Abstract

Protanopes and deuteranopes do not accept the classical dichromatic matches when field size extends to 8° visual angle. Their unique matches of spectral yellow to a mixture of red and green are then mediated by the photoreceptors of small-field dichromacy interacting with a photoreceptor with the spectral sensitivity of rhodopsin. Our data suggest that large-field trichromacy is a general feature of protanopia and deuteranopia.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. H. Parsons, An Introduction to the Study of Colour Vision, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, 1924).
  2. D. B. Judd, "Colour perceptions of deuteranopic and protanopic observers," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 41, 247–271 (1948).
  3. C. H. Graham, H. G. Sperling, Y. Hsia, and A. H. Coulson, "The determination of some visual functions of a unilateral color-blind subject: methods and results," J. Psychol. 51, 3–32 (1961).
  4. F. H. G. Pitt, "Characteristics of Dichromatic Vision," Med. Res. Council Spec. Rep. No. 200 H.M.S.O. (1935).
  5. S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, "The color vision of dichromats. I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture," J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1937).
  6. See R. M. Boynton and H. Scheibner, "On the perception of red by 'red blind' observers," Acta Chromatica 1, 205–220 (1967). We used such explanations with dichromatic observers.
  7. W. A. Nagel, "Dichromatische fovea, trichromatische peripherie," Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnes 39, 93–101 (1905).
  8. W. A. Nagel, "Neue Erfahrungen über das Farbensehen der Dichromaten auf grossen Felde," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 319–337 (1907).
  9. W. A. Nagel, "Farbenstimmung beim Dichromaten," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 44, 5–17 (1910).
  10. W. Jaeger and K. Kroker,"Über das verhalten der protanopen und deuteranopen bei grossen reizflächen," Klin MBL. Augenheilk. 121, 445–449 (1952).
  11. H. M. O. Scheibner and R. M. Boynton, "Residual red-green discrimination in dichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1151–1158 (1968).
  12. J. D. Moreland and W. B. Young, "A new anomaloscope employing interference filters," Mod. Prob. Ophthal. 13, 47–55 (1974).
  13. J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, "Effect of field size on redgreen color mixture equations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).
  14. A. Linksz, An Essay on Color Vision (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1964).
  15. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).
  16. K. H. Ruddock, "Parafoveal colour vision responses of four dichromats," Vision Res. 11, 143–156 (1971).
  17. D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, "Red-green blindness confined to one eye," Vision Res. 16, 691–702 (1976).
  18. M. Alpern, "What is it that confines in a world without color? Invest. Ophthal. 13, 648–674 (1974).
  19. F. J. J. Clarke, "Needs and Prospects for a tetrachromatic system of large field colorimetry," in Colour 73, Proceedings of the 2nd Congress of the I. C. A, at York, 1973 (Wiley, New York, 1973), pp. 319–324.
  20. p. W. Trezona, "The tetrachromatic colour match as a colorimetric technique, "1 Vision Res. 13, 9–25 (1973).
  21. G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway, 2nd ed., (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1970), pp. 199–259.
  22. G. H. Jacobs, "Color vision," Ann. Rev. Psychol. 27, 63–89 (1976).
  23. J. J. McCann and J. L. Benton, "Interaction of the longwave cones and rods to produce color sensations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 103–107 (1969).
  24. U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Chromatic rod-cone interaction," Vision Res. 14, 1389–1392 (1974).
  25. T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, "Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).
  26. The suggestion that spatial and temporal border transients could explain our data was first made by D. I. A. MacLeod at the annual meeting of A.R.V.O. in 1976.
  27. We attempted to evaluate the effects of border transients in two additional ways. We constructed an 8° field stop with a 2° black bar. The 2° bar prevents an observer from making direct comparisons across the test-field border. With this test field, discrimination deteriorated. However, protanopes SY and CB and deuteranopes DK and MM continued to reject the neutral point match of 494 nm to a mixture of 450 and 650 nm. Their red-green matches for wavelengths 570, 589, and 610 nm widened, similar to those for one-thousand-fold reduction in field luminance (Fig. 7). Our second approach was to defocus the field so that the border was invisible. Again, discrimination was reduced, but not to the same degree as with the 2° bar separating the test and mixture fields.
  28. G. L. Walls and G. B. Heath, "Typical total colour blindness reinterpreted," Acta Ophthal. 32, 253–297 (1954).
  29. L. Sloan, "The photopic retinal receptors of the typical achromat," Am. J. Ophthal. 46, 81–86 (1958).
  30. M. Alpern, H. F. Falls, and G. B. Lee, "The enigma of typical total monochromacy," Am. J. Ophthal. 50, 326–341 (1960).
  31. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and R. Swartley, "Threshold measurements of spectral sensitivity in a blue monocone monochromat," Invest. Ophthal. 9, 807–813 (1970).
  32. M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Maaseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone monochromacy," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 212, 211–233 (1971).

1976

G. H. Jacobs, "Color vision," Ann. Rev. Psychol. 27, 63–89 (1976).

D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, "Red-green blindness confined to one eye," Vision Res. 16, 691–702 (1976).

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, "Effect of field size on redgreen color mixture equations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).

1974

J. D. Moreland and W. B. Young, "A new anomaloscope employing interference filters," Mod. Prob. Ophthal. 13, 47–55 (1974).

M. Alpern, "What is it that confines in a world without color? Invest. Ophthal. 13, 648–674 (1974).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Chromatic rod-cone interaction," Vision Res. 14, 1389–1392 (1974).

1973

p. W. Trezona, "The tetrachromatic colour match as a colorimetric technique, "1 Vision Res. 13, 9–25 (1973).

1971

K. H. Ruddock, "Parafoveal colour vision responses of four dichromats," Vision Res. 11, 143–156 (1971).

M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Maaseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone monochromacy," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 212, 211–233 (1971).

1970

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and R. Swartley, "Threshold measurements of spectral sensitivity in a blue monocone monochromat," Invest. Ophthal. 9, 807–813 (1970).

1969

1968

1967

See R. M. Boynton and H. Scheibner, "On the perception of red by 'red blind' observers," Acta Chromatica 1, 205–220 (1967). We used such explanations with dichromatic observers.

1966

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, "Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).

1961

C. H. Graham, H. G. Sperling, Y. Hsia, and A. H. Coulson, "The determination of some visual functions of a unilateral color-blind subject: methods and results," J. Psychol. 51, 3–32 (1961).

1960

M. Alpern, H. F. Falls, and G. B. Lee, "The enigma of typical total monochromacy," Am. J. Ophthal. 50, 326–341 (1960).

1958

L. Sloan, "The photopic retinal receptors of the typical achromat," Am. J. Ophthal. 46, 81–86 (1958).

1954

G. L. Walls and G. B. Heath, "Typical total colour blindness reinterpreted," Acta Ophthal. 32, 253–297 (1954).

1952

W. Jaeger and K. Kroker,"Über das verhalten der protanopen und deuteranopen bei grossen reizflächen," Klin MBL. Augenheilk. 121, 445–449 (1952).

1948

D. B. Judd, "Colour perceptions of deuteranopic and protanopic observers," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 41, 247–271 (1948).

1937

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, "The color vision of dichromats. I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture," J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1937).

1910

W. A. Nagel, "Farbenstimmung beim Dichromaten," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 44, 5–17 (1910).

1907

W. A. Nagel, "Neue Erfahrungen über das Farbensehen der Dichromaten auf grossen Felde," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 319–337 (1907).

1905

W. A. Nagel, "Dichromatische fovea, trichromatische peripherie," Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnes 39, 93–101 (1905).

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, "What is it that confines in a world without color? Invest. Ophthal. 13, 648–674 (1974).

M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Maaseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone monochromacy," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 212, 211–233 (1971).

M. Alpern, H. F. Falls, and G. B. Lee, "The enigma of typical total monochromacy," Am. J. Ophthal. 50, 326–341 (1960).

Benton, J. L.

Boynton, R. M.

H. M. O. Scheibner and R. M. Boynton, "Residual red-green discrimination in dichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1151–1158 (1968).

See R. M. Boynton and H. Scheibner, "On the perception of red by 'red blind' observers," Acta Chromatica 1, 205–220 (1967). We used such explanations with dichromatic observers.

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway, 2nd ed., (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1970), pp. 199–259.

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, "Needs and Prospects for a tetrachromatic system of large field colorimetry," in Colour 73, Proceedings of the 2nd Congress of the I. C. A, at York, 1973 (Wiley, New York, 1973), pp. 319–324.

Coulson, A. H.

C. H. Graham, H. G. Sperling, Y. Hsia, and A. H. Coulson, "The determination of some visual functions of a unilateral color-blind subject: methods and results," J. Psychol. 51, 3–32 (1961).

Falls, H. F.

M. Alpern, H. F. Falls, and G. B. Lee, "The enigma of typical total monochromacy," Am. J. Ophthal. 50, 326–341 (1960).

Graham, C. H.

C. H. Graham, H. G. Sperling, Y. Hsia, and A. H. Coulson, "The determination of some visual functions of a unilateral color-blind subject: methods and results," J. Psychol. 51, 3–32 (1961).

Heath, G. B.

G. L. Walls and G. B. Heath, "Typical total colour blindness reinterpreted," Acta Ophthal. 32, 253–297 (1954).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, "The color vision of dichromats. I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture," J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1937).

Hsia, Y.

C. H. Graham, H. G. Sperling, Y. Hsia, and A. H. Coulson, "The determination of some visual functions of a unilateral color-blind subject: methods and results," J. Psychol. 51, 3–32 (1961).

Hubel, D. H.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, "Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).

Jacobs, G. H.

G. H. Jacobs, "Color vision," Ann. Rev. Psychol. 27, 63–89 (1976).

Jaeger, W.

W. Jaeger and K. Kroker,"Über das verhalten der protanopen und deuteranopen bei grossen reizflächen," Klin MBL. Augenheilk. 121, 445–449 (1952).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, "Colour perceptions of deuteranopic and protanopic observers," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 41, 247–271 (1948).

Kroker, K.

W. Jaeger and K. Kroker,"Über das verhalten der protanopen und deuteranopen bei grossen reizflächen," Klin MBL. Augenheilk. 121, 445–449 (1952).

Lee, G. B.

M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Maaseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone monochromacy," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 212, 211–233 (1971).

M. Alpern, H. F. Falls, and G. B. Lee, "The enigma of typical total monochromacy," Am. J. Ophthal. 50, 326–341 (1960).

Lennie, P.

D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, "Red-green blindness confined to one eye," Vision Res. 16, 691–702 (1976).

Linksz, A.

A. Linksz, An Essay on Color Vision (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1964).

Maaseidvaag, F.

M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Maaseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone monochromacy," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 212, 211–233 (1971).

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, "Red-green blindness confined to one eye," Vision Res. 16, 691–702 (1976).

McCann, J. J.

Miller, S. S.

M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Maaseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone monochromacy," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 212, 211–233 (1971).

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland and W. B. Young, "A new anomaloscope employing interference filters," Mod. Prob. Ophthal. 13, 47–55 (1974).

Nagel, W. A.

W. A. Nagel, "Farbenstimmung beim Dichromaten," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 44, 5–17 (1910).

W. A. Nagel, "Neue Erfahrungen über das Farbensehen der Dichromaten auf grossen Felde," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 319–337 (1907).

W. A. Nagel, "Dichromatische fovea, trichromatische peripherie," Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnes 39, 93–101 (1905).

Parsons, J. H.

J. H. Parsons, An Introduction to the Study of Colour Vision, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, 1924).

Pitt, F. H. G.

F. H. G. Pitt, "Characteristics of Dichromatic Vision," Med. Res. Council Spec. Rep. No. 200 H.M.S.O. (1935).

Pokorny, J.

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, "Effect of field size on redgreen color mixture equations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and R. Swartley, "Threshold measurements of spectral sensitivity in a blue monocone monochromat," Invest. Ophthal. 9, 807–813 (1970).

Ruddock, K. H.

K. H. Ruddock, "Parafoveal colour vision responses of four dichromats," Vision Res. 11, 143–156 (1971).

Scheibner, H.

See R. M. Boynton and H. Scheibner, "On the perception of red by 'red blind' observers," Acta Chromatica 1, 205–220 (1967). We used such explanations with dichromatic observers.

Scheibner, H. M. O.

Shlaer, S.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, "The color vision of dichromats. I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture," J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1937).

Sloan, L.

L. Sloan, "The photopic retinal receptors of the typical achromat," Am. J. Ophthal. 46, 81–86 (1958).

Smith, V. C.

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, "Effect of field size on redgreen color mixture equations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and R. Swartley, "Threshold measurements of spectral sensitivity in a blue monocone monochromat," Invest. Ophthal. 9, 807–813 (1970).

Sperling, H. G.

C. H. Graham, H. G. Sperling, Y. Hsia, and A. H. Coulson, "The determination of some visual functions of a unilateral color-blind subject: methods and results," J. Psychol. 51, 3–32 (1961).

Stabell, B.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Chromatic rod-cone interaction," Vision Res. 14, 1389–1392 (1974).

Stabell, U.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Chromatic rod-cone interaction," Vision Res. 14, 1389–1392 (1974).

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Swartley, R.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and R. Swartley, "Threshold measurements of spectral sensitivity in a blue monocone monochromat," Invest. Ophthal. 9, 807–813 (1970).

Trezona, p. W.

p. W. Trezona, "The tetrachromatic colour match as a colorimetric technique, "1 Vision Res. 13, 9–25 (1973).

Walls, G. L.

G. L. Walls and G. B. Heath, "Typical total colour blindness reinterpreted," Acta Ophthal. 32, 253–297 (1954).

Wiesel, T. N.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, "Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Young, W. B.

J. D. Moreland and W. B. Young, "A new anomaloscope employing interference filters," Mod. Prob. Ophthal. 13, 47–55 (1974).

1 Vision Res.

p. W. Trezona, "The tetrachromatic colour match as a colorimetric technique, "1 Vision Res. 13, 9–25 (1973).

Acta Chromatica

See R. M. Boynton and H. Scheibner, "On the perception of red by 'red blind' observers," Acta Chromatica 1, 205–220 (1967). We used such explanations with dichromatic observers.

Acta Ophthal.

G. L. Walls and G. B. Heath, "Typical total colour blindness reinterpreted," Acta Ophthal. 32, 253–297 (1954).

Am. J. Ophthal.

L. Sloan, "The photopic retinal receptors of the typical achromat," Am. J. Ophthal. 46, 81–86 (1958).

M. Alpern, H. F. Falls, and G. B. Lee, "The enigma of typical total monochromacy," Am. J. Ophthal. 50, 326–341 (1960).

Ann. Rev. Psychol.

G. H. Jacobs, "Color vision," Ann. Rev. Psychol. 27, 63–89 (1976).

Invest. Ophthal.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and R. Swartley, "Threshold measurements of spectral sensitivity in a blue monocone monochromat," Invest. Ophthal. 9, 807–813 (1970).

J. Gen. Physiol.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, "The color vision of dichromats. I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture," J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1937).

J. Neurophysiol.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, "Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Physiol. Lond.

M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Maaseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone monochromacy," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 212, 211–233 (1971).

J. Psychol.

C. H. Graham, H. G. Sperling, Y. Hsia, and A. H. Coulson, "The determination of some visual functions of a unilateral color-blind subject: methods and results," J. Psychol. 51, 3–32 (1961).

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand.

D. B. Judd, "Colour perceptions of deuteranopic and protanopic observers," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 41, 247–271 (1948).

Klin MBL. Augenheilk.

W. Jaeger and K. Kroker,"Über das verhalten der protanopen und deuteranopen bei grossen reizflächen," Klin MBL. Augenheilk. 121, 445–449 (1952).

Mod. Prob. Ophthal.

J. D. Moreland and W. B. Young, "A new anomaloscope employing interference filters," Mod. Prob. Ophthal. 13, 47–55 (1974).

Vision Res.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Chromatic rod-cone interaction," Vision Res. 14, 1389–1392 (1974).

K. H. Ruddock, "Parafoveal colour vision responses of four dichromats," Vision Res. 11, 143–156 (1971).

D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, "Red-green blindness confined to one eye," Vision Res. 16, 691–702 (1976).

What is it that confines in a world without color? Invest. Ophthal.

M. Alpern, "What is it that confines in a world without color? Invest. Ophthal. 13, 648–674 (1974).

Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnes

W. A. Nagel, "Dichromatische fovea, trichromatische peripherie," Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnes 39, 93–101 (1905).

Z. Sinnesphysiol.

W. A. Nagel, "Neue Erfahrungen über das Farbensehen der Dichromaten auf grossen Felde," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 319–337 (1907).

W. A. Nagel, "Farbenstimmung beim Dichromaten," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 44, 5–17 (1910).

Other

J. H. Parsons, An Introduction to the Study of Colour Vision, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, 1924).

F. H. G. Pitt, "Characteristics of Dichromatic Vision," Med. Res. Council Spec. Rep. No. 200 H.M.S.O. (1935).

F. J. J. Clarke, "Needs and Prospects for a tetrachromatic system of large field colorimetry," in Colour 73, Proceedings of the 2nd Congress of the I. C. A, at York, 1973 (Wiley, New York, 1973), pp. 319–324.

A. Linksz, An Essay on Color Vision (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1964).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway, 2nd ed., (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1970), pp. 199–259.

The suggestion that spatial and temporal border transients could explain our data was first made by D. I. A. MacLeod at the annual meeting of A.R.V.O. in 1976.

We attempted to evaluate the effects of border transients in two additional ways. We constructed an 8° field stop with a 2° black bar. The 2° bar prevents an observer from making direct comparisons across the test-field border. With this test field, discrimination deteriorated. However, protanopes SY and CB and deuteranopes DK and MM continued to reject the neutral point match of 494 nm to a mixture of 450 and 650 nm. Their red-green matches for wavelengths 570, 589, and 610 nm widened, similar to those for one-thousand-fold reduction in field luminance (Fig. 7). Our second approach was to defocus the field so that the border was invisible. Again, discrimination was reduced, but not to the same degree as with the 2° bar separating the test and mixture fields.

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