Abstract

Analytical expressions for the radiance produced by cw and pulsed laser beams transversing a particulate multiple-scattering medium are derived using radiative transfer theory and the small-angle approximation. In addition, analytical expressions for the mean-square spread of the radiant flux produced by cw illumination, and for the multipath time spread of the radiant flux produced by pulsed illumination are developed and compared with previously reported numerical and experimental results for laser beam propagation through fogs and clouds.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. A. Dell-Imagine, "A study of multiple scattering of optical radiation with applications to laser communications," in Advances in Communication Systems, Vol. II, edited by V. A. Balakrishnar (Academic, New York, 1966), p. 1.
  2. H. M. Heggestad, "Optical communication through multiple scattering media," M. I. T. Technical report No. 472, 22 November 1968 (unpublished).
  3. S. T. Hong and A. Ishimaru, "Two frequency mutual coherence function, coherence bandwidth, and coherence time of millimeter and optical waves in rain, fog, and turbulence," Radio Sci. 11, No. 6, 551 (1976).
  4. A. Ishimaru and S. T. Hong, "Multiple scattering effects on coherent bandwidth and pulse distortion of a wave propagating in a random distribution of particles," Radio Sci. 10, 637 (1975).
  5. D. Arnush, "Underwater light-beam propagation in the small-angle-scattering approximation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, No. 9, 1109 (1972).
  6. E. A. Bucher, "Computer simulation of light pulse propagation for communication through thick clouds," Appl. Opt. 12, No. 10, 2391 (1973).
  7. E. A. Bucher and R. M. Lerner, "Experiments on light pulse communication through atmospheric clouds," Appl. Opt. 12, No. 10, 2401 (1973).
  8. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1960) (reprinted by Dover, New York, 1960).
  9. V. Kourganoff, Basic Methods in Transfer Problems (Dover, New York, 1963).
  10. R. Preisendorfer, Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces (Pergamon, New York, 1965).
  11. E. A. Bucher, "Propagation models for optical communication through fog and clouds," Proc. Natl. Electron. Conf. 29, 180 (1974).
  12. H. S. Snyder and W. T. Scott, "Multiple scattering of fast charged particles," Phys. Rev. 76, 220 (1949).
  13. W. F. Ames, Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations in Engineering (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 50.
  14. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Segun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1964), p. 486.
  15. E. Fermi, Nuclear Physics (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1950).
  16. R. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), pp. 139โ€“142.

1976 (1)

S. T. Hong and A. Ishimaru, "Two frequency mutual coherence function, coherence bandwidth, and coherence time of millimeter and optical waves in rain, fog, and turbulence," Radio Sci. 11, No. 6, 551 (1976).

1975 (1)

A. Ishimaru and S. T. Hong, "Multiple scattering effects on coherent bandwidth and pulse distortion of a wave propagating in a random distribution of particles," Radio Sci. 10, 637 (1975).

1974 (1)

E. A. Bucher, "Propagation models for optical communication through fog and clouds," Proc. Natl. Electron. Conf. 29, 180 (1974).

1973 (2)

1972 (1)

1949 (1)

H. S. Snyder and W. T. Scott, "Multiple scattering of fast charged particles," Phys. Rev. 76, 220 (1949).

Abramowitz, M.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Segun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1964), p. 486.

Ames, W. F.

W. F. Ames, Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations in Engineering (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 50.

Arnush, D.

Bracewell, R.

R. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), pp. 139โ€“142.

Bucher, E. A.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1960) (reprinted by Dover, New York, 1960).

Dell-Imagine, R. A.

R. A. Dell-Imagine, "A study of multiple scattering of optical radiation with applications to laser communications," in Advances in Communication Systems, Vol. II, edited by V. A. Balakrishnar (Academic, New York, 1966), p. 1.

Fermi, E.

E. Fermi, Nuclear Physics (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1950).

Heggestad, H. M.

H. M. Heggestad, "Optical communication through multiple scattering media," M. I. T. Technical report No. 472, 22 November 1968 (unpublished).

Hong, S. T.

S. T. Hong and A. Ishimaru, "Two frequency mutual coherence function, coherence bandwidth, and coherence time of millimeter and optical waves in rain, fog, and turbulence," Radio Sci. 11, No. 6, 551 (1976).

A. Ishimaru and S. T. Hong, "Multiple scattering effects on coherent bandwidth and pulse distortion of a wave propagating in a random distribution of particles," Radio Sci. 10, 637 (1975).

Ishimaru, A.

S. T. Hong and A. Ishimaru, "Two frequency mutual coherence function, coherence bandwidth, and coherence time of millimeter and optical waves in rain, fog, and turbulence," Radio Sci. 11, No. 6, 551 (1976).

A. Ishimaru and S. T. Hong, "Multiple scattering effects on coherent bandwidth and pulse distortion of a wave propagating in a random distribution of particles," Radio Sci. 10, 637 (1975).

Kourganoff, V.

V. Kourganoff, Basic Methods in Transfer Problems (Dover, New York, 1963).

Lerner, R. M.

Preisendorfer, R.

R. Preisendorfer, Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces (Pergamon, New York, 1965).

Scott, W. T.

H. S. Snyder and W. T. Scott, "Multiple scattering of fast charged particles," Phys. Rev. 76, 220 (1949).

Segun, I. A.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Segun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1964), p. 486.

Snyder, H. S.

H. S. Snyder and W. T. Scott, "Multiple scattering of fast charged particles," Phys. Rev. 76, 220 (1949).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. S. Snyder and W. T. Scott, "Multiple scattering of fast charged particles," Phys. Rev. 76, 220 (1949).

Proc. Natl. Electron. Conf. (1)

E. A. Bucher, "Propagation models for optical communication through fog and clouds," Proc. Natl. Electron. Conf. 29, 180 (1974).

Radio Sci. (2)

S. T. Hong and A. Ishimaru, "Two frequency mutual coherence function, coherence bandwidth, and coherence time of millimeter and optical waves in rain, fog, and turbulence," Radio Sci. 11, No. 6, 551 (1976).

A. Ishimaru and S. T. Hong, "Multiple scattering effects on coherent bandwidth and pulse distortion of a wave propagating in a random distribution of particles," Radio Sci. 10, 637 (1975).

Other (9)

R. A. Dell-Imagine, "A study of multiple scattering of optical radiation with applications to laser communications," in Advances in Communication Systems, Vol. II, edited by V. A. Balakrishnar (Academic, New York, 1966), p. 1.

H. M. Heggestad, "Optical communication through multiple scattering media," M. I. T. Technical report No. 472, 22 November 1968 (unpublished).

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1960) (reprinted by Dover, New York, 1960).

V. Kourganoff, Basic Methods in Transfer Problems (Dover, New York, 1963).

R. Preisendorfer, Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces (Pergamon, New York, 1965).

W. F. Ames, Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations in Engineering (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 50.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Segun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1964), p. 486.

E. Fermi, Nuclear Physics (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1950).

R. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), pp. 139โ€“142.

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