Abstract

A light delivered to the human eye will instigate changes in electrical potentials recorded over the visual cortex that last for some finite time, at least several hundred milliseconds. If the rate of stimulation is sufficiently low, the response is completed before the next visual stimulus arrives; the cortical potential is then called a transient evoked response. This review of the transient evoked potential describes the techniques by which the response is obtained, the problems inherent in its use, and procedures by which these difficulties can be overcome or minimized. A summary of the research results from the field enumerates those findings which have been well established and replicated by many investigators, those that are more controversial or as yet inconclusive, and the many practical applications of the technique for science and medicine. Finally, the needs for an underlying physiological theory and for future research are discussed.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, “Techniques for analyzing differences in VERs: Colored and patterned stimuli, ” Vision Res. 12, 1733–1747 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, “The visual evoked responses as a measure of nitrogen narcosis in Navy divers,” Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Groton, Conn., Report No. 664, April1971.
  3. W. R. Goff, “Human average evoked potentials: procedures for stimulating and recording,” in Bioelectric Recording Techniques. Part B. Electroencephalography and Human Brain Potentials, edited by R. F. Thompson and M. M. Patterson (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 101–156.
  4. N. Lesèvre and A. Rémond, “Potentials evoqués par 1′apparition de patterns: Effets de la dimension du pattern et de la donsité des contrastes,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neuro-physiol. 32, 593–604 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. M. MacKay, “Physiological stocktaking,” Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. 7, 245–258 (1969).
  6. O. D. Creutzfeldt and U. Kuhnt, “Electrophysiology and topographical distribution of visual evoked potentials in animals,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/3Central Visual Information B., edited by R. Jung (Springer, Berlin, 1973), pp. 595–646.
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. G. Vaughan, “The analysis of scalp-recorded brain potentials,” in Bioelectric Recording Techniques. Part B. Electroencephalography and Human Brain Potentials, edited by R. F. Thompson and M. M. Patterson (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 157–207.
  8. W. R. Biersdorf, “Cortical evoked responses from stimulation of various regions of the visual field,” in Xth I.S.C.E.R.G. Symposium. Documenta Optltalmologica Proceedings Series (W. Junk B. V., The Hague, 1974), pp. 249–259.
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. R. Biersdorf and Z. Nakamura, “Localization studies of the human visual evoked response,” in Xth I.S.C.E.R.G. Symposium. Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (W. Junk B. V., The Hague, 1973), pp. 137–144.
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Nakamura and W. R. Biersdorf, “Localization of the human visual evoked response. Early components specific to visual stimulation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 988–997 (1971).
    [PubMed]
  11. R. Spehlmann, “The averaged electrical responses to diffuse and to patterned light in the human,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560–569 (1965).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, “Visual evoked responses to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes,” Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).
    [PubMed]
  13. D. Regan, Evoked Potentials in Psychology, Sensory Physiolgy and Clinical Medicine (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1972).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta, “Simultaneously recorded retinal and cortical responses to patterned stimuli,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514–1521 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. R. Harter and C. T. White, “Effects of contour sharpness and check-size on visually evoked cortical potentials,” Vision Res. 8, 701–711 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, “Test of color-defective vision using the visual evoked response,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1244–1250 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. L. McKay and J. A. S. Kinney, “Similarities between the cortical extracted pattern response with bipolar and monopolar recordings,” Vision Res. 16, 1510–1512 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, “Spectral analysis of the visually evoked occipitogram in man,” Vision Res. 8, 409–431 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, “The functional relation of visual evoked response and reaction time to stimulus intensity,” Vision Res. 6, 645–656 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. E. Dustman and E. C. Beck, “Phase of alpha waves, reaction time, and visually evoked potentials,” Eleetroen-cephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 433–440 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. L. Andreassi and J. R. Greco, “Effects of bisensory stimulation on reaction time and the evoked cortical potential,” Physiol. Psychol. 3, 189–194 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. R. Wooten, “Photopic and scotopic contribution to the human visually evoked cortical potential,” Vision Res. 12, 1647–1660 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Korth and J. C. Armington, “Stimulus alternation and the Purlkinje shift,” Vision Res. 16, 703–711 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, “Cortical responses to stimulation of the human fovea,” Vision Res. 8, 135–147 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. M. Halliday, W. I. McDonald, and J. Mushin, “Delayed visual evoked response in optic neuritis,” Lancet 1, 982–985 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. R. Heron, D. Regan, and B. A. Milner, “Delay of visual perception in unilateral optic atrophy following retrobulbar neuritis,” Brain 97, 69–78 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. N. S. Namerow and N. Enns, “Visual evoked responses in patients with multiple sclerosis,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 35, 829–833 (1972).
  28. G. S. Ferriss, G. D. Davis, M. M. Dorsen, and E. R. Hackett, “Changes in latency and form of the photically induced average evoked response in human infants,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 305–312 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. D. Galin and R. Ellis, “Asymmetry in evoked responses as an index of laterized cognitive processes: Relation to EEG asymmetry,” Neuropsychol. 13, 45–50 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  30. E. G. Lewis, R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, “The effects of alcohol on visual and somato-sensory evoked responses,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 202–205 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. P. Naitoh, “The value of electroencephalography in alcoholism,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 215, 303–320 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. A. S. Kinney, S. M. Luria, and M. S. Strauss, “Visual evoked responses and EEGs during shallow saturation diving,” Aerosp. Med. 45, 1017–1025 (1974).
    [PubMed]
  33. J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, and S. M. Luria, “Visual evoked responses and EEGs of 16 divers breathing air at 7 ATA,” Undersea Biomed. Res. 4, 55–66 (1977).
    [PubMed]

1977 (1)

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, and S. M. Luria, “Visual evoked responses and EEGs of 16 divers breathing air at 7 ATA,” Undersea Biomed. Res. 4, 55–66 (1977).
[PubMed]

1976 (2)

C. L. McKay and J. A. S. Kinney, “Similarities between the cortical extracted pattern response with bipolar and monopolar recordings,” Vision Res. 16, 1510–1512 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Korth and J. C. Armington, “Stimulus alternation and the Purlkinje shift,” Vision Res. 16, 703–711 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

J. L. Andreassi and J. R. Greco, “Effects of bisensory stimulation on reaction time and the evoked cortical potential,” Physiol. Psychol. 3, 189–194 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. Galin and R. Ellis, “Asymmetry in evoked responses as an index of laterized cognitive processes: Relation to EEG asymmetry,” Neuropsychol. 13, 45–50 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (3)

J. R. Heron, D. Regan, and B. A. Milner, “Delay of visual perception in unilateral optic atrophy following retrobulbar neuritis,” Brain 97, 69–78 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney, S. M. Luria, and M. S. Strauss, “Visual evoked responses and EEGs during shallow saturation diving,” Aerosp. Med. 45, 1017–1025 (1974).
[PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, “Test of color-defective vision using the visual evoked response,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1244–1250 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

P. Naitoh, “The value of electroencephalography in alcoholism,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 215, 303–320 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (5)

A. M. Halliday, W. I. McDonald, and J. Mushin, “Delayed visual evoked response in optic neuritis,” Lancet 1, 982–985 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Namerow and N. Enns, “Visual evoked responses in patients with multiple sclerosis,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 35, 829–833 (1972).

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, “Techniques for analyzing differences in VERs: Colored and patterned stimuli, ” Vision Res. 12, 1733–1747 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lesèvre and A. Rémond, “Potentials evoqués par 1′apparition de patterns: Effets de la dimension du pattern et de la donsité des contrastes,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neuro-physiol. 32, 593–604 (1972).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Wooten, “Photopic and scotopic contribution to the human visually evoked cortical potential,” Vision Res. 12, 1647–1660 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (2)

Z. Nakamura and W. R. Biersdorf, “Localization of the human visual evoked response. Early components specific to visual stimulation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 988–997 (1971).
[PubMed]

J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta, “Simultaneously recorded retinal and cortical responses to patterned stimuli,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514–1521 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

E. G. Lewis, R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, “The effects of alcohol on visual and somato-sensory evoked responses,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 202–205 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

D. M. MacKay, “Physiological stocktaking,” Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. 7, 245–258 (1969).

1968 (3)

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, “Effects of contour sharpness and check-size on visually evoked cortical potentials,” Vision Res. 8, 701–711 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, “Cortical responses to stimulation of the human fovea,” Vision Res. 8, 135–147 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, “Spectral analysis of the visually evoked occipitogram in man,” Vision Res. 8, 409–431 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (2)

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, “Visual evoked responses to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes,” Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).
[PubMed]

G. S. Ferriss, G. D. Davis, M. M. Dorsen, and E. R. Hackett, “Changes in latency and form of the photically induced average evoked response in human infants,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 305–312 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, “The functional relation of visual evoked response and reaction time to stimulus intensity,” Vision Res. 6, 645–656 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (2)

R. E. Dustman and E. C. Beck, “Phase of alpha waves, reaction time, and visually evoked potentials,” Eleetroen-cephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 433–440 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. Spehlmann, “The averaged electrical responses to diffuse and to patterned light in the human,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560–569 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreassi, J. L.

J. L. Andreassi and J. R. Greco, “Effects of bisensory stimulation on reaction time and the evoked cortical potential,” Physiol. Psychol. 3, 189–194 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Armington, J. C.

Beck, E. C.

E. G. Lewis, R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, “The effects of alcohol on visual and somato-sensory evoked responses,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 202–205 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Dustman and E. C. Beck, “Phase of alpha waves, reaction time, and visually evoked potentials,” Eleetroen-cephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 433–440 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Biersdorf, W. R.

Z. Nakamura and W. R. Biersdorf, “Localization of the human visual evoked response. Early components specific to visual stimulation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 988–997 (1971).
[PubMed]

W. R. Biersdorf, “Cortical evoked responses from stimulation of various regions of the visual field,” in Xth I.S.C.E.R.G. Symposium. Documenta Optltalmologica Proceedings Series (W. Junk B. V., The Hague, 1974), pp. 249–259.
[CrossRef]

W. R. Biersdorf and Z. Nakamura, “Localization studies of the human visual evoked response,” in Xth I.S.C.E.R.G. Symposium. Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (W. Junk B. V., The Hague, 1973), pp. 137–144.
[CrossRef]

Corwin, T. R.

Costa, L. D.

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, “The functional relation of visual evoked response and reaction time to stimulus intensity,” Vision Res. 6, 645–656 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Creutzfeldt, O. D.

O. D. Creutzfeldt and U. Kuhnt, “Electrophysiology and topographical distribution of visual evoked potentials in animals,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/3Central Visual Information B., edited by R. Jung (Springer, Berlin, 1973), pp. 595–646.
[CrossRef]

Davis, G. D.

G. S. Ferriss, G. D. Davis, M. M. Dorsen, and E. R. Hackett, “Changes in latency and form of the photically induced average evoked response in human infants,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 305–312 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeVoe, R. G.

R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, “Cortical responses to stimulation of the human fovea,” Vision Res. 8, 135–147 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorsen, M. M.

G. S. Ferriss, G. D. Davis, M. M. Dorsen, and E. R. Hackett, “Changes in latency and form of the photically induced average evoked response in human infants,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 305–312 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dustman, R. E.

E. G. Lewis, R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, “The effects of alcohol on visual and somato-sensory evoked responses,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 202–205 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Dustman and E. C. Beck, “Phase of alpha waves, reaction time, and visually evoked potentials,” Eleetroen-cephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 433–440 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, R.

D. Galin and R. Ellis, “Asymmetry in evoked responses as an index of laterized cognitive processes: Relation to EEG asymmetry,” Neuropsychol. 13, 45–50 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Enns, N.

N. S. Namerow and N. Enns, “Visual evoked responses in patients with multiple sclerosis,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 35, 829–833 (1972).

Ferriss, G. S.

G. S. Ferriss, G. D. Davis, M. M. Dorsen, and E. R. Hackett, “Changes in latency and form of the photically induced average evoked response in human infants,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 305–312 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, A.

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, “Spectral analysis of the visually evoked occipitogram in man,” Vision Res. 8, 409–431 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galin, D.

D. Galin and R. Ellis, “Asymmetry in evoked responses as an index of laterized cognitive processes: Relation to EEG asymmetry,” Neuropsychol. 13, 45–50 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gilden, L.

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, “The functional relation of visual evoked response and reaction time to stimulus intensity,” Vision Res. 6, 645–656 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goff, W. R.

W. R. Goff, “Human average evoked potentials: procedures for stimulating and recording,” in Bioelectric Recording Techniques. Part B. Electroencephalography and Human Brain Potentials, edited by R. F. Thompson and M. M. Patterson (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 101–156.

Greco, J. R.

J. L. Andreassi and J. R. Greco, “Effects of bisensory stimulation on reaction time and the evoked cortical potential,” Physiol. Psychol. 3, 189–194 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hackett, E. R.

G. S. Ferriss, G. D. Davis, M. M. Dorsen, and E. R. Hackett, “Changes in latency and form of the photically induced average evoked response in human infants,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 305–312 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagenouw, J. R. B.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, “Visual evoked responses to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes,” Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).
[PubMed]

Halliday, A. M.

A. M. Halliday, W. I. McDonald, and J. Mushin, “Delayed visual evoked response in optic neuritis,” Lancet 1, 982–985 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harter, M. R.

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, “Effects of contour sharpness and check-size on visually evoked cortical potentials,” Vision Res. 8, 701–711 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heron, J. R.

J. R. Heron, D. Regan, and B. A. Milner, “Delay of visual perception in unilateral optic atrophy following retrobulbar neuritis,” Brain 97, 69–78 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. W.

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, “Spectral analysis of the visually evoked occipitogram in man,” Vision Res. 8, 409–431 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinney, J. A. S.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, and S. M. Luria, “Visual evoked responses and EEGs of 16 divers breathing air at 7 ATA,” Undersea Biomed. Res. 4, 55–66 (1977).
[PubMed]

C. L. McKay and J. A. S. Kinney, “Similarities between the cortical extracted pattern response with bipolar and monopolar recordings,” Vision Res. 16, 1510–1512 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney, S. M. Luria, and M. S. Strauss, “Visual evoked responses and EEGs during shallow saturation diving,” Aerosp. Med. 45, 1017–1025 (1974).
[PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, “Test of color-defective vision using the visual evoked response,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1244–1250 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, “Techniques for analyzing differences in VERs: Colored and patterned stimuli, ” Vision Res. 12, 1733–1747 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, “The visual evoked responses as a measure of nitrogen narcosis in Navy divers,” Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Groton, Conn., Report No. 664, April1971.

Korth, M.

M. Korth and J. C. Armington, “Stimulus alternation and the Purlkinje shift,” Vision Res. 16, 703–711 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kuhnt, U.

O. D. Creutzfeldt and U. Kuhnt, “Electrophysiology and topographical distribution of visual evoked potentials in animals,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/3Central Visual Information B., edited by R. Jung (Springer, Berlin, 1973), pp. 595–646.
[CrossRef]

Lesèvre, N.

N. Lesèvre and A. Rémond, “Potentials evoqués par 1′apparition de patterns: Effets de la dimension du pattern et de la donsité des contrastes,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neuro-physiol. 32, 593–604 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, E. G.

E. G. Lewis, R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, “The effects of alcohol on visual and somato-sensory evoked responses,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 202–205 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubbers, J. A.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, “Visual evoked responses to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes,” Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).
[PubMed]

Luria, S. M.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, and S. M. Luria, “Visual evoked responses and EEGs of 16 divers breathing air at 7 ATA,” Undersea Biomed. Res. 4, 55–66 (1977).
[PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney, S. M. Luria, and M. S. Strauss, “Visual evoked responses and EEGs during shallow saturation diving,” Aerosp. Med. 45, 1017–1025 (1974).
[PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, “Techniques for analyzing differences in VERs: Colored and patterned stimuli, ” Vision Res. 12, 1733–1747 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacKay, D. M.

D. M. MacKay, “Physiological stocktaking,” Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. 7, 245–258 (1969).

Marsetta, R.

McDonald, W. I.

A. M. Halliday, W. I. McDonald, and J. Mushin, “Delayed visual evoked response in optic neuritis,” Lancet 1, 982–985 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKay, C. L.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, and S. M. Luria, “Visual evoked responses and EEGs of 16 divers breathing air at 7 ATA,” Undersea Biomed. Res. 4, 55–66 (1977).
[PubMed]

C. L. McKay and J. A. S. Kinney, “Similarities between the cortical extracted pattern response with bipolar and monopolar recordings,” Vision Res. 16, 1510–1512 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, “Test of color-defective vision using the visual evoked response,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1244–1250 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, “Techniques for analyzing differences in VERs: Colored and patterned stimuli, ” Vision Res. 12, 1733–1747 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, “The visual evoked responses as a measure of nitrogen narcosis in Navy divers,” Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Groton, Conn., Report No. 664, April1971.

Mensch, A. J.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, “Techniques for analyzing differences in VERs: Colored and patterned stimuli, ” Vision Res. 12, 1733–1747 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, B. A.

J. R. Heron, D. Regan, and B. A. Milner, “Delay of visual perception in unilateral optic atrophy following retrobulbar neuritis,” Brain 97, 69–78 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mushin, J.

A. M. Halliday, W. I. McDonald, and J. Mushin, “Delayed visual evoked response in optic neuritis,” Lancet 1, 982–985 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naitoh, P.

P. Naitoh, “The value of electroencephalography in alcoholism,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 215, 303–320 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, Z.

Z. Nakamura and W. R. Biersdorf, “Localization of the human visual evoked response. Early components specific to visual stimulation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 988–997 (1971).
[PubMed]

W. R. Biersdorf and Z. Nakamura, “Localization studies of the human visual evoked response,” in Xth I.S.C.E.R.G. Symposium. Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (W. Junk B. V., The Hague, 1973), pp. 137–144.
[CrossRef]

Namerow, N. S.

N. S. Namerow and N. Enns, “Visual evoked responses in patients with multiple sclerosis,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 35, 829–833 (1972).

Regan, D.

J. R. Heron, D. Regan, and B. A. Milner, “Delay of visual perception in unilateral optic atrophy following retrobulbar neuritis,” Brain 97, 69–78 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Regan, Evoked Potentials in Psychology, Sensory Physiolgy and Clinical Medicine (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1972).
[CrossRef]

Rémond, A.

N. Lesèvre and A. Rémond, “Potentials evoqués par 1′apparition de patterns: Effets de la dimension du pattern et de la donsité des contrastes,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neuro-physiol. 32, 593–604 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rietveld, W. J.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, “Visual evoked responses to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes,” Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).
[PubMed]

Ripps, H.

R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, “Cortical responses to stimulation of the human fovea,” Vision Res. 8, 135–147 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shipley, T.

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, “Spectral analysis of the visually evoked occipitogram in man,” Vision Res. 8, 409–431 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spehlmann, R.

R. Spehlmann, “The averaged electrical responses to diffuse and to patterned light in the human,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560–569 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spoor, Th. A. C.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, “Visual evoked responses to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes,” Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).
[PubMed]

Strauss, M. S.

J. A. S. Kinney, S. M. Luria, and M. S. Strauss, “Visual evoked responses and EEGs during shallow saturation diving,” Aerosp. Med. 45, 1017–1025 (1974).
[PubMed]

Tordoir, W. E. M.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, “Visual evoked responses to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes,” Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).
[PubMed]

Vaughan, H. G.

R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, “Cortical responses to stimulation of the human fovea,” Vision Res. 8, 135–147 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, “The functional relation of visual evoked response and reaction time to stimulus intensity,” Vision Res. 6, 645–656 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Vaughan, “The analysis of scalp-recorded brain potentials,” in Bioelectric Recording Techniques. Part B. Electroencephalography and Human Brain Potentials, edited by R. F. Thompson and M. M. Patterson (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 157–207.

White, C. T.

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, “Effects of contour sharpness and check-size on visually evoked cortical potentials,” Vision Res. 8, 701–711 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Wooten, “Photopic and scotopic contribution to the human visually evoked cortical potential,” Vision Res. 12, 1647–1660 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. (1)

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, “Visual evoked responses to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes,” Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).
[PubMed]

Aerosp. Med. (1)

J. A. S. Kinney, S. M. Luria, and M. S. Strauss, “Visual evoked responses and EEGs during shallow saturation diving,” Aerosp. Med. 45, 1017–1025 (1974).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

Z. Nakamura and W. R. Biersdorf, “Localization of the human visual evoked response. Early components specific to visual stimulation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 988–997 (1971).
[PubMed]

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

P. Naitoh, “The value of electroencephalography in alcoholism,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 215, 303–320 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brain (1)

J. R. Heron, D. Regan, and B. A. Milner, “Delay of visual perception in unilateral optic atrophy following retrobulbar neuritis,” Brain 97, 69–78 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neuro-physiol. (1)

N. Lesèvre and A. Rémond, “Potentials evoqués par 1′apparition de patterns: Effets de la dimension du pattern et de la donsité des contrastes,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neuro-physiol. 32, 593–604 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. (3)

R. Spehlmann, “The averaged electrical responses to diffuse and to patterned light in the human,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560–569 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Ferriss, G. D. Davis, M. M. Dorsen, and E. R. Hackett, “Changes in latency and form of the photically induced average evoked response in human infants,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 305–312 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Lewis, R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, “The effects of alcohol on visual and somato-sensory evoked responses,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 202–205 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eleetroen-cephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. (1)

R. E. Dustman and E. C. Beck, “Phase of alpha waves, reaction time, and visually evoked potentials,” Eleetroen-cephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 433–440 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. (1)

N. S. Namerow and N. Enns, “Visual evoked responses in patients with multiple sclerosis,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 35, 829–833 (1972).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Lancet (1)

A. M. Halliday, W. I. McDonald, and J. Mushin, “Delayed visual evoked response in optic neuritis,” Lancet 1, 982–985 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuropsychol. (1)

D. Galin and R. Ellis, “Asymmetry in evoked responses as an index of laterized cognitive processes: Relation to EEG asymmetry,” Neuropsychol. 13, 45–50 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. (1)

D. M. MacKay, “Physiological stocktaking,” Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. 7, 245–258 (1969).

Physiol. Psychol. (1)

J. L. Andreassi and J. R. Greco, “Effects of bisensory stimulation on reaction time and the evoked cortical potential,” Physiol. Psychol. 3, 189–194 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Undersea Biomed. Res. (1)

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, and S. M. Luria, “Visual evoked responses and EEGs of 16 divers breathing air at 7 ATA,” Undersea Biomed. Res. 4, 55–66 (1977).
[PubMed]

Vision Res. (8)

B. R. Wooten, “Photopic and scotopic contribution to the human visually evoked cortical potential,” Vision Res. 12, 1647–1660 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Korth and J. C. Armington, “Stimulus alternation and the Purlkinje shift,” Vision Res. 16, 703–711 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, “Cortical responses to stimulation of the human fovea,” Vision Res. 8, 135–147 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, “Techniques for analyzing differences in VERs: Colored and patterned stimuli, ” Vision Res. 12, 1733–1747 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. McKay and J. A. S. Kinney, “Similarities between the cortical extracted pattern response with bipolar and monopolar recordings,” Vision Res. 16, 1510–1512 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, “Spectral analysis of the visually evoked occipitogram in man,” Vision Res. 8, 409–431 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, “The functional relation of visual evoked response and reaction time to stimulus intensity,” Vision Res. 6, 645–656 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, “Effects of contour sharpness and check-size on visually evoked cortical potentials,” Vision Res. 8, 701–711 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

D. Regan, Evoked Potentials in Psychology, Sensory Physiolgy and Clinical Medicine (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1972).
[CrossRef]

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, “The visual evoked responses as a measure of nitrogen narcosis in Navy divers,” Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Groton, Conn., Report No. 664, April1971.

W. R. Goff, “Human average evoked potentials: procedures for stimulating and recording,” in Bioelectric Recording Techniques. Part B. Electroencephalography and Human Brain Potentials, edited by R. F. Thompson and M. M. Patterson (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 101–156.

O. D. Creutzfeldt and U. Kuhnt, “Electrophysiology and topographical distribution of visual evoked potentials in animals,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/3Central Visual Information B., edited by R. Jung (Springer, Berlin, 1973), pp. 595–646.
[CrossRef]

H. G. Vaughan, “The analysis of scalp-recorded brain potentials,” in Bioelectric Recording Techniques. Part B. Electroencephalography and Human Brain Potentials, edited by R. F. Thompson and M. M. Patterson (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 157–207.

W. R. Biersdorf, “Cortical evoked responses from stimulation of various regions of the visual field,” in Xth I.S.C.E.R.G. Symposium. Documenta Optltalmologica Proceedings Series (W. Junk B. V., The Hague, 1974), pp. 249–259.
[CrossRef]

W. R. Biersdorf and Z. Nakamura, “Localization studies of the human visual evoked response,” in Xth I.S.C.E.R.G. Symposium. Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (W. Junk B. V., The Hague, 1973), pp. 137–144.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (18)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Two transient visual evoked cortical potentials recorded at different times under the same experimental conditions.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Five VECPs recorded from the same subject in response to the same stimulus over a 2 month period. Two control runs—200 repetitions of the 1 s EEG with no light stimulus—are shown at the top. (See Fig. 1 of Ref. 1.)

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

VECPs obtained from 4 individuals under identical conditions (flash rate of 2 per second). Major components used in the analysis are indicated by capital letters. (See Fig. 4 of Ref. 2.)

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Locations of the 10–20 electrode system. F, frontal; C, central; P, parietal; O, occipital. Odd subscripts = left side of head; even subscripts = right side of head. Z = midline. Diagram courtesy Grass Instruments Co., Quincy, Mass. (See Fig. 3–4 of Ref. 3.)

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Eight VECPs to the same stimulus recorded from different cortical locations. (See Fig. 1 of Ref. 4.)

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Mean VECPs and standard deviations for a deuteranopic subject for red and green targets. Each curve is the average of 10 different VECPs. (See Fig. 4 of Ref. 1.)

FIG. 7
FIG. 7

Blank responses (top) and pattern responses (bottom) of two subjects. (See Fig. 2 of Ref. 12.)

FIG. 8
FIG. 8

Reciprocals of stimulus luminance levels required to produce a criterion ERG response (left) or a criterion VECP response (right) as a function of log spatial frequency. Responses to stripes (filled circles) and checks (open circles). (See Fig. 10 of Ref. 14.)

FIG. 9
FIG. 9

Average percentage change in measures “A” (90–100 ms latency) and “B” (180–200 ms latency) of the evoked potentials as a function of the lenses used in viewing stimulus patterns and check-size within the patterns. (See Fig. 3 of Ref. 15.)

FIG. 10
FIG. 10

Illustration of the technique for obtaining a pattern response. Routine VECPs for a blank field (—) and a checked field (– – –) for two subjects are on the left-hand side. The results of subtraction of these data, the add/subs, are on the right-hand side. (See Fig. 1 of Ref. 16.)

FIG. 11
FIG. 11

VECP for a full second obtained by subtracting 200 responses to a blank field of gray from 200 responses obtained from a striped field of gray. (See Fig. 8 of Ref. 1.)

FIG. 12
FIG. 12

Mean extracted pattern response for monopolar and bipolar recording conditions for eight subjects. (See Fig. 1 of Ref. 17.)

FIG. 13
FIG. 13

Samples of summated VER to 200 stimuli at six levels of intensity. Peak of P1 indicated by arrows. Median and interquartile range of RT indicated below each VER. (See Fig. 2 of Ref. 19.)

FIG. 14
FIG. 14

Log-log plots of reducible latencies of VER as a function of stimulus intensity for the studies listed. Relative luminance values reported by the investigators are employed. The curves are arbitrarily shifted on the abscissa so as to overlap. (See Fig. 5 of Ref. 19.)

FIG. 15
FIG. 15

Spectral sensitivity data obtained from subjective measurements of foveal thresholds (open circles) and VER latencies (filled circles). The photopic CIE curve has been drawn through the data points. (See Fig. 9 of Ref. 24.)

FIG. 16
FIG. 16

Effects of locus of stimulation on sensitivity. Visual (filled symbols) and VER (open symbols) sensitivities are plotted relative to the values obtained with central stimulation. Results for both subjects are shown. (See Fig. 11 of Ref. 24.)

FIG. 17
FIG. 17

Mean peak latencies P2 by age for 35 normal subjects. (See Fig. 5 of Ref. 28.)

FIG. 18
FIG. 18

VECPs for one subject showing reduction at depth of component around 160 ms in two separate dives; up denotes more negative activity at the inion position. (See Fig. 1 of Ref. 33.)