryolite, evaporated onto the base of a glass prism. The surface polariton is detected as a narrow minimum in the ATR angular spectrum. We choose the frequency at which ε<sub>r</sub> = 0 and then an incident p-polarized plane wave yields zero energy propagation in the Fe film in the direction parallel to the plane on the film. There are also other broader minima in the p-polarized spectrum corresponding to large field oscillations localized in the second dielectric. Minima in the s-polarized spectrum correspond to oscillations localized in the first dielectric. In addition the angular reflectance spectrum of both polarizations contains sharp maxima caused by resonance standing wave patterns which persist through the incident medium as well as the film system.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Otto, "Excitation of Nonradiative Surface Plasma Waves in Silver by the Method of Frustrated Total Reflection," Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).
  2. E. Kretschmann, "Die Bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflächenplasmaschwingungen," Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).
  3. F. Abelès and T. Lopez-Rios, "Decoupled optical excitation of surface plasmons at the two surfaces of a thin film," Opt. Commun. 11, 89–92 (1974).
  4. G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, "Optical excitation of surface plasma waves in layered media," Phys. Rev. B 16, 1297–1311 (1977).
  5. G. J. Kovacs, "Optical Excitation of Resonant Electromagnetic Oscillations in Thin Films," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toronto (1977) (unpublished).
  6. J. D. McMullen, "Recursive solution of the dispersion relation of a surface polariton in a layered structure," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 698–699 (1977).
  7. A. Otto, "Experimental Investigation of Surface Polaritons on Plane Interfaces," in Festokörperprobleme XIV, edited by H. J. Queisser (Pergamon, New York, 1974), p. 1–37.
  8. J. J. Hopfield, "Theory of the contribution of excitons to the complex dielectric constant of crystals," Phys. Rev. 112, 1555–1567 (1958).
  9. E. Burstein, "Introductory Remarks on Polaritons," in Polaritons, edited by E. Burstein (Pergamon, New York, 1974), p. 1–4.
  10. P. K. Tien, "Light waves in thin films and integrated optics," Appl. Opt. 10, 2395–2413 (1971).
  11. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd," Phys. Rev. B 9, 5056– 5070 (1974).
  12. J. K. Gimzewski, B. D. Padalia, S. Affrossman, L. M. Watson, and D. J. Fabian, "The reaction of oxygen and water with iron films studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Sur. Sci. 62, 386–396 (1977).
  13. O. S. Heavens and S. D. Smith, "Dielectric thin films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 469–472 (1957).
  14. G. D. Scott, "The Measurement of the Thickness of Evaporated Films by a Multiple Beam Interference Method," in Vacuum Symposium Transactions 1956, (Pergamon, New York, 1957), p. 24–28.
  15. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), p. 1ff.
  16. P. H. Lissberger and R. G. Nelson, "Optical Properties of Thin Film Au-MgF2 Cermets," Thin Solid Films 21, 159–172 (1974).
  17. R. P. Netterfield, "Refractive indices of zinc sulfide and cryolite in multilayer stacks," Appl. Opt. 15, 1969–1973 (1976).
  18. P. H. Lissberger, "Optical applications of dielectric thin films," Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 197–268 (1970).
  19. E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrell, "Surface plasma oscillations of a degenerate electron gas," Phys. Rev. 120, 130–136 (1960).

1977 (3)

G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, "Optical excitation of surface plasma waves in layered media," Phys. Rev. B 16, 1297–1311 (1977).

J. D. McMullen, "Recursive solution of the dispersion relation of a surface polariton in a layered structure," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 698–699 (1977).

J. K. Gimzewski, B. D. Padalia, S. Affrossman, L. M. Watson, and D. J. Fabian, "The reaction of oxygen and water with iron films studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Sur. Sci. 62, 386–396 (1977).

1976 (1)

1974 (3)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd," Phys. Rev. B 9, 5056– 5070 (1974).

P. H. Lissberger and R. G. Nelson, "Optical Properties of Thin Film Au-MgF2 Cermets," Thin Solid Films 21, 159–172 (1974).

F. Abelès and T. Lopez-Rios, "Decoupled optical excitation of surface plasmons at the two surfaces of a thin film," Opt. Commun. 11, 89–92 (1974).

1971 (2)

P. K. Tien, "Light waves in thin films and integrated optics," Appl. Opt. 10, 2395–2413 (1971).

E. Kretschmann, "Die Bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflächenplasmaschwingungen," Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).

1970 (1)

P. H. Lissberger, "Optical applications of dielectric thin films," Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 197–268 (1970).

1968 (1)

A. Otto, "Excitation of Nonradiative Surface Plasma Waves in Silver by the Method of Frustrated Total Reflection," Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).

1960 (1)

E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrell, "Surface plasma oscillations of a degenerate electron gas," Phys. Rev. 120, 130–136 (1960).

1958 (1)

J. J. Hopfield, "Theory of the contribution of excitons to the complex dielectric constant of crystals," Phys. Rev. 112, 1555–1567 (1958).

1957 (1)

Abelès, F.

F. Abelès and T. Lopez-Rios, "Decoupled optical excitation of surface plasmons at the two surfaces of a thin film," Opt. Commun. 11, 89–92 (1974).

Affrossman, S.

J. K. Gimzewski, B. D. Padalia, S. Affrossman, L. M. Watson, and D. J. Fabian, "The reaction of oxygen and water with iron films studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Sur. Sci. 62, 386–396 (1977).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), p. 1ff.

Burstein, E.

E. Burstein, "Introductory Remarks on Polaritons," in Polaritons, edited by E. Burstein (Pergamon, New York, 1974), p. 1–4.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd," Phys. Rev. B 9, 5056– 5070 (1974).

Fabian, D. J.

J. K. Gimzewski, B. D. Padalia, S. Affrossman, L. M. Watson, and D. J. Fabian, "The reaction of oxygen and water with iron films studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Sur. Sci. 62, 386–396 (1977).

Ferrell, R. A.

E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrell, "Surface plasma oscillations of a degenerate electron gas," Phys. Rev. 120, 130–136 (1960).

Gimzewski, J. K.

J. K. Gimzewski, B. D. Padalia, S. Affrossman, L. M. Watson, and D. J. Fabian, "The reaction of oxygen and water with iron films studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Sur. Sci. 62, 386–396 (1977).

Heavens, O. S.

Hopfield, J. J.

J. J. Hopfield, "Theory of the contribution of excitons to the complex dielectric constant of crystals," Phys. Rev. 112, 1555–1567 (1958).

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd," Phys. Rev. B 9, 5056– 5070 (1974).

Kovacs, G. J.

G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, "Optical excitation of surface plasma waves in layered media," Phys. Rev. B 16, 1297–1311 (1977).

G. J. Kovacs, "Optical Excitation of Resonant Electromagnetic Oscillations in Thin Films," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toronto (1977) (unpublished).

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, "Die Bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflächenplasmaschwingungen," Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).

Lissberger, P. H.

P. H. Lissberger and R. G. Nelson, "Optical Properties of Thin Film Au-MgF2 Cermets," Thin Solid Films 21, 159–172 (1974).

P. H. Lissberger, "Optical applications of dielectric thin films," Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 197–268 (1970).

Lopez-Rios, T.

F. Abelès and T. Lopez-Rios, "Decoupled optical excitation of surface plasmons at the two surfaces of a thin film," Opt. Commun. 11, 89–92 (1974).

McMullen, J. D.

Nelson, R. G.

P. H. Lissberger and R. G. Nelson, "Optical Properties of Thin Film Au-MgF2 Cermets," Thin Solid Films 21, 159–172 (1974).

Netterfield, R. P.

Otto, A.

A. Otto, "Excitation of Nonradiative Surface Plasma Waves in Silver by the Method of Frustrated Total Reflection," Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).

A. Otto, "Experimental Investigation of Surface Polaritons on Plane Interfaces," in Festokörperprobleme XIV, edited by H. J. Queisser (Pergamon, New York, 1974), p. 1–37.

Padalia, B. D.

J. K. Gimzewski, B. D. Padalia, S. Affrossman, L. M. Watson, and D. J. Fabian, "The reaction of oxygen and water with iron films studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Sur. Sci. 62, 386–396 (1977).

Scott, G. D.

G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, "Optical excitation of surface plasma waves in layered media," Phys. Rev. B 16, 1297–1311 (1977).

G. D. Scott, "The Measurement of the Thickness of Evaporated Films by a Multiple Beam Interference Method," in Vacuum Symposium Transactions 1956, (Pergamon, New York, 1957), p. 24–28.

Smith, S. D.

Stern, E. A.

E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrell, "Surface plasma oscillations of a degenerate electron gas," Phys. Rev. 120, 130–136 (1960).

Tien, P. K.

Watson, L. M.

J. K. Gimzewski, B. D. Padalia, S. Affrossman, L. M. Watson, and D. J. Fabian, "The reaction of oxygen and water with iron films studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Sur. Sci. 62, 386–396 (1977).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), p. 1ff.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Abelès and T. Lopez-Rios, "Decoupled optical excitation of surface plasmons at the two surfaces of a thin film," Opt. Commun. 11, 89–92 (1974).

Phys. Rev. (2)

J. J. Hopfield, "Theory of the contribution of excitons to the complex dielectric constant of crystals," Phys. Rev. 112, 1555–1567 (1958).

E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrell, "Surface plasma oscillations of a degenerate electron gas," Phys. Rev. 120, 130–136 (1960).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd," Phys. Rev. B 9, 5056– 5070 (1974).

G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, "Optical excitation of surface plasma waves in layered media," Phys. Rev. B 16, 1297–1311 (1977).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. H. Lissberger, "Optical applications of dielectric thin films," Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 197–268 (1970).

Sur. Sci. (1)

J. K. Gimzewski, B. D. Padalia, S. Affrossman, L. M. Watson, and D. J. Fabian, "The reaction of oxygen and water with iron films studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Sur. Sci. 62, 386–396 (1977).

Thin Solid Films (1)

P. H. Lissberger and R. G. Nelson, "Optical Properties of Thin Film Au-MgF2 Cermets," Thin Solid Films 21, 159–172 (1974).

Z. Phys. (2)

A. Otto, "Excitation of Nonradiative Surface Plasma Waves in Silver by the Method of Frustrated Total Reflection," Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).

E. Kretschmann, "Die Bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflächenplasmaschwingungen," Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).

Other (5)

G. J. Kovacs, "Optical Excitation of Resonant Electromagnetic Oscillations in Thin Films," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toronto (1977) (unpublished).

E. Burstein, "Introductory Remarks on Polaritons," in Polaritons, edited by E. Burstein (Pergamon, New York, 1974), p. 1–4.

A. Otto, "Experimental Investigation of Surface Polaritons on Plane Interfaces," in Festokörperprobleme XIV, edited by H. J. Queisser (Pergamon, New York, 1974), p. 1–37.

G. D. Scott, "The Measurement of the Thickness of Evaporated Films by a Multiple Beam Interference Method," in Vacuum Symposium Transactions 1956, (Pergamon, New York, 1957), p. 24–28.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), p. 1ff.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.