Abstract

The spectral sensitivity of the visual photopigments, the interobserver variability in color judgments, and the spectral locus of unique yellow provide three major problems for accounts of <i>X</i>-chromosomal-linked anomalous trichromacy. According to the single-pigment hypothesis, the primary defect in anomalous trichromacy is a wavelength shift in the peak sensitivity of one of the three visual photopigments. We show that this shift results in reduction of the anomalous trichromat's <i>r</i>-g opponent chromatic channel. The distribution of response variability in Rayleigh equation match widths due to factors other than the spectral characteristics of the photopigments is similar in normal and anomalous trichromats. When normal and anomalous trichromats make hue estimations of sets of stimuli designed to contain similar chromatic information, their judgments show similar variability. Calculation of the <i>r</i>-g opponent chromatic channel can provide correct predictions of the spectral loci for unique yellow for anomalous trichromats.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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  26. M. Alpern and S. Torii, "The luminosity curve of the protanomalous fovea," J. Gen. Physiol. 52, 717–737 (1968); M. Alpern and S. Torii, "The luminosity curve of the deuteranomalous fovea," ibid. 52, 738–749 (1968).
  27. T. P. Piantanida and H. G. Sperling, "Isolation of a third chromatic mechanism in the protanomalous observer," Vision Res. 13, 2033–2047 (1973); "Isolation of a third chromatic mechanism in the deuteranomalous observer," ibid. 13, 2049–2058 (1973).
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  29. J. Pokorny, J. D. Moreland, and V. C. Smith, "Photopigments in anomalous trichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1522–1524 (1975).
  30. We omit the estimates derived by N. V. Lobanova and N. I. Speranskaya ["The spectral sensitivity of the retinal elements of anomalous trichromats," Biophysics 6, 71–78 (1961)], who used M. M. Bongard and M. S. Smirnov's determination of curves for spectral sensitivity of the visual receptors by means of complex curves [see Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 102,1111–1114 (1955)]. The technique rests on the assumption that for each of the three visual photopigments there exist pairs of spectral wavelengths to which the photopigment is unresponsive. This assumption can only be realized for the SWS visual photopigment. N. I. Speranskaya and N. V. Lobanova's estimates ["Determination of spectral sensitivity curves of the eyes of normal trichromats," Biophysics 6, 66–70 (1961)] of the visual photopigments of normal trichromats show substantial disagreement with the Konig fundamentals proposed by Vos and Walraven (see Ref. 8) and ourselves (see Ref. 58). The proposed Speranskaya and Lobanova normal receptor I (LWS) is displaced about + 5 nm and their normal receptor II (MWS) is -5nm from the corresponding estimates of Vos and Walraven (Ref. 8) and ourselves (Ref. 58).
  31. D. I. A. Mac Leod and M. M. Hayhoe, "Three pigments in normal and anomalous color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 92–96 (1974); M. M. Hayhoe and D. I. A. Mac Leod, "A single anomalous photopigment?" ibid. 66, 276–277 (1976).
  32. J H. Nelson, "Anomalous trichromatism and its relation to normal trichromatism," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 50, 661–697 (1938).
  33. W. M. Mc Keon and W. D. Wright, "The characteristics of protanomalous vision," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 52, 464–479 (1940).
  34. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and R. Swartley, "Continuous hue estimation of brief flashes by deuteranomalous observers," Am. J. Psychol. 86, 115–131 (1973).
  35. R. Lakowski, "Calibration, validation, and population norms for the Pickford-Nicholson anomaloscope," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 26, 166–182 (1971).
  36. J. Helve, "A comparative study of several diagnostic tests of colour vision used for measuring types and degrees of congenital red-green defects," Acta Ophthal. Suppl. 115, 1–64 (1972).
  37. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and I. Katz, "Derivation of the photopigment absorption spectra in anomalous trichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 232–237 (1973).
  38. D. Farnsworth, The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test for the examination of Color discrimination (Munsell Color Co., Baltimore, 1957).
  39. G. Verriest, "Further studies on acquired deficiency of color discrimination," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 185–195 (1963).
  40. R. W. Pickford, "A review of some problems of colour vision and colour blindness," Adv. Sci. 15, 104–117 (1958).
  41. W. Trendelenberg and I. Schmidt, "Untersuchungen über Vererbung von angeborener Farbenfehlsichtigkeit," S-B Akad. Wiss. Berlin Phys. Math. K1. 13–81 (1935).
  42. H. D. Baker and W. A. H. Rushton, "An analytical anomaloscope scope," J. Physiol. Lond. 168, 31P–33P (1963);"The redsensitive pigment in normal cones," ibid. 176, 56–72 (1965).
  43. I. Ilnuma, "Dyschromatopsia viewed as visual dysfunction glare in color," Acta Chromatica 3, 10–18 (1976).
  44. M. L. Rubin, "Spectral hue loci of normal and anomalous trichromats," Am. J. Ophthal. 52, 166–172 (1961).
  45. L. M Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Does anomalous color vision imply color weakness?" Psychon. Sci. 1, 11–12 (1964).
  46. C. E. Sternheim and R. M. Boynton, "Uniqueness of received hues investigated with a continuous judgement technique," J. Expt. Psychol. 72, 770–776 (1966).
  47. J. H. Parsons, An Introduction to the Study of Colour Vision, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1924).
  48. A. Linksz, An Essay on Color Vision (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1964).
  49. P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeck, "Chromatic Stiles-Crawford effect of anomalous trichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 836–837 (1962).
  50. J. Voke, "Stiles-Crawford chromatic effect in congenital colour defective observers," Mod. Prob. Ophthal. 13, 140–144 (1974).
  51. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Evaluation of single pigment shifts in anomalous colour vision," Mod. Probl. Ophthal. 13, 200–209 (1974).
  52. S. L. Guth and H. Lodge, "Heterochromatic additivity, foveal spectral sensitivity, and a new color model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 450–462 (1973).
  53. C. R. Ingling, Jr., B. H. P. Tsou, and B. A. Drum, "The spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color channels" (unpublished).
  54. A. Chapanis, "Spectral saturation and its relation to colorvision defects," J. Expt. Psychol. 34, 24–44 (1944).
  55. P. Moon, The Scientific Basis of Illuminating Engineering (Dover, New York, 1961).
  56. S. L. Guth, "Photometric and colorimetric additivity at various intensities," Proceedings of the First AIC Congress Stockholm 1969, pp. 172–180.
  57. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Some quantitative aspects of an opponent-colors theory. II. Brightness, saturation and hue in normal and dichromatic vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602–616 (1955).
  58. V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm," Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).

1977

1976

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, "Effect of field size on redgreen color mixture equations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of Color Mixture Data. I. Interobserver variability in the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).

T. P. Piantanida, T. A. Bruch, M. Latch, and F. D. Varner, "Detection of quantum flux modulation by single photopigments in human observers," Vision Res. 16, 1029–34 (1976).

I. Ilnuma, "Dyschromatopsia viewed as visual dysfunction glare in color," Acta Chromatica 3, 10–18 (1976).

1975

J. Pokorny, J. D. Moreland, and V. C. Smith, "Photopigments in anomalous trichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1522–1524 (1975).

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm," Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).

1974

J. Voke, "Stiles-Crawford chromatic effect in congenital colour defective observers," Mod. Prob. Ophthal. 13, 140–144 (1974).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Evaluation of single pigment shifts in anomalous colour vision," Mod. Probl. Ophthal. 13, 200–209 (1974).

H. Scheibner, "Eine verbandstheoretische Klassification der Protanomalie und Deuteranomalie," Opt. Acta 21, 489–496 (1974).

T. P. Piantanida, "A replacement model of X-linked recessive colour vision defects," Ann. Hum. Genet. (Lond.) 37, 393–404 (1974).

1973

1972

J. Helve, "A comparative study of several diagnostic tests of colour vision used for measuring types and degrees of congenital red-green defects," Acta Ophthal. Suppl. 115, 1–64 (1972).

1971

R. Lakowski, "Calibration, validation, and population norms for the Pickford-Nicholson anomaloscope," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 26, 166–182 (1971).

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

1966

G. Wald, "Defective color vision and its inheritance," Proc. NatI. Acad. Sci. (U.S.) 55, 1347–1362 (1966).

P. L. Walraven, A. M. J. Van Hout, and H. J. Leebeck, "Fundamental response curves of a normal and a deuteranomalous observer derived from chromatic adaptation data," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 125–127 (1966).

C. E. Sternheim and R. M. Boynton, "Uniqueness of received hues investigated with a continuous judgement technique," J. Expt. Psychol. 72, 770–776 (1966).

1965

W. A. H. Rushton, "A foveal pigment in the deuteranope," J. Physiol. Lond. 176, 24–37 (1965).

1964

L. M Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Does anomalous color vision imply color weakness?" Psychon. Sci. 1, 11–12 (1964).

1963

1962

P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeck, "Chromatic Stiles-Crawford effect of anomalous trichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 836–837 (1962).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Color theory and abnormal red-green vision," Docum. Ophthal. 16, 409–422 (1962).

1961

M. L. Rubin, "Spectral hue loci of normal and anomalous trichromats," Am. J. Ophthal. 52, 166–172 (1961).

1959

1958

R. W. Pickford, "A review of some problems of colour vision and colour blindness," Adv. Sci. 15, 104–117 (1958).

1956

1955

1948

H. L. De Vries, "The fundamental response curves of normal and abnormal dichromatic and trichromatic eyes," Physica (Utr.) 14,.367–380 (1948).

1944

A. Chapanis, "Spectral saturation and its relation to colorvision defects," J. Expt. Psychol. 34, 24–44 (1944).

1940

W. M. Mc Keon and W. D. Wright, "The characteristics of protanomalous vision," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 52, 464–479 (1940).

1938

J H. Nelson, "Anomalous trichromatism and its relation to normal trichromatism," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 50, 661–697 (1938).

1928

A. Francescetti, "Die Bedeutung der Einstellungstreite am Anomaloskop für die Diagnose der einzelnen Typen der Farbensinnst'örungen nebst Bermerkungen tiber ihren Vererbungsmodus," Schweiz. Med. Wschr. 52, 1273–1278 (1928).

1927

G. H. M. Waaler, "Über die Erblichkeitsverhaltnisse der verschiedenen Arten von angeborener Rotgrunblindheit," Z. Abstamm. Vererbungsl. 45, 279–283 (1927).

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern and S. Torii, "The luminosity curve of the protanomalous fovea," J. Gen. Physiol. 52, 717–737 (1968); M. Alpern and S. Torii, "The luminosity curve of the deuteranomalous fovea," ibid. 52, 738–749 (1968).

Baker, H. D.

H. D. Baker and W. A. H. Rushton, "An analytical anomaloscope scope," J. Physiol. Lond. 168, 31P–33P (1963);"The redsensitive pigment in normal cones," ibid. 176, 56–72 (1965).

Boynton, R. M.

C. E. Sternheim and R. M. Boynton, "Uniqueness of received hues investigated with a continuous judgement technique," J. Expt. Psychol. 72, 770–776 (1966).

R. M. Boynton, G. Kandel, and J. W. Onley, "Rapid chromatic adaptation of normal and dichromatic observers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 654–666 (1959).

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway, 2nd ed. (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1970).

Bruch, T. A.

T. P. Piantanida, T. A. Bruch, M. Latch, and F. D. Varner, "Detection of quantum flux modulation by single photopigments in human observers," Vision Res. 16, 1029–34 (1976).

Chapanis, A.

A. Chapanis, "Spectral saturation and its relation to colorvision defects," J. Expt. Psychol. 34, 24–44 (1944).

De Vries, H. L.

H. L. De Vries, "The fundamental response curves of normal and abnormal dichromatic and trichromatic eyes," Physica (Utr.) 14,.367–380 (1948).

Drum, B. A.

C. R. Ingling, Jr., B. H. P. Tsou, and B. A. Drum, "The spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color channels" (unpublished).

Farnsworth, D.

M. P. Willis and D. Farnsworth, "Comparative evaluation of anomaloscopes," Med. Res. Lab. Rep. No. 190, Bus. Med. Surg. U. S. Navy Dept. Washington, D. C., 1952.

D. Farnsworth, The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test for the examination of Color discrimination (Munsell Color Co., Baltimore, 1957).

Francescetti, A.

A. Francescetti, "Die Bedeutung der Einstellungstreite am Anomaloskop für die Diagnose der einzelnen Typen der Farbensinnst'örungen nebst Bermerkungen tiber ihren Vererbungsmodus," Schweiz. Med. Wschr. 52, 1273–1278 (1928).

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth and H. Lodge, "Heterochromatic additivity, foveal spectral sensitivity, and a new color model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 450–462 (1973).

S. L. Guth, "Photometric and colorimetric additivity at various intensities," Proceedings of the First AIC Congress Stockholm 1969, pp. 172–180.

Hayhoe, M. M.

D. I. A. Mac Leod and M. M. Hayhoe, "Three pigments in normal and anomalous color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 92–96 (1974); M. M. Hayhoe and D. I. A. Mac Leod, "A single anomalous photopigment?" ibid. 66, 276–277 (1976).

Helve, J.

J. Helve, "A comparative study of several diagnostic tests of colour vision used for measuring types and degrees of congenital red-green defects," Acta Ophthal. Suppl. 115, 1–64 (1972).

Hurvich, L. M

L. M Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Does anomalous color vision imply color weakness?" Psychon. Sci. 1, 11–12 (1964).

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Evaluation of single pigment shifts in anomalous colour vision," Mod. Probl. Ophthal. 13, 200–209 (1974).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Color theory and abnormal red-green vision," Docum. Ophthal. 16, 409–422 (1962).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, "Theoretical analysis of anomalous trichromatic color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1075–1089 (1956).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Some quantitative aspects of an opponent-colors theory. II. Brightness, saturation and hue in normal and dichromatic vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602–616 (1955).

L. M. Hurvich, "Color Vision Deficiencies," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4: Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), pp. 582–624.

Ilnuma, I.

I. Ilnuma, "Dyschromatopsia viewed as visual dysfunction glare in color," Acta Chromatica 3, 10–18 (1976).

Ingling, Jr., C. R.

C. R. Ingling, Jr., B. H. P. Tsou, and B. A. Drum, "The spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color channels" (unpublished).

Jaeger, W.

W. Jaeger, "Genetics of Congenital Color Deficiencies," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4: Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), pp. 625–642.

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Evaluation of single pigment shifts in anomalous colour vision," Mod. Probl. Ophthal. 13, 200–209 (1974).

L. M Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Does anomalous color vision imply color weakness?" Psychon. Sci. 1, 11–12 (1964).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Color theory and abnormal red-green vision," Docum. Ophthal. 16, 409–422 (1962).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, "Theoretical analysis of anomalous trichromatic color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1075–1089 (1956).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Some quantitative aspects of an opponent-colors theory. II. Brightness, saturation and hue in normal and dichromatic vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602–616 (1955).

Kandel, G.

Katz, I.

Keon, W. M. Mc

W. M. Mc Keon and W. D. Wright, "The characteristics of protanomalous vision," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 52, 464–479 (1940).

Lakowski, R.

R. Lakowski, "Calibration, validation, and population norms for the Pickford-Nicholson anomaloscope," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 26, 166–182 (1971).

Latch, M.

T. P. Piantanida, T. A. Bruch, M. Latch, and F. D. Varner, "Detection of quantum flux modulation by single photopigments in human observers," Vision Res. 16, 1029–34 (1976).

Leebeck, H. J.

Leod, D. I. A. Mac

D. I. A. Mac Leod and M. M. Hayhoe, "Three pigments in normal and anomalous color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 92–96 (1974); M. M. Hayhoe and D. I. A. Mac Leod, "A single anomalous photopigment?" ibid. 66, 276–277 (1976).

Linksz, A.

A. Linksz, An Essay on Color Vision (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1964).

Lobanova, N. V.

We omit the estimates derived by N. V. Lobanova and N. I. Speranskaya ["The spectral sensitivity of the retinal elements of anomalous trichromats," Biophysics 6, 71–78 (1961)], who used M. M. Bongard and M. S. Smirnov's determination of curves for spectral sensitivity of the visual receptors by means of complex curves [see Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 102,1111–1114 (1955)]. The technique rests on the assumption that for each of the three visual photopigments there exist pairs of spectral wavelengths to which the photopigment is unresponsive. This assumption can only be realized for the SWS visual photopigment. N. I. Speranskaya and N. V. Lobanova's estimates ["Determination of spectral sensitivity curves of the eyes of normal trichromats," Biophysics 6, 66–70 (1961)] of the visual photopigments of normal trichromats show substantial disagreement with the Konig fundamentals proposed by Vos and Walraven (see Ref. 8) and ourselves (see Ref. 58). The proposed Speranskaya and Lobanova normal receptor I (LWS) is displaced about + 5 nm and their normal receptor II (MWS) is -5nm from the corresponding estimates of Vos and Walraven (Ref. 8) and ourselves (Ref. 58).

Lodge, H.

Mitchell, D. E.

D. E. Mitchell and W. A. H. Rushton, "Visual pigments in dichromats," Vision Res. 11, 1033–1044 (1971); D. E. Mitchell and WV. A. 11. Iusliton,"The red/green pigments of normal vision," ibid. 11, 1045v1056 (1971).

Moon, P.

P. Moon, The Scientific Basis of Illuminating Engineering (Dover, New York, 1961).

Moreland, J. D.

Nelson, J H.

J H. Nelson, "Anomalous trichromatism and its relation to normal trichromatism," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 50, 661–697 (1938).

Onley, J. W.

Parsons, J. H.

J. H. Parsons, An Introduction to the Study of Colour Vision, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1924).

Piantanida, T. P.

T. P. Piantanida, T. A. Bruch, M. Latch, and F. D. Varner, "Detection of quantum flux modulation by single photopigments in human observers," Vision Res. 16, 1029–34 (1976).

T. P. Piantanida, "A replacement model of X-linked recessive colour vision defects," Ann. Hum. Genet. (Lond.) 37, 393–404 (1974).

T. P. Piantanida and H. G. Sperling, "Isolation of a third chromatic mechanism in the protanomalous observer," Vision Res. 13, 2033–2047 (1973); "Isolation of a third chromatic mechanism in the deuteranomalous observer," ibid. 13, 2049–2058 (1973).

Pickford, R. W.

R. W. Pickford, "A review of some problems of colour vision and colour blindness," Adv. Sci. 15, 104–117 (1958).

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Large-field trichromacy in protanopes and deuteranopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 213–220 (1977).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of Color Mixture Data. I. Interobserver variability in the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, "Effect of field size on redgreen color mixture equations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).

J. Pokorny, J. D. Moreland, and V. C. Smith, "Photopigments in anomalous trichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1522–1524 (1975).

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm," Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and I. Katz, "Derivation of the photopigment absorption spectra in anomalous trichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 232–237 (1973).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and R. Swartley, "Continuous hue estimation of brief flashes by deuteranomalous observers," Am. J. Psychol. 86, 115–131 (1973).

Powell, D. S.

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell and K. D. White, "Exchange thresholds in dichromats," Vision Res. 13, 1993–2002 (1973); W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell and K. D. White," The spectral sensitivity of "red" and "green" cones in the normal eye," ibid. 13, 2003–2015 (1973); W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, and K. D. White, "Pigments in anomalous trichromats," ibid. 13, 2017–2031 (1973).

Rubin, M. L.

M. L. Rubin, "Spectral hue loci of normal and anomalous trichromats," Am. J. Ophthal. 52, 166–172 (1961).

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, "A foveal pigment in the deuteranope," J. Physiol. Lond. 176, 24–37 (1965).

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell and K. D. White, "Exchange thresholds in dichromats," Vision Res. 13, 1993–2002 (1973); W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell and K. D. White," The spectral sensitivity of "red" and "green" cones in the normal eye," ibid. 13, 2003–2015 (1973); W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, and K. D. White, "Pigments in anomalous trichromats," ibid. 13, 2017–2031 (1973).

W. A. H. Rushton, "A cone pigment in the protanope," J. Physiol. Lond. 168, 345–359 (1963); W. A. H. Rushton,"The density of chlorolabe in the foveal cones of the protanope," ibid. 168, 360–373 (1963).

H. D. Baker and W. A. H. Rushton, "An analytical anomaloscope scope," J. Physiol. Lond. 168, 31P–33P (1963);"The redsensitive pigment in normal cones," ibid. 176, 56–72 (1965).

D. E. Mitchell and W. A. H. Rushton, "Visual pigments in dichromats," Vision Res. 11, 1033–1044 (1971); D. E. Mitchell and WV. A. 11. Iusliton,"The red/green pigments of normal vision," ibid. 11, 1045v1056 (1971).

Scheibner, H.

H. Scheibner, "Eine verbandstheoretische Klassification der Protanomalie und Deuteranomalie," Opt. Acta 21, 489–496 (1974).

Schmidt, I.

I. Schmidt, "Some problems related to testing color vision with the Nagel anomaloscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 514–522 (1955).

W. Trendelenberg and I. Schmidt, "Untersuchungen über Vererbung von angeborener Farbenfehlsichtigkeit," S-B Akad. Wiss. Berlin Phys. Math. K1. 13–81 (1935).

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Large-field trichromacy in protanopes and deuteranopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 213–220 (1977).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of Color Mixture Data. I. Interobserver variability in the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, "Effect of field size on redgreen color mixture equations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).

J. Pokorny, J. D. Moreland, and V. C. Smith, "Photopigments in anomalous trichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1522–1524 (1975).

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm," Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and I. Katz, "Derivation of the photopigment absorption spectra in anomalous trichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 232–237 (1973).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and R. Swartley, "Continuous hue estimation of brief flashes by deuteranomalous observers," Am. J. Psychol. 86, 115–131 (1973).

Speranskaya, N. I.

We omit the estimates derived by N. V. Lobanova and N. I. Speranskaya ["The spectral sensitivity of the retinal elements of anomalous trichromats," Biophysics 6, 71–78 (1961)], who used M. M. Bongard and M. S. Smirnov's determination of curves for spectral sensitivity of the visual receptors by means of complex curves [see Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 102,1111–1114 (1955)]. The technique rests on the assumption that for each of the three visual photopigments there exist pairs of spectral wavelengths to which the photopigment is unresponsive. This assumption can only be realized for the SWS visual photopigment. N. I. Speranskaya and N. V. Lobanova's estimates ["Determination of spectral sensitivity curves of the eyes of normal trichromats," Biophysics 6, 66–70 (1961)] of the visual photopigments of normal trichromats show substantial disagreement with the Konig fundamentals proposed by Vos and Walraven (see Ref. 8) and ourselves (see Ref. 58). The proposed Speranskaya and Lobanova normal receptor I (LWS) is displaced about + 5 nm and their normal receptor II (MWS) is -5nm from the corresponding estimates of Vos and Walraven (Ref. 8) and ourselves (Ref. 58).

Sperling, H. G.

T. P. Piantanida and H. G. Sperling, "Isolation of a third chromatic mechanism in the protanomalous observer," Vision Res. 13, 2033–2047 (1973); "Isolation of a third chromatic mechanism in the deuteranomalous observer," ibid. 13, 2049–2058 (1973).

Starr, S. J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of Color Mixture Data. I. Interobserver variability in the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).

Sternheim, C. E.

C. E. Sternheim and R. M. Boynton, "Uniqueness of received hues investigated with a continuous judgement technique," J. Expt. Psychol. 72, 770–776 (1966).

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Swartley, R.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and R. Swartley, "Continuous hue estimation of brief flashes by deuteranomalous observers," Am. J. Psychol. 86, 115–131 (1973).

Torii, S.

M. Alpern and S. Torii, "The luminosity curve of the protanomalous fovea," J. Gen. Physiol. 52, 717–737 (1968); M. Alpern and S. Torii, "The luminosity curve of the deuteranomalous fovea," ibid. 52, 738–749 (1968).

Trendelenberg, W.

W. Trendelenberg and I. Schmidt, "Untersuchungen über Vererbung von angeborener Farbenfehlsichtigkeit," S-B Akad. Wiss. Berlin Phys. Math. K1. 13–81 (1935).

Tsou, B. H. P.

C. R. Ingling, Jr., B. H. P. Tsou, and B. A. Drum, "The spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color channels" (unpublished).

Van Hout, A. M. J.

Varner, F. D.

T. P. Piantanida, T. A. Bruch, M. Latch, and F. D. Varner, "Detection of quantum flux modulation by single photopigments in human observers," Vision Res. 16, 1029–34 (1976).

Verriest, G.

Voke, J.

J. Voke, "Stiles-Crawford chromatic effect in congenital colour defective observers," Mod. Prob. Ophthal. 13, 140–144 (1974).

von Kries, J.

J. von Kries, "Normal and Anomalous Color Systems," in H. L. F. von Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, 3rd ed., Vol. II, translated by J. P. C. Southall (Optical Society of America, Rochester, N. Y., 1924), pp. 395–425.

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

Waaler, G. H. M.

G. H. M. Waaler, "Über die Erblichkeitsverhaltnisse der verschiedenen Arten von angeborener Rotgrunblindheit," Z. Abstamm. Vererbungsl. 45, 279–283 (1927).

Wald, G.

G. Wald, "Defective color vision and its inheritance," Proc. NatI. Acad. Sci. (U.S.) 55, 1347–1362 (1966).

Walraven, P. L.

White, K. D.

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell and K. D. White, "Exchange thresholds in dichromats," Vision Res. 13, 1993–2002 (1973); W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell and K. D. White," The spectral sensitivity of "red" and "green" cones in the normal eye," ibid. 13, 2003–2015 (1973); W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, and K. D. White, "Pigments in anomalous trichromats," ibid. 13, 2017–2031 (1973).

Willis, M. P.

M. P. Willis and D. Farnsworth, "Comparative evaluation of anomaloscopes," Med. Res. Lab. Rep. No. 190, Bus. Med. Surg. U. S. Navy Dept. Washington, D. C., 1952.

Wright, W. D.

W. M. Mc Keon and W. D. Wright, "The characteristics of protanomalous vision," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 52, 464–479 (1940).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Acta Chromatica

I. Ilnuma, "Dyschromatopsia viewed as visual dysfunction glare in color," Acta Chromatica 3, 10–18 (1976).

Acta Ophthal. Suppl.

J. Helve, "A comparative study of several diagnostic tests of colour vision used for measuring types and degrees of congenital red-green defects," Acta Ophthal. Suppl. 115, 1–64 (1972).

Adv. Sci.

R. W. Pickford, "A review of some problems of colour vision and colour blindness," Adv. Sci. 15, 104–117 (1958).

Am. J. Ophthal.

M. L. Rubin, "Spectral hue loci of normal and anomalous trichromats," Am. J. Ophthal. 52, 166–172 (1961).

Am. J. Psychol.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and R. Swartley, "Continuous hue estimation of brief flashes by deuteranomalous observers," Am. J. Psychol. 86, 115–131 (1973).

Ann. Hum. Genet.

T. P. Piantanida, "A replacement model of X-linked recessive colour vision defects," Ann. Hum. Genet. (Lond.) 37, 393–404 (1974).

Brit. J. Physiol. Opt.

R. Lakowski, "Calibration, validation, and population norms for the Pickford-Nicholson anomaloscope," Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 26, 166–182 (1971).

Docum. Ophthal.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Color theory and abnormal red-green vision," Docum. Ophthal. 16, 409–422 (1962).

J. Expt. Psychol.

C. E. Sternheim and R. M. Boynton, "Uniqueness of received hues investigated with a continuous judgement technique," J. Expt. Psychol. 72, 770–776 (1966).

A. Chapanis, "Spectral saturation and its relation to colorvision defects," J. Expt. Psychol. 34, 24–44 (1944).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

I. Schmidt, "Some problems related to testing color vision with the Nagel anomaloscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 514–522 (1955).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Some quantitative aspects of an opponent-colors theory. II. Brightness, saturation and hue in normal and dichromatic vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602–616 (1955).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, "Theoretical analysis of anomalous trichromatic color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1075–1089 (1956).

R. M. Boynton, G. Kandel, and J. W. Onley, "Rapid chromatic adaptation of normal and dichromatic observers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 654–666 (1959).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and I. Katz, "Derivation of the photopigment absorption spectra in anomalous trichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 232–237 (1973).

S. L. Guth and H. Lodge, "Heterochromatic additivity, foveal spectral sensitivity, and a new color model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 450–462 (1973).

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, "Effect of field size on redgreen color mixture equations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Large-field trichromacy in protanopes and deuteranopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 213–220 (1977).

G. Verriest, "Further studies on acquired deficiency of color discrimination," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 185–195 (1963).

P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeck, "Chromatic Stiles-Crawford effect of anomalous trichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 836–837 (1962).

J. Pokorny, J. D. Moreland, and V. C. Smith, "Photopigments in anomalous trichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1522–1524 (1975).

P. L. Walraven, A. M. J. Van Hout, and H. J. Leebeck, "Fundamental response curves of a normal and a deuteranomalous observer derived from chromatic adaptation data," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 125–127 (1966).

J. Physiol. Lond.

W. A. H. Rushton, "A foveal pigment in the deuteranope," J. Physiol. Lond. 176, 24–37 (1965).

Mod. Prob. Ophthal.

J. Voke, "Stiles-Crawford chromatic effect in congenital colour defective observers," Mod. Prob. Ophthal. 13, 140–144 (1974).

Mod. Probl. Ophthal.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Evaluation of single pigment shifts in anomalous colour vision," Mod. Probl. Ophthal. 13, 200–209 (1974).

Opt. Acta

H. Scheibner, "Eine verbandstheoretische Klassification der Protanomalie und Deuteranomalie," Opt. Acta 21, 489–496 (1974).

Physica

H. L. De Vries, "The fundamental response curves of normal and abnormal dichromatic and trichromatic eyes," Physica (Utr.) 14,.367–380 (1948).

Proc. NatI. Acad. Sci.

G. Wald, "Defective color vision and its inheritance," Proc. NatI. Acad. Sci. (U.S.) 55, 1347–1362 (1966).

Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond.

J H. Nelson, "Anomalous trichromatism and its relation to normal trichromatism," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 50, 661–697 (1938).

W. M. Mc Keon and W. D. Wright, "The characteristics of protanomalous vision," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 52, 464–479 (1940).

Psychon. Sci.

L. M Hurvich and D. Jameson, "Does anomalous color vision imply color weakness?" Psychon. Sci. 1, 11–12 (1964).

Schweiz. Med. Wschr.

A. Francescetti, "Die Bedeutung der Einstellungstreite am Anomaloskop für die Diagnose der einzelnen Typen der Farbensinnst'örungen nebst Bermerkungen tiber ihren Vererbungsmodus," Schweiz. Med. Wschr. 52, 1273–1278 (1928).

Vision Res.

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of Color Mixture Data. I. Interobserver variability in the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).

T. P. Piantanida, T. A. Bruch, M. Latch, and F. D. Varner, "Detection of quantum flux modulation by single photopigments in human observers," Vision Res. 16, 1029–34 (1976).

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm," Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).

Z. Abstamm. Vererbungsl.

G. H. M. Waaler, "Über die Erblichkeitsverhaltnisse der verschiedenen Arten von angeborener Rotgrunblindheit," Z. Abstamm. Vererbungsl. 45, 279–283 (1927).

Other

M. P. Willis and D. Farnsworth, "Comparative evaluation of anomaloscopes," Med. Res. Lab. Rep. No. 190, Bus. Med. Surg. U. S. Navy Dept. Washington, D. C., 1952.

W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell and K. D. White, "Exchange thresholds in dichromats," Vision Res. 13, 1993–2002 (1973); W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell and K. D. White," The spectral sensitivity of "red" and "green" cones in the normal eye," ibid. 13, 2003–2015 (1973); W. A. H. Rushton, D. S. Powell, and K. D. White, "Pigments in anomalous trichromats," ibid. 13, 2017–2031 (1973).

W. A. H. Rushton, "A cone pigment in the protanope," J. Physiol. Lond. 168, 345–359 (1963); W. A. H. Rushton,"The density of chlorolabe in the foveal cones of the protanope," ibid. 168, 360–373 (1963).

M. Alpern and S. Torii, "The luminosity curve of the protanomalous fovea," J. Gen. Physiol. 52, 717–737 (1968); M. Alpern and S. Torii, "The luminosity curve of the deuteranomalous fovea," ibid. 52, 738–749 (1968).

T. P. Piantanida and H. G. Sperling, "Isolation of a third chromatic mechanism in the protanomalous observer," Vision Res. 13, 2033–2047 (1973); "Isolation of a third chromatic mechanism in the deuteranomalous observer," ibid. 13, 2049–2058 (1973).

W. Jaeger, "Genetics of Congenital Color Deficiencies," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4: Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), pp. 625–642.

J. von Kries, "Normal and Anomalous Color Systems," in H. L. F. von Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, 3rd ed., Vol. II, translated by J. P. C. Southall (Optical Society of America, Rochester, N. Y., 1924), pp. 395–425.

L. M. Hurvich, "Color Vision Deficiencies," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4: Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), pp. 582–624.

D. E. Mitchell and W. A. H. Rushton, "Visual pigments in dichromats," Vision Res. 11, 1033–1044 (1971); D. E. Mitchell and WV. A. 11. Iusliton,"The red/green pigments of normal vision," ibid. 11, 1045v1056 (1971).

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway, 2nd ed. (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1970).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

We omit the estimates derived by N. V. Lobanova and N. I. Speranskaya ["The spectral sensitivity of the retinal elements of anomalous trichromats," Biophysics 6, 71–78 (1961)], who used M. M. Bongard and M. S. Smirnov's determination of curves for spectral sensitivity of the visual receptors by means of complex curves [see Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 102,1111–1114 (1955)]. The technique rests on the assumption that for each of the three visual photopigments there exist pairs of spectral wavelengths to which the photopigment is unresponsive. This assumption can only be realized for the SWS visual photopigment. N. I. Speranskaya and N. V. Lobanova's estimates ["Determination of spectral sensitivity curves of the eyes of normal trichromats," Biophysics 6, 66–70 (1961)] of the visual photopigments of normal trichromats show substantial disagreement with the Konig fundamentals proposed by Vos and Walraven (see Ref. 8) and ourselves (see Ref. 58). The proposed Speranskaya and Lobanova normal receptor I (LWS) is displaced about + 5 nm and their normal receptor II (MWS) is -5nm from the corresponding estimates of Vos and Walraven (Ref. 8) and ourselves (Ref. 58).

D. I. A. Mac Leod and M. M. Hayhoe, "Three pigments in normal and anomalous color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 92–96 (1974); M. M. Hayhoe and D. I. A. Mac Leod, "A single anomalous photopigment?" ibid. 66, 276–277 (1976).

J. H. Parsons, An Introduction to the Study of Colour Vision, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1924).

A. Linksz, An Essay on Color Vision (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1964).

D. Farnsworth, The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test for the examination of Color discrimination (Munsell Color Co., Baltimore, 1957).

W. Trendelenberg and I. Schmidt, "Untersuchungen über Vererbung von angeborener Farbenfehlsichtigkeit," S-B Akad. Wiss. Berlin Phys. Math. K1. 13–81 (1935).

H. D. Baker and W. A. H. Rushton, "An analytical anomaloscope scope," J. Physiol. Lond. 168, 31P–33P (1963);"The redsensitive pigment in normal cones," ibid. 176, 56–72 (1965).

P. Moon, The Scientific Basis of Illuminating Engineering (Dover, New York, 1961).

S. L. Guth, "Photometric and colorimetric additivity at various intensities," Proceedings of the First AIC Congress Stockholm 1969, pp. 172–180.

C. R. Ingling, Jr., B. H. P. Tsou, and B. A. Drum, "The spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color channels" (unpublished).

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