Abstract

We have attempted to reconcile the results of several recent chromatic flicker studies. By adjusting the relative amplitudes of red and green sine-wave stimuli that were flickering in opposite phase, we obtained conditions varying from purely chromatic (red-green) stimulation, through each “silent-cone” condition, to purely luminous (homochromatic) stimulation. We also tested the effects of adapting backgrounds in each condition. Our results can be explained in terms of a low-frequency band that represents the opponent-color response, and a high-frequency band that represents the achromatic response. These two bands respond in various proportions, depending on the red-green stimulus ratio. Chromatic adaptation generally affects the low- and high-frequency bands differently and hence changes the shape of the flicker sensitivity curve. However, if the temporally varying waveform and the adapting background are both chosen to stimulate the same cone type, then the opponent-color and achromatic bands are both attenuated by the same amount. In this case, the shapes of the silent-red and silent-green flicker curves are preserved under chromatic adaptation. We conclude that none of these flicker curves are controlled by the temporal characteristics of independent cone types.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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1976 (2)

D. H. Kelly, R. M. Boynton, and W. S. Baron, "Primate flicker sensitivity: Psychophysics and electrophysiology," Science 194, 1077–1079 (1976).

D. H. Kelly, "Pattern detection and the two-dimensional Fourier transform: Flickering checkerboards and chromatic mechanisms," Vision Res. 16, 277–287 (1976).

1975 (3)

D. H. Kelly, "Luminous and chromatic flickering patterns have opposite effects," Science 188, 371–372 (1975).

O. Estévez and C. R. Cavonius, "Flicker sensitivity of the human red and green color mechanisms," Vision Res. 15, 879–881 (1975).

R. M. Boynton and W. S. Baron, "Sinusoidal flicker characteristics of primate cones in response to heterochromatic stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1091–1100 (1975).

1974 (2)

D. H. Kelly, "Spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of color-vision mechanisms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 983–990 (1974).

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, "A spectral compensation method for determining the flicker characteristics of the human colour systems," Vision Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).

1971 (1)

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

1969 (3)

1966 (1)

P. L. Walraven, "A zone theory of color vision," Die Farbe 15, 17–20 (1966).

1964 (1)

1960 (1)

1958 (1)

1957 (1)

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "An opponent-process theory of color vision," Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).

Baron, W. S.

D. H. Kelly, R. M. Boynton, and W. S. Baron, "Primate flicker sensitivity: Psychophysics and electrophysiology," Science 194, 1077–1079 (1976).

R. M. Boynton and W. S. Baron, "Sinusoidal flicker characteristics of primate cones in response to heterochromatic stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1091–1100 (1975).

Bouman, M. A.

Boynton, R. M.

Cavonius, C. R.

O. Estévez and C. R. Cavonius, "Flicker sensitivity of the human red and green color mechanisms," Vision Res. 15, 879–881 (1975).

deLange, H.

Estévez, O.

O. Estévez and C. R. Cavonius, "Flicker sensitivity of the human red and green color mechanisms," Vision Res. 15, 879–881 (1975).

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, "A spectral compensation method for determining the flicker characteristics of the human colour systems," Vision Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).

Green, D. G.

D. G. Green, "Sinusoidal flicker characteristics of the color-sensitive mechanisms of the eye," Vision Res. 9, 591–601 (1969).

Horst, G. J. C. van der

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "An opponent-process theory of color vision," Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "An opponent-process theory of color vision," Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).

Kelly, D. H.

D. H. Kelly, R. M. Boynton, and W. S. Baron, "Primate flicker sensitivity: Psychophysics and electrophysiology," Science 194, 1077–1079 (1976).

D. H. Kelly, "Pattern detection and the two-dimensional Fourier transform: Flickering checkerboards and chromatic mechanisms," Vision Res. 16, 277–287 (1976).

D. H. Kelly, "Luminous and chromatic flickering patterns have opposite effects," Science 188, 371–372 (1975).

D. H. Kelly, "Spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of color-vision mechanisms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 983–990 (1974).

Leebeek, H. J.

Spekreijse, H.

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, "A spectral compensation method for determining the flicker characteristics of the human colour systems," Vision Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, "Notes on flicker photometry," J. Franklin Inst. 181, 853–855 (1916); 182 261–263 (1916).

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

Walraven, P. L.

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

P. L. Walraven, "A zone theory of color vision," Die Farbe 15, 17–20 (1966).

P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, "Phase shift of sinusoidally alternating colored stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 78–82 (1964).

Die Farbe (1)

P. L. Walraven, "A zone theory of color vision," Die Farbe 15, 17–20 (1966).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

Psychol. Rev. (1)

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, "An opponent-process theory of color vision," Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).

Science (2)

D. H. Kelly, "Luminous and chromatic flickering patterns have opposite effects," Science 188, 371–372 (1975).

D. H. Kelly, R. M. Boynton, and W. S. Baron, "Primate flicker sensitivity: Psychophysics and electrophysiology," Science 194, 1077–1079 (1976).

Vision Res. (5)

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, "A spectral compensation method for determining the flicker characteristics of the human colour systems," Vision Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).

O. Estévez and C. R. Cavonius, "Flicker sensitivity of the human red and green color mechanisms," Vision Res. 15, 879–881 (1975).

D. G. Green, "Sinusoidal flicker characteristics of the color-sensitive mechanisms of the eye," Vision Res. 9, 591–601 (1969).

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1971).

D. H. Kelly, "Pattern detection and the two-dimensional Fourier transform: Flickering checkerboards and chromatic mechanisms," Vision Res. 16, 277–287 (1976).

Other (1)

L. T. Troland, "Notes on flicker photometry," J. Franklin Inst. 181, 853–855 (1916); 182 261–263 (1916).

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