Abstract

Hue and saturation of spectral lights were measured (direct scaling) in the fovea and at 45° in the periphery; all lights were of equal photopic retinal illuminance (1200 trolands). At each retinal location both large and small targets were used. As shown by previous studies, small peripheral targets appear desaturated and of uncertain hue, except long wavelengths which appear red. However, if target size is increased, saturation increases and a full range of hues is seen; the hue functions for large peripheral targets are comparable to foveal ones for very small targets. From a modified form of color matching, it was concluded that the color deficiency in the periphery is more tritanlike than deutanlike; this is strengthened by the observation that, for small peripheral targets, hues are generally apportioned between two hue categories and the change from one to the other is at about 580 nm.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. W. Burnham, R. M. Hanes, and C. J. Bartleson, Color: A Guide to Basic Facts and Principles (Wiley, New York, 1963), pp. 54–65.
  2. J. Rainwater, Vision: How, Why, and What We See (Golden, New York, 1962), pp. 31–32.
  3. J. D. Moreland and A. C. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. A. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  6. I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Color vision in the pheripheral retina. I. Photopic spectral sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 195–202 (1977) (preceding article).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, “Colour sensitivity of the fovea centralis,” Nature 156, 119–121 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. R. Ingling, H. M. O. Scheibner, and R. M. Boynton, “Color naming of small foveal fields,” Vision Res. 10, 501–511 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. O. Weitzman and J. A. S. Kinney, “Effect of stimulus size, duration, and retinal location upon the appearance of color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 640–643 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. M. Connors, “Luminance requirements for hue perception in small targets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 258–263 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. D. Moreland, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4 edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. 20.
  12. B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
  13. P. W. Trezona, “Rod participation in the ‘blue’ mechanism and its effect on colour matching,” Vision Res. 10, 317–332 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. P. L. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, “Fluctuation theory of colour discrimination of normal trichromats,” Vision Res. 6, 567–586 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. O. Smith, “Color naming and hue discrimination in congenital tritanopia and tritanomaly,” Vision Res. 13, 209–218 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. R. M. Boynton and J. Gordon, “Benzold-Brücke hue shift measured by color naming technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 78–86 (1965).
    [Crossref]

1977 (1)

1974 (1)

B. A. Ambler, “Hue discrimination in peripheral vision under conditions of dark and light adaptation,” Percept. Psychophys. 15, 586–590 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (2)

D. O. Smith, “Color naming and hue discrimination in congenital tritanopia and tritanomaly,” Vision Res. 13, 209–218 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

1970 (2)

P. W. Trezona, “Rod participation in the ‘blue’ mechanism and its effect on colour matching,” Vision Res. 10, 317–332 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Ingling, H. M. O. Scheibner, and R. M. Boynton, “Color naming of small foveal fields,” Vision Res. 10, 501–511 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

1966 (1)

P. L. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, “Fluctuation theory of colour discrimination of normal trichromats,” Vision Res. 6, 567–586 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

1964 (1)

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. A. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

J. D. Moreland and A. C. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1958).
[Crossref]

1945 (1)

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, “Colour sensitivity of the fovea centralis,” Nature 156, 119–121 (1945).
[Crossref]

Abramov, I.

Ambler, B. A.

B. A. Ambler, “Hue discrimination in peripheral vision under conditions of dark and light adaptation,” Percept. Psychophys. 15, 586–590 (1974).
[Crossref]

Bartleson, C. J.

R. W. Burnham, R. M. Hanes, and C. J. Bartleson, Color: A Guide to Basic Facts and Principles (Wiley, New York, 1963), pp. 54–65.

Bouman, M. A.

P. L. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, “Fluctuation theory of colour discrimination of normal trichromats,” Vision Res. 6, 567–586 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

C. R. Ingling, H. M. O. Scheibner, and R. M. Boynton, “Color naming of small foveal fields,” Vision Res. 10, 501–511 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton and J. Gordon, “Benzold-Brücke hue shift measured by color naming technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 78–86 (1965).
[Crossref]

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. A. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnham, R. W.

R. W. Burnham, R. M. Hanes, and C. J. Bartleson, Color: A Guide to Basic Facts and Principles (Wiley, New York, 1963), pp. 54–65.

Connors, M. M.

Cruz, A. C.

J. D. Moreland and A. C. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1958).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J.

Hanes, R. M.

R. W. Burnham, R. M. Hanes, and C. J. Bartleson, Color: A Guide to Basic Facts and Principles (Wiley, New York, 1963), pp. 54–65.

Ingling, C. R.

C. R. Ingling, H. M. O. Scheibner, and R. M. Boynton, “Color naming of small foveal fields,” Vision Res. 10, 501–511 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinney, J. A. S.

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland and A. C. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1958).
[Crossref]

J. D. Moreland, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4 edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. 20.

Neun, M. A.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. A. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rainwater, J.

J. Rainwater, Vision: How, Why, and What We See (Golden, New York, 1962), pp. 31–32.

Schafer, W.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. A. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scheibner, H. M. O.

C. R. Ingling, H. M. O. Scheibner, and R. M. Boynton, “Color naming of small foveal fields,” Vision Res. 10, 501–511 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. O.

D. O. Smith, “Color naming and hue discrimination in congenital tritanopia and tritanomaly,” Vision Res. 13, 209–218 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trezona, P. W.

P. W. Trezona, “Rod participation in the ‘blue’ mechanism and its effect on colour matching,” Vision Res. 10, 317–332 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wald, G.

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

Walraven, P. L.

P. L. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, “Fluctuation theory of colour discrimination of normal trichromats,” Vision Res. 6, 567–586 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weitzman, D. O.

Willmer, E. N.

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, “Colour sensitivity of the fovea centralis,” Nature 156, 119–121 (1945).
[Crossref]

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

Wright, W. D.

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, “Colour sensitivity of the fovea centralis,” Nature 156, 119–121 (1945).
[Crossref]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Nature (1)

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, “Colour sensitivity of the fovea centralis,” Nature 156, 119–121 (1945).
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. D. Moreland and A. C. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1958).
[Crossref]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

B. A. Ambler, “Hue discrimination in peripheral vision under conditions of dark and light adaptation,” Percept. Psychophys. 15, 586–590 (1974).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. A. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (4)

C. R. Ingling, H. M. O. Scheibner, and R. M. Boynton, “Color naming of small foveal fields,” Vision Res. 10, 501–511 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Trezona, “Rod participation in the ‘blue’ mechanism and its effect on colour matching,” Vision Res. 10, 317–332 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, “Fluctuation theory of colour discrimination of normal trichromats,” Vision Res. 6, 567–586 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. O. Smith, “Color naming and hue discrimination in congenital tritanopia and tritanomaly,” Vision Res. 13, 209–218 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. D. Moreland, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4 edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. 20.

R. W. Burnham, R. M. Hanes, and C. J. Bartleson, Color: A Guide to Basic Facts and Principles (Wiley, New York, 1963), pp. 54–65.

J. Rainwater, Vision: How, Why, and What We See (Golden, New York, 1962), pp. 31–32.

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Figures (4)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Percentages of red, yellow, green, and blue perceived in monochromatic stimuli of equal retinal illuminance (1200 td). Each curve is the mean from six subjects. Two targets (1.5° and 5′) were viewed foveally, and two (6.5° and 1.5°) were viewed peripherally at 45° from the fovea. The particular symbols and curves associated with each target are shown in (A). The appropriate luminosity functions for each target were previously obtained by Abramov and Gordon (Ref. 6).

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Percentage of saturation perceived in monochromatic stimuli: General conventions as in Fig. 1. (a) Foveally viewed targets. (b) Peripherally viewed targets.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Percentages of red, yellow, green, and blue perceived in monochromatic stimuli by subjects JT and JG. These data were included in the means shown in Fig. 1. As marked on the graphs, each row shows data for one size and location of target. Symbols and curves identified at top of figure.

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Perceived similarity between a standard wavelength and a mixture of two other wavelengths. Solid curves are for a 590 nm standard compared with mixtures of 560 and 620 am; the abscissa shows percentage of 620 nm in the mixture. Dashed curves are for a 510 nm standard compared with mixtures of 480 and 540 nm; the abscissa shows percentage of 540 nm in mixture. Each symbol is the mean from six subjects.