Abstract

Computerized analysis and display techniques are applied to the problem of identifying the origins of visually evoked scalped potentials (VESP’s). A new stimulus for VESP work, white noise, is being incorporated in the solution of this problem. VESP’s for white-noise stimulation exhibit time domain behavior similar to the classcial response for flash stimuli but with certain significant differences. Contour mapping algorithms are used to display the time behavior of equipotential surfaces on the scalp during the VESP. The electrical and geometrical parameters of the head are modeled. Electrical fields closely matching those obtained experimentally are generated on the surface of the model head by optimally selecting the location and strength parameters of one or two dipole current sources contained within the model. Computer graphics are used to display as a movie the actual and model scalp potential field and the parameters of the dipole generators within the model head during the time course of the VESP. These techniques are currently used to study retinotopic mapping, fusion, and texture perception in the human.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. B. Brazier, "A study of the electrical fields at the surface of the head," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Suppl. 2, 38–52 (1949).
  2. A. Fourment, L. Jami, J. Calvet, and J. Scherrer, "Comparison de l'EEG recueilli sur le scalp avec l'activite elementaire des dipoles corticaux radiares," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 217–229 (1965).
  3. C. D. Geisler and G. L. Gerstein, "The surface EEG in relation to its sources," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 13, 927–934 (1961).
  4. D. A. Jeffreys, "Striate and extrastriate origins of pattern-related visual evoked potential (VEP) components," J. Physiol. 211, 29–30 (1971a).
  5. D. A. Jeffreys, "Cortical source locations of pattern-related visual evoked potentials recorded from the human scalp," Nature 229, 502–504 (1971b).
  6. D. A. Jeffreys and J. G. Axford, "Source locations of pattern-specific components of human visual evoked potentials, I. Component of striate cortical origin," Exp. Brain Res. 16, 1–21 (1972a).
  7. D. A. Jeffreys, and J. G. Axford, "Source locations of pattern-specific components of human visual evoked potential. II. Component of extrastriate cortical origin," Exp. Brain Res 16, 22–40 (1972b).
  8. Y. W. Lee and M. Schetzen, "Measurement of the kernels of a nonlinear system by cross-correlation," Quarterly Progress Report No. 60, Research Lab of Electronics, MIT (1961).
  9. N. Wiener, Nonlinear Problems in Random Theory (Wiley, New York, 1958).
  10. R. N. Kavanagh, T. M. Darcey, and D. H. Fender, "Three-dimensional localization of electrical sources in the human brain corresponding to visual evoked scalp potentials," IEEE Trans, Bio-Med. Engng. (in press).
  11. M. Schneider and P. Gerin, "Une methode de localisation des dipoles cerebraux," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 69–78 (1970).
  12. J. C. Shaw and M. Roth, "Potential distribution analysis. II. A theoretical consideration of its significance in terms of electric field theory," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 7, 285–292 (1955).
  13. H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and W. Ritter, "Topography of the human motor potential," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 1–10 (1968).
  14. H. G. Vaughan and W. Ritter, "The sources of auditory evoked responses recorded from the human scalp," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 360–367 (1970).
  15. C. J. Henderson, S. R. Butler, and A. Glass, "The localization of the equivalent dipoles of EEG sources by the application of electrical field theory," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 39, 117–130 (1975).

1975 (1)

C. J. Henderson, S. R. Butler, and A. Glass, "The localization of the equivalent dipoles of EEG sources by the application of electrical field theory," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 39, 117–130 (1975).

1970 (2)

H. G. Vaughan and W. Ritter, "The sources of auditory evoked responses recorded from the human scalp," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 360–367 (1970).

M. Schneider and P. Gerin, "Une methode de localisation des dipoles cerebraux," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 69–78 (1970).

1968 (1)

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and W. Ritter, "Topography of the human motor potential," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 1–10 (1968).

1965 (1)

A. Fourment, L. Jami, J. Calvet, and J. Scherrer, "Comparison de l'EEG recueilli sur le scalp avec l'activite elementaire des dipoles corticaux radiares," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 217–229 (1965).

1961 (1)

C. D. Geisler and G. L. Gerstein, "The surface EEG in relation to its sources," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 13, 927–934 (1961).

1955 (1)

J. C. Shaw and M. Roth, "Potential distribution analysis. II. A theoretical consideration of its significance in terms of electric field theory," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 7, 285–292 (1955).

1949 (1)

M. A. B. Brazier, "A study of the electrical fields at the surface of the head," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Suppl. 2, 38–52 (1949).

Axford, J. G.

D. A. Jeffreys, and J. G. Axford, "Source locations of pattern-specific components of human visual evoked potential. II. Component of extrastriate cortical origin," Exp. Brain Res 16, 22–40 (1972b).

D. A. Jeffreys and J. G. Axford, "Source locations of pattern-specific components of human visual evoked potentials, I. Component of striate cortical origin," Exp. Brain Res. 16, 1–21 (1972a).

Brazier, M. A. B.

M. A. B. Brazier, "A study of the electrical fields at the surface of the head," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Suppl. 2, 38–52 (1949).

Butler, S. R.

C. J. Henderson, S. R. Butler, and A. Glass, "The localization of the equivalent dipoles of EEG sources by the application of electrical field theory," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 39, 117–130 (1975).

Calvet, J.

A. Fourment, L. Jami, J. Calvet, and J. Scherrer, "Comparison de l'EEG recueilli sur le scalp avec l'activite elementaire des dipoles corticaux radiares," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 217–229 (1965).

Costa, L. D.

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and W. Ritter, "Topography of the human motor potential," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 1–10 (1968).

Darcey, T. M.

R. N. Kavanagh, T. M. Darcey, and D. H. Fender, "Three-dimensional localization of electrical sources in the human brain corresponding to visual evoked scalp potentials," IEEE Trans, Bio-Med. Engng. (in press).

Fender, D. H.

R. N. Kavanagh, T. M. Darcey, and D. H. Fender, "Three-dimensional localization of electrical sources in the human brain corresponding to visual evoked scalp potentials," IEEE Trans, Bio-Med. Engng. (in press).

Fourment, A.

A. Fourment, L. Jami, J. Calvet, and J. Scherrer, "Comparison de l'EEG recueilli sur le scalp avec l'activite elementaire des dipoles corticaux radiares," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 217–229 (1965).

Geisler, C. D.

C. D. Geisler and G. L. Gerstein, "The surface EEG in relation to its sources," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 13, 927–934 (1961).

Gerin, P.

M. Schneider and P. Gerin, "Une methode de localisation des dipoles cerebraux," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 69–78 (1970).

Gerstein, G. L.

C. D. Geisler and G. L. Gerstein, "The surface EEG in relation to its sources," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 13, 927–934 (1961).

Glass, A.

C. J. Henderson, S. R. Butler, and A. Glass, "The localization of the equivalent dipoles of EEG sources by the application of electrical field theory," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 39, 117–130 (1975).

Henderson, C. J.

C. J. Henderson, S. R. Butler, and A. Glass, "The localization of the equivalent dipoles of EEG sources by the application of electrical field theory," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 39, 117–130 (1975).

Jami, L.

A. Fourment, L. Jami, J. Calvet, and J. Scherrer, "Comparison de l'EEG recueilli sur le scalp avec l'activite elementaire des dipoles corticaux radiares," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 217–229 (1965).

Jeffreys, D. A.

D. A. Jeffreys, and J. G. Axford, "Source locations of pattern-specific components of human visual evoked potential. II. Component of extrastriate cortical origin," Exp. Brain Res 16, 22–40 (1972b).

D. A. Jeffreys and J. G. Axford, "Source locations of pattern-specific components of human visual evoked potentials, I. Component of striate cortical origin," Exp. Brain Res. 16, 1–21 (1972a).

D. A. Jeffreys, "Cortical source locations of pattern-related visual evoked potentials recorded from the human scalp," Nature 229, 502–504 (1971b).

D. A. Jeffreys, "Striate and extrastriate origins of pattern-related visual evoked potential (VEP) components," J. Physiol. 211, 29–30 (1971a).

Kavanagh, R. N.

R. N. Kavanagh, T. M. Darcey, and D. H. Fender, "Three-dimensional localization of electrical sources in the human brain corresponding to visual evoked scalp potentials," IEEE Trans, Bio-Med. Engng. (in press).

Lee, Y. W.

Y. W. Lee and M. Schetzen, "Measurement of the kernels of a nonlinear system by cross-correlation," Quarterly Progress Report No. 60, Research Lab of Electronics, MIT (1961).

Ritter, W.

H. G. Vaughan and W. Ritter, "The sources of auditory evoked responses recorded from the human scalp," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 360–367 (1970).

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and W. Ritter, "Topography of the human motor potential," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 1–10 (1968).

Roth, M.

J. C. Shaw and M. Roth, "Potential distribution analysis. II. A theoretical consideration of its significance in terms of electric field theory," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 7, 285–292 (1955).

Scherrer, J.

A. Fourment, L. Jami, J. Calvet, and J. Scherrer, "Comparison de l'EEG recueilli sur le scalp avec l'activite elementaire des dipoles corticaux radiares," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 217–229 (1965).

Schetzen, M.

Y. W. Lee and M. Schetzen, "Measurement of the kernels of a nonlinear system by cross-correlation," Quarterly Progress Report No. 60, Research Lab of Electronics, MIT (1961).

Schneider, M.

M. Schneider and P. Gerin, "Une methode de localisation des dipoles cerebraux," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 69–78 (1970).

Shaw, J. C.

J. C. Shaw and M. Roth, "Potential distribution analysis. II. A theoretical consideration of its significance in terms of electric field theory," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 7, 285–292 (1955).

Vaughan, H. G.

H. G. Vaughan and W. Ritter, "The sources of auditory evoked responses recorded from the human scalp," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 360–367 (1970).

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and W. Ritter, "Topography of the human motor potential," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 1–10 (1968).

Wiener, N.

N. Wiener, Nonlinear Problems in Random Theory (Wiley, New York, 1958).

Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. (7)

A. Fourment, L. Jami, J. Calvet, and J. Scherrer, "Comparison de l'EEG recueilli sur le scalp avec l'activite elementaire des dipoles corticaux radiares," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 217–229 (1965).

C. D. Geisler and G. L. Gerstein, "The surface EEG in relation to its sources," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 13, 927–934 (1961).

M. Schneider and P. Gerin, "Une methode de localisation des dipoles cerebraux," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 69–78 (1970).

J. C. Shaw and M. Roth, "Potential distribution analysis. II. A theoretical consideration of its significance in terms of electric field theory," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 7, 285–292 (1955).

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and W. Ritter, "Topography of the human motor potential," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 1–10 (1968).

H. G. Vaughan and W. Ritter, "The sources of auditory evoked responses recorded from the human scalp," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 360–367 (1970).

C. J. Henderson, S. R. Butler, and A. Glass, "The localization of the equivalent dipoles of EEG sources by the application of electrical field theory," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 39, 117–130 (1975).

Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Suppl. (1)

M. A. B. Brazier, "A study of the electrical fields at the surface of the head," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Suppl. 2, 38–52 (1949).

Exp. Brain Res (1)

D. A. Jeffreys, and J. G. Axford, "Source locations of pattern-specific components of human visual evoked potential. II. Component of extrastriate cortical origin," Exp. Brain Res 16, 22–40 (1972b).

Exp. Brain Res. (1)

D. A. Jeffreys and J. G. Axford, "Source locations of pattern-specific components of human visual evoked potentials, I. Component of striate cortical origin," Exp. Brain Res. 16, 1–21 (1972a).

J. Physiol. (1)

D. A. Jeffreys, "Striate and extrastriate origins of pattern-related visual evoked potential (VEP) components," J. Physiol. 211, 29–30 (1971a).

Nature (1)

D. A. Jeffreys, "Cortical source locations of pattern-related visual evoked potentials recorded from the human scalp," Nature 229, 502–504 (1971b).

Other (3)

Y. W. Lee and M. Schetzen, "Measurement of the kernels of a nonlinear system by cross-correlation," Quarterly Progress Report No. 60, Research Lab of Electronics, MIT (1961).

N. Wiener, Nonlinear Problems in Random Theory (Wiley, New York, 1958).

R. N. Kavanagh, T. M. Darcey, and D. H. Fender, "Three-dimensional localization of electrical sources in the human brain corresponding to visual evoked scalp potentials," IEEE Trans, Bio-Med. Engng. (in press).

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