Abstract

We have designed an aberroscope that differs from Tscherning’s classical instrument in that it makes use of an artificial astigmatism rather than an artificial myopia to defocus the image of a point source of light. A subject views the source through a ±5 D crossed cylinder lens with axes at 45° to the principal axes of an intercalated grid and sees a shadow image of the grid. The distortions of this grid image are quantitatively related to the wave aberration of the eye. Using this device we have obtained drawings for more than 50 subjects. These drawings of the grid pattern have been analyzed by means of a two-dimensional polynomial curve fitting technique that computes Taylor polynomial terms to the fourth order. From the Taylor coefficients it is possible to reconstruct the wave aberration surface. Examination of the Taylor terms so obtained shows that the monochromatic aberrations of the eye are dominated by third-order Taylor terms within the range of physiological pupil sizes, and that spherical aberration frequently appears predominantly about one axis only, a condition that we have termed “cylindrical” aberration. We have computed the optical MTF of our subjects’ eyes and find that the role of aberrations in degrading the MTF may be greater than generally believed.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. van Meeteren, "Calculations on the Optical Modulation Transfer function of the Human Eye for White Light," Opt. Acta 21, 395–412 (1974).
  2. H. S. Smirnov, "Measurement of Wave Aberration in the Human Eye," Biophys. 6, 52–66 (1961).
  3. B. Howland, "Use of Crossed Cylinder Lens in Photographic Lens Evaluation," Appl. Opt. 7, 1587–1599 (1968).
  4. M. Tscherning, "Die Monochromatischen abberationen des Menschlichen Auges," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinn. 6, 456–471 (1894).
  5. R. Barakat and A. Houston, "The aberrations of non-rotationally symmetric systems and their diffraction effects," Opt. Acta 13, 1–30 (1966).
  6. R. T. Hennessy, "Instrument myopia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1114–1120 (1975).
  7. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1975), Sec. 9.2.
  8. H. H. Hopkins, "The application of frequency response techniques in optics," Proc. Phys. Soc. 79, 889–919 (1962).
  9. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).
  10. B. Howland, "Electronic aberration synthesizer for measurements of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1121 (1976).
  11. B. Howland and H. C. Howland, "Subjective measurement of high-order aberrations of the eye," Science 193, 580–582 (1976).
  12. J. Krasukopf, "Further measurements of human retinal images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 715–716 (1964).
  13. H. Schober, H. Münker, and F. Zolleis, "Die aberration des menschlichen auges und ihre messung," Opt. Acta 15, 47 (1968).
  14. M. Koomen, R. Tousey, and R. Scolnik, "The spherical aberration of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 370–376 (1949).
  15. F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, "Optical quality of the Human eye," J. Physiol. 186, 558–578 (1966).
  16. F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. 181, 576–593 (1965).
  17. D. G. Green and F. W. Campbell, "Effect of focus on the visual response to a sinusoidally modulated spatial stimulus," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1154–1157 (1965).

1976 (2)

B. Howland, "Electronic aberration synthesizer for measurements of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1121 (1976).

B. Howland and H. C. Howland, "Subjective measurement of high-order aberrations of the eye," Science 193, 580–582 (1976).

1975 (1)

1974 (1)

A. van Meeteren, "Calculations on the Optical Modulation Transfer function of the Human Eye for White Light," Opt. Acta 21, 395–412 (1974).

1968 (2)

B. Howland, "Use of Crossed Cylinder Lens in Photographic Lens Evaluation," Appl. Opt. 7, 1587–1599 (1968).

H. Schober, H. Münker, and F. Zolleis, "Die aberration des menschlichen auges und ihre messung," Opt. Acta 15, 47 (1968).

1966 (2)

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, "Optical quality of the Human eye," J. Physiol. 186, 558–578 (1966).

R. Barakat and A. Houston, "The aberrations of non-rotationally symmetric systems and their diffraction effects," Opt. Acta 13, 1–30 (1966).

1965 (2)

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. 181, 576–593 (1965).

D. G. Green and F. W. Campbell, "Effect of focus on the visual response to a sinusoidally modulated spatial stimulus," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1154–1157 (1965).

1964 (1)

1962 (1)

H. H. Hopkins, "The application of frequency response techniques in optics," Proc. Phys. Soc. 79, 889–919 (1962).

1961 (1)

H. S. Smirnov, "Measurement of Wave Aberration in the Human Eye," Biophys. 6, 52–66 (1961).

1949 (1)

M. Koomen, R. Tousey, and R. Scolnik, "The spherical aberration of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 370–376 (1949).

1894 (1)

M. Tscherning, "Die Monochromatischen abberationen des Menschlichen Auges," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinn. 6, 456–471 (1894).

Barakat, R.

R. Barakat and A. Houston, "The aberrations of non-rotationally symmetric systems and their diffraction effects," Opt. Acta 13, 1–30 (1966).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1975), Sec. 9.2.

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, "Optical quality of the Human eye," J. Physiol. 186, 558–578 (1966).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. 181, 576–593 (1965).

D. G. Green and F. W. Campbell, "Effect of focus on the visual response to a sinusoidally modulated spatial stimulus," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1154–1157 (1965).

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. 181, 576–593 (1965).

D. G. Green and F. W. Campbell, "Effect of focus on the visual response to a sinusoidally modulated spatial stimulus," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1154–1157 (1965).

Gubisch, R. W.

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, "Optical quality of the Human eye," J. Physiol. 186, 558–578 (1966).

Hennessy, R. T.

Hopkins, H. H.

H. H. Hopkins, "The application of frequency response techniques in optics," Proc. Phys. Soc. 79, 889–919 (1962).

Houston, A.

R. Barakat and A. Houston, "The aberrations of non-rotationally symmetric systems and their diffraction effects," Opt. Acta 13, 1–30 (1966).

Howland, B.

B. Howland, "Electronic aberration synthesizer for measurements of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1121 (1976).

B. Howland and H. C. Howland, "Subjective measurement of high-order aberrations of the eye," Science 193, 580–582 (1976).

B. Howland, "Use of Crossed Cylinder Lens in Photographic Lens Evaluation," Appl. Opt. 7, 1587–1599 (1968).

Howland, H. C.

B. Howland and H. C. Howland, "Subjective measurement of high-order aberrations of the eye," Science 193, 580–582 (1976).

Koomen, M.

M. Koomen, R. Tousey, and R. Scolnik, "The spherical aberration of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 370–376 (1949).

Krasukopf, J.

Münker, H.

H. Schober, H. Münker, and F. Zolleis, "Die aberration des menschlichen auges und ihre messung," Opt. Acta 15, 47 (1968).

Schober, H.

H. Schober, H. Münker, and F. Zolleis, "Die aberration des menschlichen auges und ihre messung," Opt. Acta 15, 47 (1968).

Scolnik, R.

M. Koomen, R. Tousey, and R. Scolnik, "The spherical aberration of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 370–376 (1949).

Smirnov, H. S.

H. S. Smirnov, "Measurement of Wave Aberration in the Human Eye," Biophys. 6, 52–66 (1961).

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

Tousey, R.

M. Koomen, R. Tousey, and R. Scolnik, "The spherical aberration of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 370–376 (1949).

Tscherning, M.

M. Tscherning, "Die Monochromatischen abberationen des Menschlichen Auges," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinn. 6, 456–471 (1894).

van Meeteren, A.

A. van Meeteren, "Calculations on the Optical Modulation Transfer function of the Human Eye for White Light," Opt. Acta 21, 395–412 (1974).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1975), Sec. 9.2.

Zolleis, F.

H. Schober, H. Münker, and F. Zolleis, "Die aberration des menschlichen auges und ihre messung," Opt. Acta 15, 47 (1968).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biophys. (1)

H. S. Smirnov, "Measurement of Wave Aberration in the Human Eye," Biophys. 6, 52–66 (1961).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

R. T. Hennessy, "Instrument myopia," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1114–1120 (1975).

B. Howland, "Electronic aberration synthesizer for measurements of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1121 (1976).

J. Krasukopf, "Further measurements of human retinal images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 715–716 (1964).

M. Koomen, R. Tousey, and R. Scolnik, "The spherical aberration of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 370–376 (1949).

D. G. Green and F. W. Campbell, "Effect of focus on the visual response to a sinusoidally modulated spatial stimulus," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1154–1157 (1965).

J. Physiol. (2)

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, "Optical quality of the Human eye," J. Physiol. 186, 558–578 (1966).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. 181, 576–593 (1965).

Opt. Acta (3)

R. Barakat and A. Houston, "The aberrations of non-rotationally symmetric systems and their diffraction effects," Opt. Acta 13, 1–30 (1966).

H. Schober, H. Münker, and F. Zolleis, "Die aberration des menschlichen auges und ihre messung," Opt. Acta 15, 47 (1968).

A. van Meeteren, "Calculations on the Optical Modulation Transfer function of the Human Eye for White Light," Opt. Acta 21, 395–412 (1974).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (1)

H. H. Hopkins, "The application of frequency response techniques in optics," Proc. Phys. Soc. 79, 889–919 (1962).

Science (1)

B. Howland and H. C. Howland, "Subjective measurement of high-order aberrations of the eye," Science 193, 580–582 (1976).

Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinn. (1)

M. Tscherning, "Die Monochromatischen abberationen des Menschlichen Auges," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinn. 6, 456–471 (1894).

Other (2)

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1975), Sec. 9.2.

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