Abstract

We have developed an active optical imaging system capable of correcting optical wave-front errors in real time at frequencies in the kilohertz range. Wave-front errors due to atmospheric turbulence in the propagation path, as well as optical figure aberrations and wave-front errors due to mechanical and thermal changes may be compensated. The system used an ac shearing interferometer, a parallel analog data processor, and a monolithic piezoelectric active mirror arranged in a closed-loop configuration. This compensation system can be applied to apertures of any size; experimental results are shown for a system with 21 correction zones.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. W. Babcock, "The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229–236 (1953).
  2. Restoration of Atmospherically Degraded Images, Woods Hole Summer Study, July 1966. DDC Report AD806878.
  3. B. L. McGlamery, "Restoration of turbulence degraded images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 293–297 (1967).
  4. J. W. Goodman and J. F. Belsher, "Fundamental limitations in linear invariant restoration of atmospherically degraded images," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 75, 141–154 (1976).
  5. J. R. Breedlove, Jr. "Digital image processing of simulated turbulence and photon noise degraded images of extended objects," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 75, 155–162 (1976).
  6. J. W. Hardy, J. Feinleib, and J. C. Wyant, "Real time phase correction of optical imaging systems," Digest of Technical Papers, Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation through Turbulence, sponsored by Opt. Soc. of America, Boulder, Colo., July 1974, Paper ThB1.
  7. J. W. Hardy, "Real-time wavefront correction system," U. S. Patent 3,923,400, filed Jan. 3, 1974, issued Dec 2, 1975.
  8. J. C. Wyant, "White light extended source shearing interferometer," Appl. Opt. 13, 200–202 (1974).
  9. J. C. Wyant, "Use of an ac heterodyne lateral shear interferometer with real-time wavefront correction systems," Appl. Opt. 14, 2622–2626 (1975).
  10. J. W. Hardy, "Analog Data Processor," U. S. Patent 3,921,080, filed Jan. 3, 1974, issued Nov. 18, 1975.
  11. J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, and P. F. Cone, "Monolithic piezoelectric mirror for wavefront correction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, No. 6 (1974).
  12. R. A. Muller and A. Buffington, "Real-time correction of atmospherically degraded telescope images through image sharpening," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1200–1210 (1974).
  13. L. Miller, W. P. Brown Jr, J. A. Jenney, and T. R. O'Meara, "Imaging through turbulence with coherent optical adaptive techniques," Ref. 6, paper ThB2.
  14. R. H. Dicke "Real time correction of telescope 'seeing'," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1206 (1975).
  15. V. N. Mahajan, "Optical wavefront correction in real time," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 75, 109–118 (1976).
  16. F. J. Dyson, "Photon noise and atmospheric noise in active optical systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 551–558 (1975).
  17. M. P. Rimmer, "Method for evaluating lateral shearing interferograms," Appl. Opt. 13, 623–629 (1974).
  18. D. P. Greenwood and D. L. Fried, "Power spectra requirements for wavefront-compensation systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 193–206 (1976).
  19. R. Hudgin, "Wave-front compensation error due to finite corrector element size, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 393–395 (1977) (this issue).
  20. R. H. Hudgin, "Wave-front reconstruction for compensated imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 375–378 (1977) (this issue).
  21. J. Vernon and F. Roddier, "Experimental determination of two-dimensional spatio temporal power spectra of stellar light scintillation: Evidence for a multilayer structure of the air turbulence in the upper atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 270–273 (1973).

1977

1976

D. P. Greenwood and D. L. Fried, "Power spectra requirements for wavefront-compensation systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 193–206 (1976).

J. W. Goodman and J. F. Belsher, "Fundamental limitations in linear invariant restoration of atmospherically degraded images," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 75, 141–154 (1976).

J. R. Breedlove, Jr. "Digital image processing of simulated turbulence and photon noise degraded images of extended objects," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 75, 155–162 (1976).

V. N. Mahajan, "Optical wavefront correction in real time," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 75, 109–118 (1976).

1975

1974

1973

1967

1953

H. W. Babcock, "The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229–236 (1953).

Babcock, H. W.

H. W. Babcock, "The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229–236 (1953).

Belsher, J. F.

J. W. Goodman and J. F. Belsher, "Fundamental limitations in linear invariant restoration of atmospherically degraded images," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 75, 141–154 (1976).

Breedlove, Jr., J. R.

J. R. Breedlove, Jr. "Digital image processing of simulated turbulence and photon noise degraded images of extended objects," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 75, 155–162 (1976).

Brown Jr, W. P.

L. Miller, W. P. Brown Jr, J. A. Jenney, and T. R. O'Meara, "Imaging through turbulence with coherent optical adaptive techniques," Ref. 6, paper ThB2.

Buffington, A.

Cone, P. F.

J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, and P. F. Cone, "Monolithic piezoelectric mirror for wavefront correction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, No. 6 (1974).

Dicke, R. H.

R. H. Dicke "Real time correction of telescope 'seeing'," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1206 (1975).

Dyson, F. J.

Feinleib, J.

J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, and P. F. Cone, "Monolithic piezoelectric mirror for wavefront correction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, No. 6 (1974).

J. W. Hardy, J. Feinleib, and J. C. Wyant, "Real time phase correction of optical imaging systems," Digest of Technical Papers, Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation through Turbulence, sponsored by Opt. Soc. of America, Boulder, Colo., July 1974, Paper ThB1.

Fried, D. L.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman and J. F. Belsher, "Fundamental limitations in linear invariant restoration of atmospherically degraded images," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 75, 141–154 (1976).

Greenwood, D. P.

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, "Analog Data Processor," U. S. Patent 3,921,080, filed Jan. 3, 1974, issued Nov. 18, 1975.

J. W. Hardy, "Real-time wavefront correction system," U. S. Patent 3,923,400, filed Jan. 3, 1974, issued Dec 2, 1975.

J. W. Hardy, J. Feinleib, and J. C. Wyant, "Real time phase correction of optical imaging systems," Digest of Technical Papers, Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation through Turbulence, sponsored by Opt. Soc. of America, Boulder, Colo., July 1974, Paper ThB1.

Hudgin, R.

Hudgin, R. H.

Jenney, J. A.

L. Miller, W. P. Brown Jr, J. A. Jenney, and T. R. O'Meara, "Imaging through turbulence with coherent optical adaptive techniques," Ref. 6, paper ThB2.

Lipson, S. G.

J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, and P. F. Cone, "Monolithic piezoelectric mirror for wavefront correction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, No. 6 (1974).

Mahajan, V. N.

V. N. Mahajan, "Optical wavefront correction in real time," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 75, 109–118 (1976).

McGlamery, B. L.

Miller, L.

L. Miller, W. P. Brown Jr, J. A. Jenney, and T. R. O'Meara, "Imaging through turbulence with coherent optical adaptive techniques," Ref. 6, paper ThB2.

Muller, R. A.

O’Meara, T. R.

L. Miller, W. P. Brown Jr, J. A. Jenney, and T. R. O'Meara, "Imaging through turbulence with coherent optical adaptive techniques," Ref. 6, paper ThB2.

Rimmer, M. P.

Roddier, F.

Vernon, J.

Wyant, J. C.

J. C. Wyant, "Use of an ac heterodyne lateral shear interferometer with real-time wavefront correction systems," Appl. Opt. 14, 2622–2626 (1975).

J. C. Wyant, "White light extended source shearing interferometer," Appl. Opt. 13, 200–202 (1974).

J. W. Hardy, J. Feinleib, and J. C. Wyant, "Real time phase correction of optical imaging systems," Digest of Technical Papers, Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation through Turbulence, sponsored by Opt. Soc. of America, Boulder, Colo., July 1974, Paper ThB1.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

V. N. Mahajan, "Optical wavefront correction in real time," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 75, 109–118 (1976).

J. W. Goodman and J. F. Belsher, "Fundamental limitations in linear invariant restoration of atmospherically degraded images," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 75, 141–154 (1976).

J. R. Breedlove, Jr. "Digital image processing of simulated turbulence and photon noise degraded images of extended objects," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 75, 155–162 (1976).

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

H. W. Babcock, "The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229–236 (1953).

Other

Restoration of Atmospherically Degraded Images, Woods Hole Summer Study, July 1966. DDC Report AD806878.

L. Miller, W. P. Brown Jr, J. A. Jenney, and T. R. O'Meara, "Imaging through turbulence with coherent optical adaptive techniques," Ref. 6, paper ThB2.

J. W. Hardy, J. Feinleib, and J. C. Wyant, "Real time phase correction of optical imaging systems," Digest of Technical Papers, Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation through Turbulence, sponsored by Opt. Soc. of America, Boulder, Colo., July 1974, Paper ThB1.

J. W. Hardy, "Real-time wavefront correction system," U. S. Patent 3,923,400, filed Jan. 3, 1974, issued Dec 2, 1975.

J. W. Hardy, "Analog Data Processor," U. S. Patent 3,921,080, filed Jan. 3, 1974, issued Nov. 18, 1975.

J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, and P. F. Cone, "Monolithic piezoelectric mirror for wavefront correction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, No. 6 (1974).

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