Abstract

Rapid developments in human electroretinography during recent decades have greatly increased its value for investigating psychophysical problems. This review of the current status of electroretinography considers the response waveform, recording techniques, and data analysis. Several examples of electroretinal data that have psychophysical significance are presented.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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  1. Much of the research described in this paper was supported by Public Health Service Grant No. EY 00568.
  2. Trygg Engen, Psychophysics: Discrimination and Detection, in Kling & Riggs [Eds.] Woodworth & Schlosberg's Experimental Pschology. 3rd Ed.. (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1938).
  3. E. L. Chaffee, W. T. Bovie, and A. Hampson, "The electrical response of the retina under stimulation by light," J., Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1–44 (1923).
  4. E. C. Adrian, "The electric response of the human eye," J. Phys. 104, 84–104 (1945).
  5. J. C. Armington, "A component of the human electroretinogram associated with red color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 393–401 (1952).
  6. J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974).
  7. R. A. Cone, "Early receptor potential of the vertebrate retina," Nature 204, 736–739 (1964).
  8. K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, "A new receptor potential of the monkey retina with no detectable latency," Nature 201, 626–628 (1964).
  9. J. E. Dowling, "Organization of vertebrate retinas," Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 655680 (1970).
  10. G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vis. Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
  11. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Hafner, New York, 1963).
  12. G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (Arnold, London, 1960).
  13. L. A. Riggs, R. N. Berry, and M. A. Wayner, "Comparison of electrical and psychophysical determination of the spectral sensitivity of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 427–436 (1949).
  14. J. C. Armington and F. C. Thiede, "Selective adaptation of components of the human electroretinogram," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 779–786 (1954).
  15. J. C. Armington "Chromatic and short term dark adaptation of the human electroretinogram," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1169–1175 (1959).
  16. W. S. Stiles and T. Smith "A mean scotopic visibility curve," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 56, 251–255 (1944).
  17. E. Dodt, R. M. Copenhaver, and R. D. Gunkel, "Photopischer dominator und Farbkomponenten im menschlichen elektroretinogramm," Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 267, 497–507 (1958).
  18. E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, "Photopic retinal potentials evoked by phase alternation of a barred pattern," in Clinical Electroretinography, edited by H. M. Burian and J. H. Jacobson (Pergamon, Oxford, 1966), pp. 75–91.
  19. G. Wald, "Human vision and the spectrum," Science 101, 653–658 (1945).
  20. J. C. Armington, "Spectral sensitivity of low level electroretinograms," Vis. Res. 16, 31–35 (1976).
  21. J. C. Armington, "Simultaneous electroretinograms and evoked potentials," Am. J. Optometry and Archives of the Am. Acad. of Optometry 47, 450–459 (1970).
  22. J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta,"Simultaneously recorded retinal and cortical responses to patterned stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514–1521 (1971).
  23. Lorrin A. Riggs, E. Parker Johnson, and Amy M. L. Schick, "Electrical Responses of the human eye to changes in wavelength of the stimulating light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1621–1627 (1966).
  24. J. C. Armington and M. B. Bloom, "Relations between the amplitudes of spontaneous saccades and visual responses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1263–1271 (1974).
  25. L. E. Flamm "Electroretinogram and visually evoked potential associated with paced saccadic displacement of the stimulus," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1256–1262 (1974).
  26. J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick, "Variation of spontaneous ocular and occipital responses with stimulus patterns," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1523–1539, (1967).
  27. J. C. Armington, E. P. Johnson, and L. A. Riggs, "The scotopic A-wave in the electrical response of the human retina," J. Phys. 118, 289–298 (1952).
  28. John C. Armington, "Visual cortical potentials and electroretinograms triggered by saccadic eye movements," in Visual Evoked Potentials in Man: New Developments, edited by J. Desmedt (Clarendon, Oxford, 1977).

1976

J. C. Armington, "Spectral sensitivity of low level electroretinograms," Vis. Res. 16, 31–35 (1976).

1974

L. E. Flamm "Electroretinogram and visually evoked potential associated with paced saccadic displacement of the stimulus," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1256–1262 (1974).

J. C. Armington and M. B. Bloom, "Relations between the amplitudes of spontaneous saccades and visual responses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1263–1271 (1974).

1971

1970

J. C. Armington, "Simultaneous electroretinograms and evoked potentials," Am. J. Optometry and Archives of the Am. Acad. of Optometry 47, 450–459 (1970).

J. E. Dowling, "Organization of vertebrate retinas," Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 655680 (1970).

1967

J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick, "Variation of spontaneous ocular and occipital responses with stimulus patterns," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1523–1539, (1967).

1966

1964

R. A. Cone, "Early receptor potential of the vertebrate retina," Nature 204, 736–739 (1964).

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, "A new receptor potential of the monkey retina with no detectable latency," Nature 201, 626–628 (1964).

1959

1958

E. Dodt, R. M. Copenhaver, and R. D. Gunkel, "Photopischer dominator und Farbkomponenten im menschlichen elektroretinogramm," Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 267, 497–507 (1958).

1954

1952

J. C. Armington, E. P. Johnson, and L. A. Riggs, "The scotopic A-wave in the electrical response of the human retina," J. Phys. 118, 289–298 (1952).

J. C. Armington, "A component of the human electroretinogram associated with red color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 393–401 (1952).

1949

1945

G. Wald, "Human vision and the spectrum," Science 101, 653–658 (1945).

E. C. Adrian, "The electric response of the human eye," J. Phys. 104, 84–104 (1945).

1944

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith "A mean scotopic visibility curve," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 56, 251–255 (1944).

1923

E. L. Chaffee, W. T. Bovie, and A. Hampson, "The electrical response of the retina under stimulation by light," J., Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1–44 (1923).

Adrian, E. C.

E. C. Adrian, "The electric response of the human eye," J. Phys. 104, 84–104 (1945).

Armington, J. C.

J. C. Armington, "Spectral sensitivity of low level electroretinograms," Vis. Res. 16, 31–35 (1976).

J. C. Armington and M. B. Bloom, "Relations between the amplitudes of spontaneous saccades and visual responses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1263–1271 (1974).

J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta,"Simultaneously recorded retinal and cortical responses to patterned stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514–1521 (1971).

J. C. Armington, "Simultaneous electroretinograms and evoked potentials," Am. J. Optometry and Archives of the Am. Acad. of Optometry 47, 450–459 (1970).

J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick, "Variation of spontaneous ocular and occipital responses with stimulus patterns," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1523–1539, (1967).

J. C. Armington "Chromatic and short term dark adaptation of the human electroretinogram," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1169–1175 (1959).

J. C. Armington and F. C. Thiede, "Selective adaptation of components of the human electroretinogram," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 779–786 (1954).

J. C. Armington, "A component of the human electroretinogram associated with red color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 393–401 (1952).

J. C. Armington, E. P. Johnson, and L. A. Riggs, "The scotopic A-wave in the electrical response of the human retina," J. Phys. 118, 289–298 (1952).

J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974).

Armington, John C.

John C. Armington, "Visual cortical potentials and electroretinograms triggered by saccadic eye movements," in Visual Evoked Potentials in Man: New Developments, edited by J. Desmedt (Clarendon, Oxford, 1977).

Berry, R. N.

Bloom, M. B.

Bovie, W. T.

E. L. Chaffee, W. T. Bovie, and A. Hampson, "The electrical response of the retina under stimulation by light," J., Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1–44 (1923).

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (Arnold, London, 1960).

Brown, K. T.

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, "A new receptor potential of the monkey retina with no detectable latency," Nature 201, 626–628 (1964).

Chaffee, E. L.

E. L. Chaffee, W. T. Bovie, and A. Hampson, "The electrical response of the retina under stimulation by light," J., Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1–44 (1923).

Cone, R. A.

R. A. Cone, "Early receptor potential of the vertebrate retina," Nature 204, 736–739 (1964).

Copenhaver, R. M.

E. Dodt, R. M. Copenhaver, and R. D. Gunkel, "Photopischer dominator und Farbkomponenten im menschlichen elektroretinogramm," Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 267, 497–507 (1958).

Corwin, T. R.

Dodt, E.

E. Dodt, R. M. Copenhaver, and R. D. Gunkel, "Photopischer dominator und Farbkomponenten im menschlichen elektroretinogramm," Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 267, 497–507 (1958).

Dowling, J. E.

J. E. Dowling, "Organization of vertebrate retinas," Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 655680 (1970).

Engen, Trygg

Trygg Engen, Psychophysics: Discrimination and Detection, in Kling & Riggs [Eds.] Woodworth & Schlosberg's Experimental Pschology. 3rd Ed.. (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1938).

Flamm, L. E.

L. E. Flamm "Electroretinogram and visually evoked potential associated with paced saccadic displacement of the stimulus," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1256–1262 (1974).

Gaarder, K.

J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick, "Variation of spontaneous ocular and occipital responses with stimulus patterns," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1523–1539, (1967).

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Hafner, New York, 1963).

Gunkel, R. D.

E. Dodt, R. M. Copenhaver, and R. D. Gunkel, "Photopischer dominator und Farbkomponenten im menschlichen elektroretinogramm," Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 267, 497–507 (1958).

Hampson, A.

E. L. Chaffee, W. T. Bovie, and A. Hampson, "The electrical response of the retina under stimulation by light," J., Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1–44 (1923).

Johnson, E. P.

J. C. Armington, E. P. Johnson, and L. A. Riggs, "The scotopic A-wave in the electrical response of the human retina," J. Phys. 118, 289–298 (1952).

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, "Photopic retinal potentials evoked by phase alternation of a barred pattern," in Clinical Electroretinography, edited by H. M. Burian and J. H. Jacobson (Pergamon, Oxford, 1966), pp. 75–91.

Johnson, E. Parker

Marsetta, R.

Murakami, M.

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, "A new receptor potential of the monkey retina with no detectable latency," Nature 201, 626–628 (1964).

Riggs, L. A.

J. C. Armington, E. P. Johnson, and L. A. Riggs, "The scotopic A-wave in the electrical response of the human retina," J. Phys. 118, 289–298 (1952).

L. A. Riggs, R. N. Berry, and M. A. Wayner, "Comparison of electrical and psychophysical determination of the spectral sensitivity of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 427–436 (1949).

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, "Photopic retinal potentials evoked by phase alternation of a barred pattern," in Clinical Electroretinography, edited by H. M. Burian and J. H. Jacobson (Pergamon, Oxford, 1966), pp. 75–91.

Riggs, Lorrin A.

Schick, A. M. L.

J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick, "Variation of spontaneous ocular and occipital responses with stimulus patterns," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1523–1539, (1967).

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, "Photopic retinal potentials evoked by phase alternation of a barred pattern," in Clinical Electroretinography, edited by H. M. Burian and J. H. Jacobson (Pergamon, Oxford, 1966), pp. 75–91.

Schick, Amy M. L.

Smith, T.

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith "A mean scotopic visibility curve," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 56, 251–255 (1944).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith "A mean scotopic visibility curve," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 56, 251–255 (1944).

Thiede, F. C.

Wald, G.

G. Wald, "Human vision and the spectrum," Science 101, 653–658 (1945).

Wayner, M. A.

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vis. Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).

Am. J. Optometry and Archives of the Am. Acad. of Optometry

J. C. Armington, "Simultaneous electroretinograms and evoked potentials," Am. J. Optometry and Archives of the Am. Acad. of Optometry 47, 450–459 (1970).

Invest. Ophthalmol.

J. E. Dowling, "Organization of vertebrate retinas," Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 655680 (1970).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys.

J. C. Armington, E. P. Johnson, and L. A. Riggs, "The scotopic A-wave in the electrical response of the human retina," J. Phys. 118, 289–298 (1952).

E. C. Adrian, "The electric response of the human eye," J. Phys. 104, 84–104 (1945).

Nature

R. A. Cone, "Early receptor potential of the vertebrate retina," Nature 204, 736–739 (1964).

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, "A new receptor potential of the monkey retina with no detectable latency," Nature 201, 626–628 (1964).

Opt. Soc. Am.

E. L. Chaffee, W. T. Bovie, and A. Hampson, "The electrical response of the retina under stimulation by light," J., Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1–44 (1923).

Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere

E. Dodt, R. M. Copenhaver, and R. D. Gunkel, "Photopischer dominator und Farbkomponenten im menschlichen elektroretinogramm," Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 267, 497–507 (1958).

Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond.

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith "A mean scotopic visibility curve," Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 56, 251–255 (1944).

Science

G. Wald, "Human vision and the spectrum," Science 101, 653–658 (1945).

Vis. Res.

J. C. Armington, "Spectral sensitivity of low level electroretinograms," Vis. Res. 16, 31–35 (1976).

G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vis. Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).

Other

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Hafner, New York, 1963).

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (Arnold, London, 1960).

J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974).

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, "Photopic retinal potentials evoked by phase alternation of a barred pattern," in Clinical Electroretinography, edited by H. M. Burian and J. H. Jacobson (Pergamon, Oxford, 1966), pp. 75–91.

Much of the research described in this paper was supported by Public Health Service Grant No. EY 00568.

Trygg Engen, Psychophysics: Discrimination and Detection, in Kling & Riggs [Eds.] Woodworth & Schlosberg's Experimental Pschology. 3rd Ed.. (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1938).

John C. Armington, "Visual cortical potentials and electroretinograms triggered by saccadic eye movements," in Visual Evoked Potentials in Man: New Developments, edited by J. Desmedt (Clarendon, Oxford, 1977).

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