Abstract

A light delivered to the human eye will instigate changes in electrical potentials recorded over the visual cortex that last for some finite time, at least several hundred milliseconds. If the rate of stimulation is sufficiently low, the response is completed before the next visual stimulus arrives; the cortical potential is then called a transient evoked response. This review of the transient evoked potential describes the techniques by which the response is obtained, the problems inherent in its use, and procedures by which these difficulties can be overcome or minimized. A summary of the research results from the field enumerates those findings which have been well established and replicated by many investigators, those that are more controversial or as yet inconclusive, and the many practical applications of the technique for science and medicine. Finally, the needs for an underlying physiological theory and for future research are discussed.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, "Techniques for analyzing differences in VERs: Colored and patterned stimuli," Vision Res. 12, 1733–1747 (1972).
  2. J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, "The visual evoked responses as a measure of nitrogen narcosis in Navy divers," Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Groton, Conn., Report No. 664, April 1971.
  3. W. R. Goff, "Human average evoked potentials: procedures for stimulating and recording," in Bioelectric Recording Techniques. Part B. Electroencephalography and Human Brain Potentials, edited by R. F. Thompson and M. M. Patterson (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 101–156.
  4. 4 N. Lesèvre and A. Rémond, "Potentials evoqués par 1'apparition de patterns: Effets de la dimension du pattern et de la densité des contrastes," Electrooncephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 32, 593–604 (1972).
  5. 5 D. M. MacKay, "Physiological stocktaking," Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. 7, 245–258 (1969).
  6. O. D. Creutzfeldt and U. Kuhnt, "Electrophysiology and topographical distribution of visual evoked potentials in animals," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/3 Central Visual Information B., edited by R. Jung (Springer, Berlin, 1973), pp. 595–646.
  7. H. G. Vaughan, Jr., "The analysis of scalp-recorded brain potentials," in Bioelectric Recording Techniques. Part B. Electroencephalography and Human Brain Potentials, edited by R. F. Thompson and M. M. Patterson (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 157–207.
  8. W. R. Biersdorf, "Cortical evoked responses from stimulation of various regions of the visual field," in Xth I. S. C. E. R. G. Symposium. Documenta Opthalmologica Proceedings Series (W. Junk B. V., The Hague, 1974), pp. 249–259.
  9. W. R. Biersdorf and Z. Nakamura, "Localization studies of the human visual evoked response," in Xth I.S.C.E.R.G. Symposium. Documenta Ophtha alrologica Proceedings Series (W. Junk B. V., The Hague, 1973), pp. 137–144.
  10. Z. Nakamura and W. R. Biersdorf, "Localization of the human visual evoked response. Early components specific to visual stimulation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 988–997 (1971).
  11. R. Spehlmann, "The averaged electrical responses to diffuse and to patterned light in the human," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560–569 (1965).
  12. W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, "Visual evoked response to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes," Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).
  13. D. Regan, Evoked Potentials in Psychology, Sensory Physiolgy and Clinical Medicine (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1972).
  14. J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta, "Simultaneously recorded retinal and cortical responses to patterned stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514–1521 (1971).
  15. M. R. Harter and C. T. White, "Effects of contour sharpness and check-size on visually evoked cortical potentials," Vision Res. 8, 701–711 (1968).
  16. J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, "Test of color-defective vision using the visual evoked response," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1244–1250 (1974).
  17. C. L. McKay and J. A. S. Kinney, "Similarities between the cortical extracted pattern response with bipolar and monopolar recordings," Vision Res. 16, 1510–1512 (1976).
  18. T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, "Spectral analysis of the visually evoked occipitogram in man," Vision Res. 8, 409–431 (1968).
  19. H. G. Vaughan, Jr., L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, "The functional relation of visual evoked response and reaction time to stimulus intensity," Vision Res. 6, 645–656 (1966).
  20. R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, "Phase of alpha waves, reaction time, and visually evoked potentials," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 433–440 (1965).
  21. J. L. Andreassi and J. R. Greco, "Effects of bisensory stimulation on reaction time and the evoked cortical potential," Physiol. Psychol. 3, 189–194 (1975).
  22. B. R. Wooten, "Photopic and scotopic contribution to the human visually evoked cortical potential," Vision Res. 12, 1647–1660 (1972).
  23. M. Korth and J. C. Armington, "Stimulus alternation and the Purkinje shift," Vision Res. 16, 703–711 (1976).
  24. R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, Jr., "Cortical responses to stimulation of the human fovea," Vision Res. 8, 135–147 (1968).
  25. A. M. Halliday, W. I. McDonald, and J. Mushin, "Delayed visual evoked response in optic neuritis," Lancet 1, 982–985 (1972).
  26. J. R. Heron, D. Regan, and B. A. Milner, "Delay of visual perception in unilateral optic atrophy following retrobulbar neuritis," Brain 97, 69–78 (1974).
  27. N. S. Namerow and N. Enns, "Visual evoked responses in patients with multiple sclerosis," J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 35, 829–833 (1972).
  28. G. S. Ferriss, G. D. Davis, M. M. Dorsen, and E. R. Hackett, "Changes in latency and form of the photically induced average evoked response in human infants," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 305–312 (1967).
  29. D. Galin and R. Ellis, "Asymmetry in evoked responses as an index of laterized cognitive processes: Relation to EEG asymmetry," Neuropsychol. 13, 45–50 (1975).
  30. E. G. Lewis, R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, "The effects of alcohol on visual and somato-sensory evoked responses," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 202–205 (1970).
  31. P. Naitoh, "The value of electroencephalography in alcoholism, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 215, 303–320 (1973).
  32. J. A. S. Kinney, S. M. Luria, and M. S. Strauss, "Visual evoked responses and EEGs during shallow saturation diving," Aerosp. Med. 45, 1017–1025 (1974).
  33. J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, and S. M. Luria, "Visual evoked responses and EEGs of 16 divers breathing air at 7 ATA," Undersea Biomed. Res. 4, 55–66 (1977).

1977 (1)

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, and S. M. Luria, "Visual evoked responses and EEGs of 16 divers breathing air at 7 ATA," Undersea Biomed. Res. 4, 55–66 (1977).

1976 (2)

C. L. McKay and J. A. S. Kinney, "Similarities between the cortical extracted pattern response with bipolar and monopolar recordings," Vision Res. 16, 1510–1512 (1976).

M. Korth and J. C. Armington, "Stimulus alternation and the Purkinje shift," Vision Res. 16, 703–711 (1976).

1975 (2)

J. L. Andreassi and J. R. Greco, "Effects of bisensory stimulation on reaction time and the evoked cortical potential," Physiol. Psychol. 3, 189–194 (1975).

D. Galin and R. Ellis, "Asymmetry in evoked responses as an index of laterized cognitive processes: Relation to EEG asymmetry," Neuropsychol. 13, 45–50 (1975).

1974 (3)

J. R. Heron, D. Regan, and B. A. Milner, "Delay of visual perception in unilateral optic atrophy following retrobulbar neuritis," Brain 97, 69–78 (1974).

J. A. S. Kinney, S. M. Luria, and M. S. Strauss, "Visual evoked responses and EEGs during shallow saturation diving," Aerosp. Med. 45, 1017–1025 (1974).

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, "Test of color-defective vision using the visual evoked response," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1244–1250 (1974).

1973 (1)

P. Naitoh, "The value of electroencephalography in alcoholism, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 215, 303–320 (1973).

1972 (5)

A. M. Halliday, W. I. McDonald, and J. Mushin, "Delayed visual evoked response in optic neuritis," Lancet 1, 982–985 (1972).

N. S. Namerow and N. Enns, "Visual evoked responses in patients with multiple sclerosis," J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 35, 829–833 (1972).

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, "Techniques for analyzing differences in VERs: Colored and patterned stimuli," Vision Res. 12, 1733–1747 (1972).

4 N. Lesèvre and A. Rémond, "Potentials evoqués par 1'apparition de patterns: Effets de la dimension du pattern et de la densité des contrastes," Electrooncephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 32, 593–604 (1972).

B. R. Wooten, "Photopic and scotopic contribution to the human visually evoked cortical potential," Vision Res. 12, 1647–1660 (1972).

1971 (2)

Z. Nakamura and W. R. Biersdorf, "Localization of the human visual evoked response. Early components specific to visual stimulation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 988–997 (1971).

J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta, "Simultaneously recorded retinal and cortical responses to patterned stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514–1521 (1971).

1970 (1)

E. G. Lewis, R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, "The effects of alcohol on visual and somato-sensory evoked responses," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 202–205 (1970).

1969 (1)

5 D. M. MacKay, "Physiological stocktaking," Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. 7, 245–258 (1969).

1968 (3)

R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, Jr., "Cortical responses to stimulation of the human fovea," Vision Res. 8, 135–147 (1968).

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, "Spectral analysis of the visually evoked occipitogram in man," Vision Res. 8, 409–431 (1968).

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, "Effects of contour sharpness and check-size on visually evoked cortical potentials," Vision Res. 8, 701–711 (1968).

1967 (2)

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, "Visual evoked response to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes," Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).

G. S. Ferriss, G. D. Davis, M. M. Dorsen, and E. R. Hackett, "Changes in latency and form of the photically induced average evoked response in human infants," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 305–312 (1967).

1966 (1)

H. G. Vaughan, Jr., L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, "The functional relation of visual evoked response and reaction time to stimulus intensity," Vision Res. 6, 645–656 (1966).

1965 (2)

R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, "Phase of alpha waves, reaction time, and visually evoked potentials," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 433–440 (1965).

R. Spehlmann, "The averaged electrical responses to diffuse and to patterned light in the human," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560–569 (1965).

Andreassi, J. L.

J. L. Andreassi and J. R. Greco, "Effects of bisensory stimulation on reaction time and the evoked cortical potential," Physiol. Psychol. 3, 189–194 (1975).

Armington, J. C.

M. Korth and J. C. Armington, "Stimulus alternation and the Purkinje shift," Vision Res. 16, 703–711 (1976).

J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta, "Simultaneously recorded retinal and cortical responses to patterned stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514–1521 (1971).

Beck, E. C.

E. G. Lewis, R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, "The effects of alcohol on visual and somato-sensory evoked responses," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 202–205 (1970).

R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, "Phase of alpha waves, reaction time, and visually evoked potentials," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 433–440 (1965).

Biersdorf, W. R.

Z. Nakamura and W. R. Biersdorf, "Localization of the human visual evoked response. Early components specific to visual stimulation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 988–997 (1971).

W. R. Biersdorf and Z. Nakamura, "Localization studies of the human visual evoked response," in Xth I.S.C.E.R.G. Symposium. Documenta Ophtha alrologica Proceedings Series (W. Junk B. V., The Hague, 1973), pp. 137–144.

W. R. Biersdorf, "Cortical evoked responses from stimulation of various regions of the visual field," in Xth I. S. C. E. R. G. Symposium. Documenta Opthalmologica Proceedings Series (W. Junk B. V., The Hague, 1974), pp. 249–259.

Corwin, T. R.

Costa, L. D.

H. G. Vaughan, Jr., L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, "The functional relation of visual evoked response and reaction time to stimulus intensity," Vision Res. 6, 645–656 (1966).

Creutzfeldt, O. D.

O. D. Creutzfeldt and U. Kuhnt, "Electrophysiology and topographical distribution of visual evoked potentials in animals," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/3 Central Visual Information B., edited by R. Jung (Springer, Berlin, 1973), pp. 595–646.

Davis, G. D.

G. S. Ferriss, G. D. Davis, M. M. Dorsen, and E. R. Hackett, "Changes in latency and form of the photically induced average evoked response in human infants," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 305–312 (1967).

DeVoe, R. G.

R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, Jr., "Cortical responses to stimulation of the human fovea," Vision Res. 8, 135–147 (1968).

Dorsen, M. M.

G. S. Ferriss, G. D. Davis, M. M. Dorsen, and E. R. Hackett, "Changes in latency and form of the photically induced average evoked response in human infants," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 305–312 (1967).

Dustman, R. E.

E. G. Lewis, R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, "The effects of alcohol on visual and somato-sensory evoked responses," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 202–205 (1970).

R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, "Phase of alpha waves, reaction time, and visually evoked potentials," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 433–440 (1965).

Ellis, R.

D. Galin and R. Ellis, "Asymmetry in evoked responses as an index of laterized cognitive processes: Relation to EEG asymmetry," Neuropsychol. 13, 45–50 (1975).

Enns, N.

N. S. Namerow and N. Enns, "Visual evoked responses in patients with multiple sclerosis," J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 35, 829–833 (1972).

Ferriss, G. S.

G. S. Ferriss, G. D. Davis, M. M. Dorsen, and E. R. Hackett, "Changes in latency and form of the photically induced average evoked response in human infants," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 305–312 (1967).

Fry, A.

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, "Spectral analysis of the visually evoked occipitogram in man," Vision Res. 8, 409–431 (1968).

Galin, D.

D. Galin and R. Ellis, "Asymmetry in evoked responses as an index of laterized cognitive processes: Relation to EEG asymmetry," Neuropsychol. 13, 45–50 (1975).

Gilden, L.

H. G. Vaughan, Jr., L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, "The functional relation of visual evoked response and reaction time to stimulus intensity," Vision Res. 6, 645–656 (1966).

Goff, W. R.

W. R. Goff, "Human average evoked potentials: procedures for stimulating and recording," in Bioelectric Recording Techniques. Part B. Electroencephalography and Human Brain Potentials, edited by R. F. Thompson and M. M. Patterson (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 101–156.

Greco, J. R.

J. L. Andreassi and J. R. Greco, "Effects of bisensory stimulation on reaction time and the evoked cortical potential," Physiol. Psychol. 3, 189–194 (1975).

Hackett, E. R.

G. S. Ferriss, G. D. Davis, M. M. Dorsen, and E. R. Hackett, "Changes in latency and form of the photically induced average evoked response in human infants," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 305–312 (1967).

Hagenouw, J. R. B.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, "Visual evoked response to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes," Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).

Halliday, A. M.

A. M. Halliday, W. I. McDonald, and J. Mushin, "Delayed visual evoked response in optic neuritis," Lancet 1, 982–985 (1972).

Harter, M. R.

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, "Effects of contour sharpness and check-size on visually evoked cortical potentials," Vision Res. 8, 701–711 (1968).

Heron, J. R.

J. R. Heron, D. Regan, and B. A. Milner, "Delay of visual perception in unilateral optic atrophy following retrobulbar neuritis," Brain 97, 69–78 (1974).

Jones, R. W.

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, "Spectral analysis of the visually evoked occipitogram in man," Vision Res. 8, 409–431 (1968).

Kinney, J. A. S.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, and S. M. Luria, "Visual evoked responses and EEGs of 16 divers breathing air at 7 ATA," Undersea Biomed. Res. 4, 55–66 (1977).

C. L. McKay and J. A. S. Kinney, "Similarities between the cortical extracted pattern response with bipolar and monopolar recordings," Vision Res. 16, 1510–1512 (1976).

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, "Test of color-defective vision using the visual evoked response," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1244–1250 (1974).

J. A. S. Kinney, S. M. Luria, and M. S. Strauss, "Visual evoked responses and EEGs during shallow saturation diving," Aerosp. Med. 45, 1017–1025 (1974).

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, "Techniques for analyzing differences in VERs: Colored and patterned stimuli," Vision Res. 12, 1733–1747 (1972).

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, "The visual evoked responses as a measure of nitrogen narcosis in Navy divers," Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Groton, Conn., Report No. 664, April 1971.

Korth, M.

M. Korth and J. C. Armington, "Stimulus alternation and the Purkinje shift," Vision Res. 16, 703–711 (1976).

Kuhnt, U.

O. D. Creutzfeldt and U. Kuhnt, "Electrophysiology and topographical distribution of visual evoked potentials in animals," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/3 Central Visual Information B., edited by R. Jung (Springer, Berlin, 1973), pp. 595–646.

Lesèvre, N.

4 N. Lesèvre and A. Rémond, "Potentials evoqués par 1'apparition de patterns: Effets de la dimension du pattern et de la densité des contrastes," Electrooncephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 32, 593–604 (1972).

Lewis, E. G.

E. G. Lewis, R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck, "The effects of alcohol on visual and somato-sensory evoked responses," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 202–205 (1970).

Lubbers, J. A.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, "Visual evoked response to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes," Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).

Luria, S. M.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, and S. M. Luria, "Visual evoked responses and EEGs of 16 divers breathing air at 7 ATA," Undersea Biomed. Res. 4, 55–66 (1977).

J. A. S. Kinney, S. M. Luria, and M. S. Strauss, "Visual evoked responses and EEGs during shallow saturation diving," Aerosp. Med. 45, 1017–1025 (1974).

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, "Techniques for analyzing differences in VERs: Colored and patterned stimuli," Vision Res. 12, 1733–1747 (1972).

MacKay, D. M.

5 D. M. MacKay, "Physiological stocktaking," Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. 7, 245–258 (1969).

Marsetta, R.

McDonald, W. I.

A. M. Halliday, W. I. McDonald, and J. Mushin, "Delayed visual evoked response in optic neuritis," Lancet 1, 982–985 (1972).

McKay, C. L.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, and S. M. Luria, "Visual evoked responses and EEGs of 16 divers breathing air at 7 ATA," Undersea Biomed. Res. 4, 55–66 (1977).

C. L. McKay and J. A. S. Kinney, "Similarities between the cortical extracted pattern response with bipolar and monopolar recordings," Vision Res. 16, 1510–1512 (1976).

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, "Test of color-defective vision using the visual evoked response," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1244–1250 (1974).

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, "Techniques for analyzing differences in VERs: Colored and patterned stimuli," Vision Res. 12, 1733–1747 (1972).

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, "The visual evoked responses as a measure of nitrogen narcosis in Navy divers," Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Groton, Conn., Report No. 664, April 1971.

Mensch, A. J.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, "Techniques for analyzing differences in VERs: Colored and patterned stimuli," Vision Res. 12, 1733–1747 (1972).

Milner, B. A.

J. R. Heron, D. Regan, and B. A. Milner, "Delay of visual perception in unilateral optic atrophy following retrobulbar neuritis," Brain 97, 69–78 (1974).

Mushin, J.

A. M. Halliday, W. I. McDonald, and J. Mushin, "Delayed visual evoked response in optic neuritis," Lancet 1, 982–985 (1972).

Naitoh, P.

P. Naitoh, "The value of electroencephalography in alcoholism, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 215, 303–320 (1973).

Nakamura, Z.

Z. Nakamura and W. R. Biersdorf, "Localization of the human visual evoked response. Early components specific to visual stimulation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 988–997 (1971).

W. R. Biersdorf and Z. Nakamura, "Localization studies of the human visual evoked response," in Xth I.S.C.E.R.G. Symposium. Documenta Ophtha alrologica Proceedings Series (W. Junk B. V., The Hague, 1973), pp. 137–144.

Namerow, N. S.

N. S. Namerow and N. Enns, "Visual evoked responses in patients with multiple sclerosis," J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 35, 829–833 (1972).

Regan, D.

J. R. Heron, D. Regan, and B. A. Milner, "Delay of visual perception in unilateral optic atrophy following retrobulbar neuritis," Brain 97, 69–78 (1974).

D. Regan, Evoked Potentials in Psychology, Sensory Physiolgy and Clinical Medicine (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1972).

Rémond, A.

4 N. Lesèvre and A. Rémond, "Potentials evoqués par 1'apparition de patterns: Effets de la dimension du pattern et de la densité des contrastes," Electrooncephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 32, 593–604 (1972).

Rietveld, W. J.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, "Visual evoked response to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes," Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).

Ripps, H.

R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, Jr., "Cortical responses to stimulation of the human fovea," Vision Res. 8, 135–147 (1968).

Shipley, T.

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, "Spectral analysis of the visually evoked occipitogram in man," Vision Res. 8, 409–431 (1968).

Spehlmann, R.

R. Spehlmann, "The averaged electrical responses to diffuse and to patterned light in the human," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560–569 (1965).

Spoor, Th. A. C.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, "Visual evoked response to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes," Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).

Strauss, M. S.

J. A. S. Kinney, S. M. Luria, and M. S. Strauss, "Visual evoked responses and EEGs during shallow saturation diving," Aerosp. Med. 45, 1017–1025 (1974).

Tordoir, W. E. M.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, "Visual evoked response to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes," Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).

Vaughan, Jr., H. G.

R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, Jr., "Cortical responses to stimulation of the human fovea," Vision Res. 8, 135–147 (1968).

H. G. Vaughan, Jr., L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, "The functional relation of visual evoked response and reaction time to stimulus intensity," Vision Res. 6, 645–656 (1966).

H. G. Vaughan, Jr., "The analysis of scalp-recorded brain potentials," in Bioelectric Recording Techniques. Part B. Electroencephalography and Human Brain Potentials, edited by R. F. Thompson and M. M. Patterson (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 157–207.

White, C. T.

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, "Effects of contour sharpness and check-size on visually evoked cortical potentials," Vision Res. 8, 701–711 (1968).

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Wooten, "Photopic and scotopic contribution to the human visually evoked cortical potential," Vision Res. 12, 1647–1660 (1972).

Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. (1)

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, "Visual evoked response to blank and to checkerboard patterned flashes," Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259–285 (1967).

Aerosp. Med. (1)

J. A. S. Kinney, S. M. Luria, and M. S. Strauss, "Visual evoked responses and EEGs during shallow saturation diving," Aerosp. Med. 45, 1017–1025 (1974).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

Z. Nakamura and W. R. Biersdorf, "Localization of the human visual evoked response. Early components specific to visual stimulation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 988–997 (1971).

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

P. Naitoh, "The value of electroencephalography in alcoholism, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 215, 303–320 (1973).

Brain (1)

J. R. Heron, D. Regan, and B. A. Milner, "Delay of visual perception in unilateral optic atrophy following retrobulbar neuritis," Brain 97, 69–78 (1974).

Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. (4)

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