Abstract

Spectral sensitivities measured by a constant CFF criterion are much narrower at high frequencies than at low frequencies. Neutralizing the chromatic adaptation produced by the test stimulus eliminates this effect. The proposed explanation of spectral narrowing is that <i>R</i> and <i>G</i> cone responses cancel each other at certain frequencies because of wavelength-dependent latency differences.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. H. Bornstein and L. E. Marks, "Photopic luminosity measured by the method of critical frequency," Vision Res. 12, 2023–2033 (1972).
  2. L. E. Marks and M. H. Bornstein, "Spectral sensitivity by constant CFF: Effect of chromatic adaptation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 220–226 (1973).
  3. Steady-state adaptation was especially essential at the higher frequencies of the homochromnatic red flicker condition (the presumed "cancellation" region) because of a large hysteresis effect induced by rapid luminance changes. Specifically, flicker could be made to appear by dimming the target below steady-state threshold, or visible flicker above steady-state threshold could be made to disappear by further increasing target luminance. These transient effects could last as long as 5–10 s.
  4. B. A. Drum, "Theory of latency differences between R and G cones," Vision Res. (to be published).
  5. Direct evidence that cone latency depends on intensity can be seen in the phase shifts of primate cone flicker responses recorded by W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 246, 311–331 (1975).
  6. A similar type of cancellation between rods and cones has been reported by D. I. A. MacLeod, "Rods cancel cones in flicker," Nature 235, 173–174 (1972).
  7. H. de Lange Dzn, "Research into the dynamic nature of the human fovea-cortex systems with intermittent and modulated light. II. Phase shift in brightness and delay in color perception," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 784–789 (1958).
  8. P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, "Phase shift of sinusoidally alternating colored stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 78–82 (1964).
  9. R. M. Boynton and W. S. Baron, "Sinusoidal flicker characteristics of primate cones in response to heterochromatic stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1091–1100 (1075).
  10. O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, "A spectral compensation method for determining the flicker characteristics of the human colour mechanisms," Vision Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).
  11. D. H. Kelly, "Spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of color-vision mechanisms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 983–990 (1974).
  12. Data of J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, "Luminosity and CFF in deuteranopes and protanopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 111–117 (1972), show clear differences between the temporal responses of protanopes and deuteranopes, in apparent contradiction of both the present results and Refs. 9–11. This discrepancy would seem to imply differences, either in receptor properties or neural organization, between dichromatic and normal eyes.

1975 (1)

Direct evidence that cone latency depends on intensity can be seen in the phase shifts of primate cone flicker responses recorded by W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 246, 311–331 (1975).

1974 (2)

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, "A spectral compensation method for determining the flicker characteristics of the human colour mechanisms," Vision Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).

D. H. Kelly, "Spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of color-vision mechanisms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 983–990 (1974).

1973 (1)

1972 (3)

M. H. Bornstein and L. E. Marks, "Photopic luminosity measured by the method of critical frequency," Vision Res. 12, 2023–2033 (1972).

A similar type of cancellation between rods and cones has been reported by D. I. A. MacLeod, "Rods cancel cones in flicker," Nature 235, 173–174 (1972).

Data of J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, "Luminosity and CFF in deuteranopes and protanopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 111–117 (1972), show clear differences between the temporal responses of protanopes and deuteranopes, in apparent contradiction of both the present results and Refs. 9–11. This discrepancy would seem to imply differences, either in receptor properties or neural organization, between dichromatic and normal eyes.

1964 (1)

1958 (1)

H. de Lange Dzn, "Research into the dynamic nature of the human fovea-cortex systems with intermittent and modulated light. II. Phase shift in brightness and delay in color perception," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 784–789 (1958).

1075 (1)

Baron, W. S.

Direct evidence that cone latency depends on intensity can be seen in the phase shifts of primate cone flicker responses recorded by W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 246, 311–331 (1975).

R. M. Boynton and W. S. Baron, "Sinusoidal flicker characteristics of primate cones in response to heterochromatic stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1091–1100 (1075).

Bornstein, M. H.

L. E. Marks and M. H. Bornstein, "Spectral sensitivity by constant CFF: Effect of chromatic adaptation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 220–226 (1973).

M. H. Bornstein and L. E. Marks, "Photopic luminosity measured by the method of critical frequency," Vision Res. 12, 2023–2033 (1972).

Boynton, R. M.

Direct evidence that cone latency depends on intensity can be seen in the phase shifts of primate cone flicker responses recorded by W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 246, 311–331 (1975).

R. M. Boynton and W. S. Baron, "Sinusoidal flicker characteristics of primate cones in response to heterochromatic stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1091–1100 (1075).

de Lange Dzn, H.

H. de Lange Dzn, "Research into the dynamic nature of the human fovea-cortex systems with intermittent and modulated light. II. Phase shift in brightness and delay in color perception," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 784–789 (1958).

Drum, B. A.

B. A. Drum, "Theory of latency differences between R and G cones," Vision Res. (to be published).

Estévez, O.

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, "A spectral compensation method for determining the flicker characteristics of the human colour mechanisms," Vision Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).

Kelly, D. H.

Leebeek, H. J.

MacLeod, D. I. A.

A similar type of cancellation between rods and cones has been reported by D. I. A. MacLeod, "Rods cancel cones in flicker," Nature 235, 173–174 (1972).

Marks, L. E.

L. E. Marks and M. H. Bornstein, "Spectral sensitivity by constant CFF: Effect of chromatic adaptation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 220–226 (1973).

M. H. Bornstein and L. E. Marks, "Photopic luminosity measured by the method of critical frequency," Vision Res. 12, 2023–2033 (1972).

Pokorny, J.

Smith, V. C.

Spekreijse, H.

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, "A spectral compensation method for determining the flicker characteristics of the human colour mechanisms," Vision Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).

Walraven, P. L.

J. Opt. Soc. Am (1)

H. de Lange Dzn, "Research into the dynamic nature of the human fovea-cortex systems with intermittent and modulated light. II. Phase shift in brightness and delay in color perception," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 784–789 (1958).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Physiol. (1)

Direct evidence that cone latency depends on intensity can be seen in the phase shifts of primate cone flicker responses recorded by W. S. Baron and R. M. Boynton, "Response of primate cones to sinusoidally flickering homochromatic stimuli," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 246, 311–331 (1975).

Nature (1)

A similar type of cancellation between rods and cones has been reported by D. I. A. MacLeod, "Rods cancel cones in flicker," Nature 235, 173–174 (1972).

Vision Res. (2)

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, "A spectral compensation method for determining the flicker characteristics of the human colour mechanisms," Vision Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).

M. H. Bornstein and L. E. Marks, "Photopic luminosity measured by the method of critical frequency," Vision Res. 12, 2023–2033 (1972).

Other (2)

Steady-state adaptation was especially essential at the higher frequencies of the homochromnatic red flicker condition (the presumed "cancellation" region) because of a large hysteresis effect induced by rapid luminance changes. Specifically, flicker could be made to appear by dimming the target below steady-state threshold, or visible flicker above steady-state threshold could be made to disappear by further increasing target luminance. These transient effects could last as long as 5–10 s.

B. A. Drum, "Theory of latency differences between R and G cones," Vision Res. (to be published).

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