Abstract

The spectrum of selenium has been observed in the wavelength region 1200–100 Å on the 10.7 m normal incidence and 10.7 m grazing incidence vacuum spectrographs at the NBS Laboratory in Washington. A triggered vacuum spark was used as a source. The “pole effect” exhibited by the lines on the normal incidence spectrograms helped to discriminate different stages of ionization of the selenium spectra. All the levels belonging to the 3d 94s and 3d 94p configurations in Se vii have been located. The parametric level fitting calculations of the energy levels agree with the experimental values. In Se viii, the 3p 53d10 2P° term has been determined.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. G. Kruger and W. E. Shoupp, “Deepest Terms in Ions of the Isoelectronic Sequences Ni i to Kr ix and Pd i to Xe ix,” Phys. Rev. 46, 124–129, 1934.
    [Crossref]
  2. K. R. Rao and S. G. K. Murti, “Investigations on the Spectrum of Selenium. Se i and Se vii,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 145, 694–698 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. Edlén, “Atomic Energy Levels Volume II,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ. 467, 158 (1952).
  4. Y. N. Joshi, Th. A. M. vanKleef, and H. Benschop, “Eighth Spectrum of Selenium: Se viii,”Can. J. Phys. 54, 1545–1552 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  5. U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. I. Cohen, “Vacuum Ultraviolet Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372–1373 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. G. Shenstone, “The Third Spectrum of Nickel (Ni iii),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 749–759 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Poppe, R. Hoekstra, and P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Comparator for Spectroscopic Measurements using an Interferometer and Photoelectric Scanning (COSPINSCA),” App. Sci. Res. B 11, 293–309 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  8. V. Kaufman and B. Edlén, “Reference wavelengths from Atomic Spectra in the range 15 Å to 25000 Å,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 825–895 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and Ionic Emission lines below 2000 Angstroms,” Superintendent of documents, U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington D.C., Stock No. 0851–00061 (1973).
  10. R. Poppe, “Parametric treatment of the 3dn−14p configurations in the trebly ionized atoms,” Physica (Utrecht) 75, 341−350 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. D. Cowan, “Theoretical calculations of Atomic Spectra using Digital Computers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 808−818 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. Edlén, “Spectra of highly ionized atoms,” Physica (Utrecht) 13, 545–554 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. Edlén, “Atomic Energy Levels Volume II,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Circ. 467, 168, 187, 194, 204, 215 (1952).
  14. J. Hansen (private communication, 1976).

1976 (1)

Y. N. Joshi, Th. A. M. vanKleef, and H. Benschop, “Eighth Spectrum of Selenium: Se viii,”Can. J. Phys. 54, 1545–1552 (1976).
[Crossref]

1974 (2)

V. Kaufman and B. Edlén, “Reference wavelengths from Atomic Spectra in the range 15 Å to 25000 Å,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 825–895 (1974).
[Crossref]

R. Poppe, “Parametric treatment of the 3dn−14p configurations in the trebly ionized atoms,” Physica (Utrecht) 75, 341−350 (1974).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. I. Cohen, “Vacuum Ultraviolet Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372–1373 (1967).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

R. Poppe, R. Hoekstra, and P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Comparator for Spectroscopic Measurements using an Interferometer and Photoelectric Scanning (COSPINSCA),” App. Sci. Res. B 11, 293–309 (1964).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

1952 (2)

B. Edlén, “Atomic Energy Levels Volume II,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ. 467, 158 (1952).

B. Edlén, “Atomic Energy Levels Volume II,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Circ. 467, 168, 187, 194, 204, 215 (1952).

1947 (1)

B. Edlén, “Spectra of highly ionized atoms,” Physica (Utrecht) 13, 545–554 (1947).
[Crossref]

1934 (2)

P. G. Kruger and W. E. Shoupp, “Deepest Terms in Ions of the Isoelectronic Sequences Ni i to Kr ix and Pd i to Xe ix,” Phys. Rev. 46, 124–129, 1934.
[Crossref]

K. R. Rao and S. G. K. Murti, “Investigations on the Spectrum of Selenium. Se i and Se vii,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 145, 694–698 (1934).
[Crossref]

Benschop, H.

Y. N. Joshi, Th. A. M. vanKleef, and H. Benschop, “Eighth Spectrum of Selenium: Se viii,”Can. J. Phys. 54, 1545–1552 (1976).
[Crossref]

Cohen, L. I.

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. I. Cohen, “Vacuum Ultraviolet Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372–1373 (1967).
[Crossref]

Cowan, R. D.

Edlén, B.

V. Kaufman and B. Edlén, “Reference wavelengths from Atomic Spectra in the range 15 Å to 25000 Å,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 825–895 (1974).
[Crossref]

B. Edlén, “Atomic Energy Levels Volume II,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ. 467, 158 (1952).

B. Edlén, “Atomic Energy Levels Volume II,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Circ. 467, 168, 187, 194, 204, 215 (1952).

B. Edlén, “Spectra of highly ionized atoms,” Physica (Utrecht) 13, 545–554 (1947).
[Crossref]

Feldman, U.

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. I. Cohen, “Vacuum Ultraviolet Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372–1373 (1967).
[Crossref]

Hansen, J.

J. Hansen (private communication, 1976).

Hoekstra, R.

R. Poppe, R. Hoekstra, and P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Comparator for Spectroscopic Measurements using an Interferometer and Photoelectric Scanning (COSPINSCA),” App. Sci. Res. B 11, 293–309 (1964).
[Crossref]

Joshi, Y. N.

Y. N. Joshi, Th. A. M. vanKleef, and H. Benschop, “Eighth Spectrum of Selenium: Se viii,”Can. J. Phys. 54, 1545–1552 (1976).
[Crossref]

Kaufman, V.

V. Kaufman and B. Edlén, “Reference wavelengths from Atomic Spectra in the range 15 Å to 25000 Å,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 825–895 (1974).
[Crossref]

Kelly, R. L.

R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and Ionic Emission lines below 2000 Angstroms,” Superintendent of documents, U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington D.C., Stock No. 0851–00061 (1973).

Klinkenberg, P. F. A.

R. Poppe, R. Hoekstra, and P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Comparator for Spectroscopic Measurements using an Interferometer and Photoelectric Scanning (COSPINSCA),” App. Sci. Res. B 11, 293–309 (1964).
[Crossref]

Kruger, P. G.

P. G. Kruger and W. E. Shoupp, “Deepest Terms in Ions of the Isoelectronic Sequences Ni i to Kr ix and Pd i to Xe ix,” Phys. Rev. 46, 124–129, 1934.
[Crossref]

Murti, S. G. K.

K. R. Rao and S. G. K. Murti, “Investigations on the Spectrum of Selenium. Se i and Se vii,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 145, 694–698 (1934).
[Crossref]

Poppe, R.

R. Poppe, “Parametric treatment of the 3dn−14p configurations in the trebly ionized atoms,” Physica (Utrecht) 75, 341−350 (1974).
[Crossref]

R. Poppe, R. Hoekstra, and P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Comparator for Spectroscopic Measurements using an Interferometer and Photoelectric Scanning (COSPINSCA),” App. Sci. Res. B 11, 293–309 (1964).
[Crossref]

Rao, K. R.

K. R. Rao and S. G. K. Murti, “Investigations on the Spectrum of Selenium. Se i and Se vii,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 145, 694–698 (1934).
[Crossref]

Shenstone, A. G.

Shoupp, W. E.

P. G. Kruger and W. E. Shoupp, “Deepest Terms in Ions of the Isoelectronic Sequences Ni i to Kr ix and Pd i to Xe ix,” Phys. Rev. 46, 124–129, 1934.
[Crossref]

Swartz, M.

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. I. Cohen, “Vacuum Ultraviolet Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372–1373 (1967).
[Crossref]

vanKleef, Th. A. M.

Y. N. Joshi, Th. A. M. vanKleef, and H. Benschop, “Eighth Spectrum of Selenium: Se viii,”Can. J. Phys. 54, 1545–1552 (1976).
[Crossref]

App. Sci. Res. B (1)

R. Poppe, R. Hoekstra, and P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Comparator for Spectroscopic Measurements using an Interferometer and Photoelectric Scanning (COSPINSCA),” App. Sci. Res. B 11, 293–309 (1964).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

Y. N. Joshi, Th. A. M. vanKleef, and H. Benschop, “Eighth Spectrum of Selenium: Se viii,”Can. J. Phys. 54, 1545–1552 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

V. Kaufman and B. Edlén, “Reference wavelengths from Atomic Spectra in the range 15 Å to 25000 Å,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 825–895 (1974).
[Crossref]

Natl. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Circ. (1)

B. Edlén, “Atomic Energy Levels Volume II,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Circ. 467, 168, 187, 194, 204, 215 (1952).

Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ. (1)

B. Edlén, “Atomic Energy Levels Volume II,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ. 467, 158 (1952).

Phys. Rev. (1)

P. G. Kruger and W. E. Shoupp, “Deepest Terms in Ions of the Isoelectronic Sequences Ni i to Kr ix and Pd i to Xe ix,” Phys. Rev. 46, 124–129, 1934.
[Crossref]

Physica (Utrecht) (2)

B. Edlén, “Spectra of highly ionized atoms,” Physica (Utrecht) 13, 545–554 (1947).
[Crossref]

R. Poppe, “Parametric treatment of the 3dn−14p configurations in the trebly ionized atoms,” Physica (Utrecht) 75, 341−350 (1974).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. London A (1)

K. R. Rao and S. G. K. Murti, “Investigations on the Spectrum of Selenium. Se i and Se vii,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 145, 694–698 (1934).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. I. Cohen, “Vacuum Ultraviolet Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372–1373 (1967).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and Ionic Emission lines below 2000 Angstroms,” Superintendent of documents, U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington D.C., Stock No. 0851–00061 (1973).

J. Hansen (private communication, 1976).

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Figures (2)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Selenium spectra in the region 595–618 Å on 10. 7 m normal incidence spectrograph using a triggered spark source. The charging potentials were (a) 12 kV, (b) 10 kV, (c) 8 kV, (d) 6 kV, (e) 5 kV, and (f) 10 kV. Se vi, Se vii and Se viii lines exhibit “pole effect” of various degrees. Se iv and Se v lines did not exhibit any pole effect.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Selenium spectra in the region 735–845 Å on 10.7 m normal incidence spectrograph using a triggered spark source. The charging potentials were (a) 12 kV, (b) 10 kV, (c) 8 kV, (d) 6 kV, and (e) 5 kV. The figure is a 1: 1 reproduction of the plate (inverse dispersion 0.78 Å/mm). The majority of the classified Se vii lines lie in the region shown and can be identified.

Tables (7)

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TABLE I Probable ionization assignment of the lines reported as Se vii lines by Rao and Murti2

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TABLE II 3d94s3D33D2 and 3D23D1 multiplet splittings in the Ni i isoelectronic sequence

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TABLE III Parameters used for 3d94s and 3d9 4p configurations in Se vii

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TABLE IV Energy levels of Se vii

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TABLE V Se vii classified lines

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TABLE VI The parameters Eav and ξp for Se viii to Zr xiv in the Co i isoelectronic sequence of the 3p53d10 2P° term (in cm−1)

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TABLE VII 3p63d9–3p53d10 transitions in Se viii

Equations (41)

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3 p 5 3 d 10 ² P 3 / 2 ° = 860 326 cm 1 , ² P 1 / 2 ° = 906 348 cm 1 .
³ D 2 ³ D 3 ³ D 1 ³ D 3
³ D 1 ³ D 2 ³ D 1 ³ D 3
ν ¯ ( cm 1 )
3 d 9 4 s ¹ D 2 3 d 9 4 p ³ P 2 °
¹ D 2 ³ F 3 °
¹ D 2 ³ P 1 °
³ D 2 ³ P 2 °
³ D 1 ³ P 1 °
³ D 3 ³ P 2 °
³ D 2 ³ F 3 °
³ D 1 ³ F 2 °
³ D 1 ³ P 0 °
³ D 2 ³ P 1 °
³ D 3 ³ F 3 °
¹ D 2 ³ F 3 °
³ D 2 ³ F 2 °
¹ D 2 ¹ P 1 °
¹ D 2 ³ D 3 °
³ D 1 ¹ D 2 °
³ D 3 ³ F 4 °
¹ D 2 ³ D 1 °
³ D 1 ¹ P 1 °
¹ D 2 ³ D 2 °
³ D 2 ¹ D 2 °
³ D 2 ¹ F 3 °
³ D 1 ³ D 1 °
³ D 3 ¹ F 3 °
³ D 2 ¹ P 1 °
³ D 2 ³ D 3 °
³ D 3 ³ D 3 °
³ D 2 ³ D 1 °
³ D 2 ³ D 2 °
³ D 3 ³ D 2 °
3 d 10 ¹ S 0 ³ P 1 °
¹ S 0 ¹ P 1 °
¹ S 0 ³ D 1 °
ν ¯ ( cm 1 )
3 d 9 ² D 1.5 3 p 5 3 d 10 ² P 1.5 °
3 d 9 ² D 2.5 3 p 5 3 d 10 ² P 1.5 °
3 d 9 ² D 1.5 3 p 5 3 d 10 ² P 0.5 °