Abstract

Results of an experimental program to investigate the properties of an infrared phase conjugation adapative array are described. Both linear and planar adaptive arrays of up to 7 elements using a new integrated frequency phase control technique at 10.6 µm are discussed. The results presented include correction for atmospheric turbulence at ranges of 1, 6, and 9.5 km. Beam broadening induced by turbulence is reduced to the array diffraction limit and target irradiance fluctuations are decreased by a factor of ≍ 20 in strong turbulence. Received irradiance fluctuations are reduced by ≍ 50 db out to 2 kHz. Beam pointing, scanning, and automatic target acquistion and tracking are demonstrated over the 1 mrad array field of view.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. A. Sichelstiel, W. M. Waters, and T. A. Wild, "Self-Focusing Array Research Model," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 150 (1964).
  2. M. I. Skolnick and D. D. King, "Self-Phasing Array Antennas," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 142 (1964).
  3. R. C. Hansen, "Special Issue on Active and Adaptive Antennas," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 140 (1964).
  4. W. T. Cathey, "Holographic Simulation of Compensation for Atmospheric Wavefront Distortion," Proc. IEEE 56, 360 (1968).
  5. M. J. Lavan, W. K. Cadwallender, and T. F. DeYoung, "A Visible Wavelength COAT Array," Optical Engineering 15, 1, 56 (1976).
  6. W. T. Cathey, C. L. Hayes, W. C. Davis, and V. F. Pizzurro, "Compensation for Atmospheric Phase Effects at 10.6 Micron," Appl. Opt. 9, 701 (1970).
  7. W. B. Bridges, P. T. Brunner, S. P. Lazzara, T. A. Nussmeier, T. R. O'Meara, J. A. Sanquinet, and W. P. Brown, Jr., "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Appl. Opt. 13, 291 (1974).
  8. W. B. Bridges and J. E. Pearson, "Thermal Blooming Compensation Using Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques (COAT), "Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 539 (1975).
  9. J. E. Pearson, W. B. Bridges, S. Hansen, T. A. Nussmeier, and M. E. Pedinoff, "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques: Design and Performance of an 18-Element Visible Multidither COAT System," Appl. Opt. 15, 3, 611 (1976).
  10. J. E. Pearson, "Atmospheric Turbulence Compensation Using Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Appl. Opt. 15, 3, 622 (1976).
  11. W. C. Davis and W. T. Cathey, Jr., "Beam Splitters for CO2 Lasers," Appl. Opt. 8, 715 (1969).
  12. J. SooHoo, C. L. Hayes, and R. A. Brandewie, "An Acousto-Optical Modulator for CO2 Lasers," in Proceedings of the Technical Program, Electro-Optical Systems Design Conference-1972 (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Chicago, 1972), p. 164.
  13. A. M. Andrews, J. A. Higgins, J. T. Longo, E. R. Gertner, and J. G. Pasko, "High Speed Pb1-xSnxTe Photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 6, 285 (1972).
  14. H. T. Yura, "Short-Term Average Optical-Beam Spread in a Turbulent Medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 567 (1973).
  15. W. M. Waters, "Adaptive Radar Beacon Forming," IEEE Trans. Aerospace and Electronic Systems, AES-6, 4, 503 (1970).

1976 (3)

M. J. Lavan, W. K. Cadwallender, and T. F. DeYoung, "A Visible Wavelength COAT Array," Optical Engineering 15, 1, 56 (1976).

J. E. Pearson, W. B. Bridges, S. Hansen, T. A. Nussmeier, and M. E. Pedinoff, "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques: Design and Performance of an 18-Element Visible Multidither COAT System," Appl. Opt. 15, 3, 611 (1976).

J. E. Pearson, "Atmospheric Turbulence Compensation Using Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Appl. Opt. 15, 3, 622 (1976).

1975 (1)

W. B. Bridges and J. E. Pearson, "Thermal Blooming Compensation Using Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques (COAT), "Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 539 (1975).

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

A. M. Andrews, J. A. Higgins, J. T. Longo, E. R. Gertner, and J. G. Pasko, "High Speed Pb1-xSnxTe Photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 6, 285 (1972).

1970 (1)

1969 (1)

1964 (3)

B. A. Sichelstiel, W. M. Waters, and T. A. Wild, "Self-Focusing Array Research Model," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 150 (1964).

M. I. Skolnick and D. D. King, "Self-Phasing Array Antennas," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 142 (1964).

R. C. Hansen, "Special Issue on Active and Adaptive Antennas," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 140 (1964).

Andrews, A. M.

A. M. Andrews, J. A. Higgins, J. T. Longo, E. R. Gertner, and J. G. Pasko, "High Speed Pb1-xSnxTe Photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 6, 285 (1972).

Brandewie, R. A.

J. SooHoo, C. L. Hayes, and R. A. Brandewie, "An Acousto-Optical Modulator for CO2 Lasers," in Proceedings of the Technical Program, Electro-Optical Systems Design Conference-1972 (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Chicago, 1972), p. 164.

Bridges, W. B.

J. E. Pearson, W. B. Bridges, S. Hansen, T. A. Nussmeier, and M. E. Pedinoff, "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques: Design and Performance of an 18-Element Visible Multidither COAT System," Appl. Opt. 15, 3, 611 (1976).

W. B. Bridges and J. E. Pearson, "Thermal Blooming Compensation Using Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques (COAT), "Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 539 (1975).

W. B. Bridges, P. T. Brunner, S. P. Lazzara, T. A. Nussmeier, T. R. O'Meara, J. A. Sanquinet, and W. P. Brown, Jr., "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Appl. Opt. 13, 291 (1974).

Brown, Jr., W. P.

Brunner, P. T.

Cadwallender, W. K.

M. J. Lavan, W. K. Cadwallender, and T. F. DeYoung, "A Visible Wavelength COAT Array," Optical Engineering 15, 1, 56 (1976).

Cathey, W. T.

W. T. Cathey, C. L. Hayes, W. C. Davis, and V. F. Pizzurro, "Compensation for Atmospheric Phase Effects at 10.6 Micron," Appl. Opt. 9, 701 (1970).

W. T. Cathey, "Holographic Simulation of Compensation for Atmospheric Wavefront Distortion," Proc. IEEE 56, 360 (1968).

Cathey, Jr., W. T.

Davis, W. C.

DeYoung, T. F.

M. J. Lavan, W. K. Cadwallender, and T. F. DeYoung, "A Visible Wavelength COAT Array," Optical Engineering 15, 1, 56 (1976).

Gertner, E. R.

A. M. Andrews, J. A. Higgins, J. T. Longo, E. R. Gertner, and J. G. Pasko, "High Speed Pb1-xSnxTe Photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 6, 285 (1972).

Hansen, R. C.

R. C. Hansen, "Special Issue on Active and Adaptive Antennas," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 140 (1964).

Hansen, S.

J. E. Pearson, W. B. Bridges, S. Hansen, T. A. Nussmeier, and M. E. Pedinoff, "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques: Design and Performance of an 18-Element Visible Multidither COAT System," Appl. Opt. 15, 3, 611 (1976).

Hayes, C. L.

W. T. Cathey, C. L. Hayes, W. C. Davis, and V. F. Pizzurro, "Compensation for Atmospheric Phase Effects at 10.6 Micron," Appl. Opt. 9, 701 (1970).

J. SooHoo, C. L. Hayes, and R. A. Brandewie, "An Acousto-Optical Modulator for CO2 Lasers," in Proceedings of the Technical Program, Electro-Optical Systems Design Conference-1972 (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Chicago, 1972), p. 164.

Higgins, J. A.

A. M. Andrews, J. A. Higgins, J. T. Longo, E. R. Gertner, and J. G. Pasko, "High Speed Pb1-xSnxTe Photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 6, 285 (1972).

King, D. D.

M. I. Skolnick and D. D. King, "Self-Phasing Array Antennas," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 142 (1964).

Lavan, M. J.

M. J. Lavan, W. K. Cadwallender, and T. F. DeYoung, "A Visible Wavelength COAT Array," Optical Engineering 15, 1, 56 (1976).

Lazzara, S. P.

Longo, J. T.

A. M. Andrews, J. A. Higgins, J. T. Longo, E. R. Gertner, and J. G. Pasko, "High Speed Pb1-xSnxTe Photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 6, 285 (1972).

Nussmeier, T. A.

J. E. Pearson, W. B. Bridges, S. Hansen, T. A. Nussmeier, and M. E. Pedinoff, "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques: Design and Performance of an 18-Element Visible Multidither COAT System," Appl. Opt. 15, 3, 611 (1976).

W. B. Bridges, P. T. Brunner, S. P. Lazzara, T. A. Nussmeier, T. R. O'Meara, J. A. Sanquinet, and W. P. Brown, Jr., "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Appl. Opt. 13, 291 (1974).

O’Meara, T. R.

Pasko, J. G.

A. M. Andrews, J. A. Higgins, J. T. Longo, E. R. Gertner, and J. G. Pasko, "High Speed Pb1-xSnxTe Photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 6, 285 (1972).

Pearson, J. E.

J. E. Pearson, W. B. Bridges, S. Hansen, T. A. Nussmeier, and M. E. Pedinoff, "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques: Design and Performance of an 18-Element Visible Multidither COAT System," Appl. Opt. 15, 3, 611 (1976).

J. E. Pearson, "Atmospheric Turbulence Compensation Using Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Appl. Opt. 15, 3, 622 (1976).

W. B. Bridges and J. E. Pearson, "Thermal Blooming Compensation Using Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques (COAT), "Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 539 (1975).

Pedinoff, M. E.

J. E. Pearson, W. B. Bridges, S. Hansen, T. A. Nussmeier, and M. E. Pedinoff, "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques: Design and Performance of an 18-Element Visible Multidither COAT System," Appl. Opt. 15, 3, 611 (1976).

Pizzurro, V. F.

Sanquinet, J. A.

Sichelstiel, B. A.

B. A. Sichelstiel, W. M. Waters, and T. A. Wild, "Self-Focusing Array Research Model," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 150 (1964).

Skolnick, M. I.

M. I. Skolnick and D. D. King, "Self-Phasing Array Antennas," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 142 (1964).

SooHoo, J.

J. SooHoo, C. L. Hayes, and R. A. Brandewie, "An Acousto-Optical Modulator for CO2 Lasers," in Proceedings of the Technical Program, Electro-Optical Systems Design Conference-1972 (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Chicago, 1972), p. 164.

Waters, W. M.

B. A. Sichelstiel, W. M. Waters, and T. A. Wild, "Self-Focusing Array Research Model," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 150 (1964).

W. M. Waters, "Adaptive Radar Beacon Forming," IEEE Trans. Aerospace and Electronic Systems, AES-6, 4, 503 (1970).

Wild, T. A.

B. A. Sichelstiel, W. M. Waters, and T. A. Wild, "Self-Focusing Array Research Model," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 150 (1964).

Yura, H. T.

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. E. Pearson, W. B. Bridges, S. Hansen, T. A. Nussmeier, and M. E. Pedinoff, "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques: Design and Performance of an 18-Element Visible Multidither COAT System," Appl. Opt. 15, 3, 611 (1976).

J. E. Pearson, "Atmospheric Turbulence Compensation Using Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Appl. Opt. 15, 3, 622 (1976).

W. T. Cathey, C. L. Hayes, W. C. Davis, and V. F. Pizzurro, "Compensation for Atmospheric Phase Effects at 10.6 Micron," Appl. Opt. 9, 701 (1970).

W. B. Bridges, P. T. Brunner, S. P. Lazzara, T. A. Nussmeier, T. R. O'Meara, J. A. Sanquinet, and W. P. Brown, Jr., "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Appl. Opt. 13, 291 (1974).

W. C. Davis and W. T. Cathey, Jr., "Beam Splitters for CO2 Lasers," Appl. Opt. 8, 715 (1969).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. M. Andrews, J. A. Higgins, J. T. Longo, E. R. Gertner, and J. G. Pasko, "High Speed Pb1-xSnxTe Photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 6, 285 (1972).

W. B. Bridges and J. E. Pearson, "Thermal Blooming Compensation Using Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques (COAT), "Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 539 (1975).

IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation (3)

B. A. Sichelstiel, W. M. Waters, and T. A. Wild, "Self-Focusing Array Research Model," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 150 (1964).

M. I. Skolnick and D. D. King, "Self-Phasing Array Antennas," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 142 (1964).

R. C. Hansen, "Special Issue on Active and Adaptive Antennas," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 140 (1964).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Optical Engineering (1)

M. J. Lavan, W. K. Cadwallender, and T. F. DeYoung, "A Visible Wavelength COAT Array," Optical Engineering 15, 1, 56 (1976).

Other (3)

J. SooHoo, C. L. Hayes, and R. A. Brandewie, "An Acousto-Optical Modulator for CO2 Lasers," in Proceedings of the Technical Program, Electro-Optical Systems Design Conference-1972 (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Chicago, 1972), p. 164.

W. T. Cathey, "Holographic Simulation of Compensation for Atmospheric Wavefront Distortion," Proc. IEEE 56, 360 (1968).

W. M. Waters, "Adaptive Radar Beacon Forming," IEEE Trans. Aerospace and Electronic Systems, AES-6, 4, 503 (1970).

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