Abstract

The refractivity of natural hydrogen gas has been measured at eighteen wavelengths from 0.4047 to 1.6945 µm by means of a corner-reflector interferometer. The resulting refractivity at 0.5462252 µm, and at standard conditions, is 139.304 × 10<sup>−6</sup>. Sixteen points of our data are well fitted by the dispersion formula 10<sup>6</sup>(<i>n</i> − 1) = 21.113 + 12723.2/(111 − σ<sup>2</sup>), where σ is wave number in reciprocal micrometers. The combination of our data with recent measurements in the ultraviolet by Smith, Huber, and Parkinson is fitted by the formula 10<sup>6</sup>(<i>n</i> − 1) = [14895.6/(180.7 − σ<sup>2</sup>)] + [4903.7/(92 − σ<sup>2</sup>)]. Comparisons are made with the literature in respect to refractivity, dispersion, dielectric constant, molecular polarizability, Rayleigh scattering cross section, and Verdet constant.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. L. Smith, M. C. E. Huber, and W. H. Parkinson, "Re-fractivities of H2, He, O2, CO, and Kr for 168 ≤λ ≤288 nm," Phys. Rev. A 13, 1422–1434 (1976).
  2. C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, "On the Refraction and Dispersion of Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen, and their Relations," Proc. R. Soc. A 83, 151–171 (1909).
  3. J. Koch, "Über die Dispersion gasförmiger Körper im ultravioletten Spektrum," Ark. Mat. Astron. Phys. 8, 20 (1913).
  4. M. Kirn, "Die Dispersion des Wasserstoffs im Ultraviolett," Ann. Phys. (Paris) 64, 566–576 (1921).
  5. E. R. Peck and B. N. Khanna, "Dispersion of Air in the Near-Infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 416–419 (1962).
  6. E. R. Peck and B. N. Khanna, "Dispersion of Nitrogen," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1059–1063 (1966).
  7. E. R. Peck and K. Reeder, "Dispersion of Air," J. Opt. Soc. Am 62, 958–962 (1972).
  8. R. D. Goodwin, D. E. Miller, H. M. Roder, and L. A. Weber, "Second and Third Virial Coefficients for Hydrogen," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. A 68, 121–126 (1964).
  9. C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, "Refractivity of Parahydrogen," Proc. R. Soc. A 139, 517–520 (1933).
  10. L. Essen, "The Refractive Indices of Water Vapour, Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Deuterium and Helium," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. B 66, 189–193 (1953).
  11. J. Hilsenrath, C. W. Beckett, W. S. Benedict, L. Fano, H. J. Hoge, J. F. Masi, R. L. Nuttall, Y. S. Touloukian, and H. W. Woolley, Properties of Gases, Natl. Bur. Stand. Circ. No. 564 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1955).
  12. W. Kolos and L. Wolniewicz, "Polarizability of the Hydrogen Molecule," J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1426–1432 (1966).
  13. A. L. Ford and J. C. Browne, "Direct-Resolvent-Operator Computations on the Hydrogen-Molecule Dynamic Polarizability, Rayleigh, and Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. A 7, 418–426 (1973).
  14. R. R. Rudder and D. R. Bach, "Rayleigh Scattering of Ruby-Laser Light by Neutral Gases," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1260–1266 (1968).
  15. R. Serber, "The Theory of the Faraday Effect in Molecules," Phys. Rev. 41, 489–506 (1932).
  16. L. R. Ingersoll and D. H. Liebenberg, "Faraday Effect in Gases and Vapors. II," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 53 8–542 (1956).

1976

P. L. Smith, M. C. E. Huber, and W. H. Parkinson, "Re-fractivities of H2, He, O2, CO, and Kr for 168 ≤λ ≤288 nm," Phys. Rev. A 13, 1422–1434 (1976).

1973

A. L. Ford and J. C. Browne, "Direct-Resolvent-Operator Computations on the Hydrogen-Molecule Dynamic Polarizability, Rayleigh, and Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. A 7, 418–426 (1973).

1972

E. R. Peck and K. Reeder, "Dispersion of Air," J. Opt. Soc. Am 62, 958–962 (1972).

1968

1966

W. Kolos and L. Wolniewicz, "Polarizability of the Hydrogen Molecule," J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1426–1432 (1966).

E. R. Peck and B. N. Khanna, "Dispersion of Nitrogen," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1059–1063 (1966).

1964

R. D. Goodwin, D. E. Miller, H. M. Roder, and L. A. Weber, "Second and Third Virial Coefficients for Hydrogen," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. A 68, 121–126 (1964).

1962

1956

L. R. Ingersoll and D. H. Liebenberg, "Faraday Effect in Gases and Vapors. II," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 53 8–542 (1956).

1953

L. Essen, "The Refractive Indices of Water Vapour, Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Deuterium and Helium," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. B 66, 189–193 (1953).

1933

C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, "Refractivity of Parahydrogen," Proc. R. Soc. A 139, 517–520 (1933).

1932

R. Serber, "The Theory of the Faraday Effect in Molecules," Phys. Rev. 41, 489–506 (1932).

1921

M. Kirn, "Die Dispersion des Wasserstoffs im Ultraviolett," Ann. Phys. (Paris) 64, 566–576 (1921).

1913

J. Koch, "Über die Dispersion gasförmiger Körper im ultravioletten Spektrum," Ark. Mat. Astron. Phys. 8, 20 (1913).

1909

C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, "On the Refraction and Dispersion of Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen, and their Relations," Proc. R. Soc. A 83, 151–171 (1909).

Bach, D. R.

Beckett, C. W.

J. Hilsenrath, C. W. Beckett, W. S. Benedict, L. Fano, H. J. Hoge, J. F. Masi, R. L. Nuttall, Y. S. Touloukian, and H. W. Woolley, Properties of Gases, Natl. Bur. Stand. Circ. No. 564 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1955).

Benedict, W. S.

J. Hilsenrath, C. W. Beckett, W. S. Benedict, L. Fano, H. J. Hoge, J. F. Masi, R. L. Nuttall, Y. S. Touloukian, and H. W. Woolley, Properties of Gases, Natl. Bur. Stand. Circ. No. 564 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1955).

Browne, J. C.

A. L. Ford and J. C. Browne, "Direct-Resolvent-Operator Computations on the Hydrogen-Molecule Dynamic Polarizability, Rayleigh, and Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. A 7, 418–426 (1973).

Cuthbertson, C.

C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, "Refractivity of Parahydrogen," Proc. R. Soc. A 139, 517–520 (1933).

C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, "On the Refraction and Dispersion of Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen, and their Relations," Proc. R. Soc. A 83, 151–171 (1909).

Cuthbertson, M.

C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, "Refractivity of Parahydrogen," Proc. R. Soc. A 139, 517–520 (1933).

C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, "On the Refraction and Dispersion of Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen, and their Relations," Proc. R. Soc. A 83, 151–171 (1909).

Essen, L.

L. Essen, "The Refractive Indices of Water Vapour, Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Deuterium and Helium," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. B 66, 189–193 (1953).

Fano, L.

J. Hilsenrath, C. W. Beckett, W. S. Benedict, L. Fano, H. J. Hoge, J. F. Masi, R. L. Nuttall, Y. S. Touloukian, and H. W. Woolley, Properties of Gases, Natl. Bur. Stand. Circ. No. 564 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1955).

Ford, A. L.

A. L. Ford and J. C. Browne, "Direct-Resolvent-Operator Computations on the Hydrogen-Molecule Dynamic Polarizability, Rayleigh, and Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. A 7, 418–426 (1973).

Goodwin, R. D.

R. D. Goodwin, D. E. Miller, H. M. Roder, and L. A. Weber, "Second and Third Virial Coefficients for Hydrogen," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. A 68, 121–126 (1964).

Hilsenrath, J.

J. Hilsenrath, C. W. Beckett, W. S. Benedict, L. Fano, H. J. Hoge, J. F. Masi, R. L. Nuttall, Y. S. Touloukian, and H. W. Woolley, Properties of Gases, Natl. Bur. Stand. Circ. No. 564 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1955).

Hoge, H. J.

J. Hilsenrath, C. W. Beckett, W. S. Benedict, L. Fano, H. J. Hoge, J. F. Masi, R. L. Nuttall, Y. S. Touloukian, and H. W. Woolley, Properties of Gases, Natl. Bur. Stand. Circ. No. 564 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1955).

Huber, M. C. E.

P. L. Smith, M. C. E. Huber, and W. H. Parkinson, "Re-fractivities of H2, He, O2, CO, and Kr for 168 ≤λ ≤288 nm," Phys. Rev. A 13, 1422–1434 (1976).

Ingersoll, L. R.

L. R. Ingersoll and D. H. Liebenberg, "Faraday Effect in Gases and Vapors. II," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 53 8–542 (1956).

Khanna, B. N.

Kirn, M.

M. Kirn, "Die Dispersion des Wasserstoffs im Ultraviolett," Ann. Phys. (Paris) 64, 566–576 (1921).

Koch, J.

J. Koch, "Über die Dispersion gasförmiger Körper im ultravioletten Spektrum," Ark. Mat. Astron. Phys. 8, 20 (1913).

Kolos, W.

W. Kolos and L. Wolniewicz, "Polarizability of the Hydrogen Molecule," J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1426–1432 (1966).

Liebenberg, D. H.

L. R. Ingersoll and D. H. Liebenberg, "Faraday Effect in Gases and Vapors. II," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 53 8–542 (1956).

Masi, J. F.

J. Hilsenrath, C. W. Beckett, W. S. Benedict, L. Fano, H. J. Hoge, J. F. Masi, R. L. Nuttall, Y. S. Touloukian, and H. W. Woolley, Properties of Gases, Natl. Bur. Stand. Circ. No. 564 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1955).

Miller, D. E.

R. D. Goodwin, D. E. Miller, H. M. Roder, and L. A. Weber, "Second and Third Virial Coefficients for Hydrogen," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. A 68, 121–126 (1964).

Nuttall, R. L.

J. Hilsenrath, C. W. Beckett, W. S. Benedict, L. Fano, H. J. Hoge, J. F. Masi, R. L. Nuttall, Y. S. Touloukian, and H. W. Woolley, Properties of Gases, Natl. Bur. Stand. Circ. No. 564 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1955).

Parkinson, W. H.

P. L. Smith, M. C. E. Huber, and W. H. Parkinson, "Re-fractivities of H2, He, O2, CO, and Kr for 168 ≤λ ≤288 nm," Phys. Rev. A 13, 1422–1434 (1976).

Peck, E. R.

Reeder, K.

E. R. Peck and K. Reeder, "Dispersion of Air," J. Opt. Soc. Am 62, 958–962 (1972).

Roder, H. M.

R. D. Goodwin, D. E. Miller, H. M. Roder, and L. A. Weber, "Second and Third Virial Coefficients for Hydrogen," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. A 68, 121–126 (1964).

Rudder, R. R.

Serber, R.

R. Serber, "The Theory of the Faraday Effect in Molecules," Phys. Rev. 41, 489–506 (1932).

Smith, P. L.

P. L. Smith, M. C. E. Huber, and W. H. Parkinson, "Re-fractivities of H2, He, O2, CO, and Kr for 168 ≤λ ≤288 nm," Phys. Rev. A 13, 1422–1434 (1976).

Touloukian, Y. S.

J. Hilsenrath, C. W. Beckett, W. S. Benedict, L. Fano, H. J. Hoge, J. F. Masi, R. L. Nuttall, Y. S. Touloukian, and H. W. Woolley, Properties of Gases, Natl. Bur. Stand. Circ. No. 564 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1955).

Weber, L. A.

R. D. Goodwin, D. E. Miller, H. M. Roder, and L. A. Weber, "Second and Third Virial Coefficients for Hydrogen," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. A 68, 121–126 (1964).

Wolniewicz, L.

W. Kolos and L. Wolniewicz, "Polarizability of the Hydrogen Molecule," J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1426–1432 (1966).

Woolley, H. W.

J. Hilsenrath, C. W. Beckett, W. S. Benedict, L. Fano, H. J. Hoge, J. F. Masi, R. L. Nuttall, Y. S. Touloukian, and H. W. Woolley, Properties of Gases, Natl. Bur. Stand. Circ. No. 564 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1955).

Ann. Phys. Paris

M. Kirn, "Die Dispersion des Wasserstoffs im Ultraviolett," Ann. Phys. (Paris) 64, 566–576 (1921).

Ark. Mat. Astron. Phys.

J. Koch, "Über die Dispersion gasförmiger Körper im ultravioletten Spektrum," Ark. Mat. Astron. Phys. 8, 20 (1913).

J. Chem. Phys.

W. Kolos and L. Wolniewicz, "Polarizability of the Hydrogen Molecule," J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1426–1432 (1966).

J. Opt. Soc. Am

E. R. Peck and K. Reeder, "Dispersion of Air," J. Opt. Soc. Am 62, 958–962 (1972).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S.

R. D. Goodwin, D. E. Miller, H. M. Roder, and L. A. Weber, "Second and Third Virial Coefficients for Hydrogen," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. A 68, 121–126 (1964).

Phys. Rev.

P. L. Smith, M. C. E. Huber, and W. H. Parkinson, "Re-fractivities of H2, He, O2, CO, and Kr for 168 ≤λ ≤288 nm," Phys. Rev. A 13, 1422–1434 (1976).

R. Serber, "The Theory of the Faraday Effect in Molecules," Phys. Rev. 41, 489–506 (1932).

Phys. Rev. A

A. L. Ford and J. C. Browne, "Direct-Resolvent-Operator Computations on the Hydrogen-Molecule Dynamic Polarizability, Rayleigh, and Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. A 7, 418–426 (1973).

Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond.

L. Essen, "The Refractive Indices of Water Vapour, Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Deuterium and Helium," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. B 66, 189–193 (1953).

Proc. R. Soc.

C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, "Refractivity of Parahydrogen," Proc. R. Soc. A 139, 517–520 (1933).

C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, "On the Refraction and Dispersion of Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen, and their Relations," Proc. R. Soc. A 83, 151–171 (1909).

Other

J. Hilsenrath, C. W. Beckett, W. S. Benedict, L. Fano, H. J. Hoge, J. F. Masi, R. L. Nuttall, Y. S. Touloukian, and H. W. Woolley, Properties of Gases, Natl. Bur. Stand. Circ. No. 564 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1955).

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