Abstract

Rapid developments in human electroretinography during recent decades have greatly increased its value for investigating psychophysical problems. This review of the current status of electroretinography considers the response waveform, recording techniques, and data analysis. Several examples of electroretinal data that have psychophysical significance are presented.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Much of the research described in this paper was supported by Public Health Service Grant No. EY 00568.
  2. Trygg Engen, Psychophysics: Discrimination and Detection, in Kling and Riggs [Eds.] Woodworth & Schlosberg’s Experimental Pschology, 3rd Ed., (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1938).
  3. E. L. Chaffee, W. T. Bovie, and A. Hampson, “The electrical response of the retina under stimulation by light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1–44 (1923).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. C. Adrian, “The electric response of the human eye,” J. Phys. 104, 84–104 (1945).
  5. J. C. Armington, “A component of the human electroretinogram associated with red color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 393–401 (1952).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974).
  7. R. A. Cone, “Early receptor potential of the vertebrate retina,” Nature 204, 736–739 (1964).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, “A new receptor potential of the monkey retina with no detectable latency,” Nature 201, 626–628 (1964).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. E. Dowling, “Organization of vertebrate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 655–680 (1970).
    [PubMed]
  10. G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vis. Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Hafner, New York, 1963).
  12. G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (Arnold, London, 1960).
  13. L. A. Riggs, R. N. Berry, and M. A. Wayner, “Comparison of electrical and psychophysical determination of the spectral sensitivity of the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 427–436 (1949).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. C. Armington and F. C. Thiede, “Selective adaptation of components of the human electroretinogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 779–786 (1954).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. C. Armington “Chromatic and short term dark adaptation of the human electroretinogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1169–1175 (1959).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. S. Stiles and T. Smith “A mean scotopic visibility curve,” Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 56, 251–255 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Dodt, R. M. Copenhaver, and R. D. Gunkel, “Photopischer dominator und Farbkomponenten im menschlichen elektroretinogramm,” Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 267, 497–507 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, “Phot-opic retinal potentials evoked by phase alternation of a barred pattern,” in Clinical Electroretinography, edited by H. M. Burian and J. H. Jacobson (Pergamon, Oxford, 1966), pp. 75–91.
  19. G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 653–658 (1945).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. C. Armington, “Spectral sensitivity of low level electroretinograms,” Vis. Res. 16, 31–35 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. C. Armington, “Simultaneous electroretinograms and evoked potentials,” Am. J. Optometry and Archives of the Am. Acad, of Optometry 47, 450–459 (1970).
  22. J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta, “Simultaneously recorded retinal and cortical responses to patterned stimuli,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514–1521 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Lorrin A. Riggs, E. Parker Johnson, and Amy M. L. Schick, “Electrical Responses of the human eye to changes in wavelength of the stimulating light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1621–1627 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. C. Armington and M. B. Bloom, “Relations between the amplitudes of spontaneous saccades and visual responses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1263–1271 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. E. Flamm “Electroretinogram and visually evoked potential associated with paced saccadic displacement of the stimulus,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1256–1262 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick, “Variation of spontaneous ocular and occipital responses with stimulus patterns,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1523–1539, (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. C. Armington, E. P. Johnson, and L. A. Riggs, “The scotopic A-wave in the electrical response of the human retina,” J. Phys. 118, 289–298 (1952).
  28. John C. Armington, “Visual cortical potentials and electroretinograms triggered by saccadic eye movements,” in Visual Evoked Potentials in Man: New Developments, edited by J. Desmedt (Clarendon, Oxford, 1977).

1976 (1)

J. C. Armington, “Spectral sensitivity of low level electroretinograms,” Vis. Res. 16, 31–35 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (2)

L. E. Flamm “Electroretinogram and visually evoked potential associated with paced saccadic displacement of the stimulus,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1256–1262 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Armington and M. B. Bloom, “Relations between the amplitudes of spontaneous saccades and visual responses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1263–1271 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

1970 (2)

J. C. Armington, “Simultaneous electroretinograms and evoked potentials,” Am. J. Optometry and Archives of the Am. Acad, of Optometry 47, 450–459 (1970).

J. E. Dowling, “Organization of vertebrate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 655–680 (1970).
[PubMed]

1967 (1)

J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick, “Variation of spontaneous ocular and occipital responses with stimulus patterns,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1523–1539, (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

1964 (2)

R. A. Cone, “Early receptor potential of the vertebrate retina,” Nature 204, 736–739 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, “A new receptor potential of the monkey retina with no detectable latency,” Nature 201, 626–628 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

1958 (1)

E. Dodt, R. M. Copenhaver, and R. D. Gunkel, “Photopischer dominator und Farbkomponenten im menschlichen elektroretinogramm,” Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 267, 497–507 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

1952 (2)

J. C. Armington, E. P. Johnson, and L. A. Riggs, “The scotopic A-wave in the electrical response of the human retina,” J. Phys. 118, 289–298 (1952).

J. C. Armington, “A component of the human electroretinogram associated with red color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 393–401 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1949 (1)

1945 (2)

G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 653–658 (1945).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Adrian, “The electric response of the human eye,” J. Phys. 104, 84–104 (1945).

1944 (1)

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith “A mean scotopic visibility curve,” Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 56, 251–255 (1944).
[CrossRef]

1923 (1)

Adrian, E. C.

E. C. Adrian, “The electric response of the human eye,” J. Phys. 104, 84–104 (1945).

Armington, J. C.

J. C. Armington, “Spectral sensitivity of low level electroretinograms,” Vis. Res. 16, 31–35 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Armington and M. B. Bloom, “Relations between the amplitudes of spontaneous saccades and visual responses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1263–1271 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta, “Simultaneously recorded retinal and cortical responses to patterned stimuli,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514–1521 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Armington, “Simultaneous electroretinograms and evoked potentials,” Am. J. Optometry and Archives of the Am. Acad, of Optometry 47, 450–459 (1970).

J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick, “Variation of spontaneous ocular and occipital responses with stimulus patterns,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1523–1539, (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Armington “Chromatic and short term dark adaptation of the human electroretinogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1169–1175 (1959).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Armington and F. C. Thiede, “Selective adaptation of components of the human electroretinogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 779–786 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Armington, “A component of the human electroretinogram associated with red color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 393–401 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Armington, E. P. Johnson, and L. A. Riggs, “The scotopic A-wave in the electrical response of the human retina,” J. Phys. 118, 289–298 (1952).

J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974).

Armington, John C.

John C. Armington, “Visual cortical potentials and electroretinograms triggered by saccadic eye movements,” in Visual Evoked Potentials in Man: New Developments, edited by J. Desmedt (Clarendon, Oxford, 1977).

Berry, R. N.

Bloom, M. B.

Bovie, W. T.

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (Arnold, London, 1960).

Brown, K. T.

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, “A new receptor potential of the monkey retina with no detectable latency,” Nature 201, 626–628 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaffee, E. L.

Cone, R. A.

R. A. Cone, “Early receptor potential of the vertebrate retina,” Nature 204, 736–739 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Copenhaver, R. M.

E. Dodt, R. M. Copenhaver, and R. D. Gunkel, “Photopischer dominator und Farbkomponenten im menschlichen elektroretinogramm,” Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 267, 497–507 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, T. R.

Dodt, E.

E. Dodt, R. M. Copenhaver, and R. D. Gunkel, “Photopischer dominator und Farbkomponenten im menschlichen elektroretinogramm,” Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 267, 497–507 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. E.

J. E. Dowling, “Organization of vertebrate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 655–680 (1970).
[PubMed]

Engen, Trygg

Trygg Engen, Psychophysics: Discrimination and Detection, in Kling and Riggs [Eds.] Woodworth & Schlosberg’s Experimental Pschology, 3rd Ed., (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1938).

Flamm, L. E.

L. E. Flamm “Electroretinogram and visually evoked potential associated with paced saccadic displacement of the stimulus,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1256–1262 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Gaarder, K.

J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick, “Variation of spontaneous ocular and occipital responses with stimulus patterns,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1523–1539, (1967).
[CrossRef]

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Hafner, New York, 1963).

Gunkel, R. D.

E. Dodt, R. M. Copenhaver, and R. D. Gunkel, “Photopischer dominator und Farbkomponenten im menschlichen elektroretinogramm,” Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 267, 497–507 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Hampson, A.

Johnson, E. P.

J. C. Armington, E. P. Johnson, and L. A. Riggs, “The scotopic A-wave in the electrical response of the human retina,” J. Phys. 118, 289–298 (1952).

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, “Phot-opic retinal potentials evoked by phase alternation of a barred pattern,” in Clinical Electroretinography, edited by H. M. Burian and J. H. Jacobson (Pergamon, Oxford, 1966), pp. 75–91.

Marsetta, R.

Murakami, M.

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, “A new receptor potential of the monkey retina with no detectable latency,” Nature 201, 626–628 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker Johnson, E.

Riggs, L. A.

J. C. Armington, E. P. Johnson, and L. A. Riggs, “The scotopic A-wave in the electrical response of the human retina,” J. Phys. 118, 289–298 (1952).

L. A. Riggs, R. N. Berry, and M. A. Wayner, “Comparison of electrical and psychophysical determination of the spectral sensitivity of the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 427–436 (1949).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, “Phot-opic retinal potentials evoked by phase alternation of a barred pattern,” in Clinical Electroretinography, edited by H. M. Burian and J. H. Jacobson (Pergamon, Oxford, 1966), pp. 75–91.

Riggs, Lorrin A.

Schick, A. M. L.

J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick, “Variation of spontaneous ocular and occipital responses with stimulus patterns,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1523–1539, (1967).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, “Phot-opic retinal potentials evoked by phase alternation of a barred pattern,” in Clinical Electroretinography, edited by H. M. Burian and J. H. Jacobson (Pergamon, Oxford, 1966), pp. 75–91.

Schick, Amy M. L.

Smith, T.

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith “A mean scotopic visibility curve,” Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 56, 251–255 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith “A mean scotopic visibility curve,” Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 56, 251–255 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Thiede, F. C.

Wald, G.

G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 653–658 (1945).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wayner, M. A.

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vis. Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Optometry and Archives of the Am. Acad, of Optometry (1)

J. C. Armington, “Simultaneous electroretinograms and evoked potentials,” Am. J. Optometry and Archives of the Am. Acad, of Optometry 47, 450–459 (1970).

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. E. Dowling, “Organization of vertebrate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 655–680 (1970).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (10)

L. E. Flamm “Electroretinogram and visually evoked potential associated with paced saccadic displacement of the stimulus,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1256–1262 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick, “Variation of spontaneous ocular and occipital responses with stimulus patterns,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1523–1539, (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Armington, “A component of the human electroretinogram associated with red color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 393–401 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Armington and F. C. Thiede, “Selective adaptation of components of the human electroretinogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 779–786 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Armington “Chromatic and short term dark adaptation of the human electroretinogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1169–1175 (1959).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta, “Simultaneously recorded retinal and cortical responses to patterned stimuli,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514–1521 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Armington and M. B. Bloom, “Relations between the amplitudes of spontaneous saccades and visual responses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1263–1271 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Chaffee, W. T. Bovie, and A. Hampson, “The electrical response of the retina under stimulation by light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1–44 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Lorrin A. Riggs, E. Parker Johnson, and Amy M. L. Schick, “Electrical Responses of the human eye to changes in wavelength of the stimulating light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1621–1627 (1966).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Riggs, R. N. Berry, and M. A. Wayner, “Comparison of electrical and psychophysical determination of the spectral sensitivity of the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 427–436 (1949).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. (2)

E. C. Adrian, “The electric response of the human eye,” J. Phys. 104, 84–104 (1945).

J. C. Armington, E. P. Johnson, and L. A. Riggs, “The scotopic A-wave in the electrical response of the human retina,” J. Phys. 118, 289–298 (1952).

Nature (2)

R. A. Cone, “Early receptor potential of the vertebrate retina,” Nature 204, 736–739 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, “A new receptor potential of the monkey retina with no detectable latency,” Nature 201, 626–628 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere (1)

E. Dodt, R. M. Copenhaver, and R. D. Gunkel, “Photopischer dominator und Farbkomponenten im menschlichen elektroretinogramm,” Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 267, 497–507 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. (1)

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith “A mean scotopic visibility curve,” Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 56, 251–255 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 653–658 (1945).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vis. Res. (2)

J. C. Armington, “Spectral sensitivity of low level electroretinograms,” Vis. Res. 16, 31–35 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vis. Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Hafner, New York, 1963).

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (Arnold, London, 1960).

J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974).

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, “Phot-opic retinal potentials evoked by phase alternation of a barred pattern,” in Clinical Electroretinography, edited by H. M. Burian and J. H. Jacobson (Pergamon, Oxford, 1966), pp. 75–91.

John C. Armington, “Visual cortical potentials and electroretinograms triggered by saccadic eye movements,” in Visual Evoked Potentials in Man: New Developments, edited by J. Desmedt (Clarendon, Oxford, 1977).

Much of the research described in this paper was supported by Public Health Service Grant No. EY 00568.

Trygg Engen, Psychophysics: Discrimination and Detection, in Kling and Riggs [Eds.] Woodworth & Schlosberg’s Experimental Pschology, 3rd Ed., (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1938).

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Figures (11)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Separating the photopic and scotopic components of the electroretinogram. The solid line shows a typical waveform for the dark-adapted eye. It can be divided by appropriate experimental techniques into the photopic (dashed lines) and scotopic (dotted lines) components. (From Armington et al., Ref. 27.)

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Illustration of some of the components of the human electroretinogram. (From Armington, Ref. 6.)

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

A device for presenting alternating stimuli. (From Armington, Ref. 28.)

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Technique for recording the responses that accompany saccadic eye movement. (From Armington, Ref. 21.)

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Curves relating ERG amplitude (μV) to stimulus energy under three conditions of color adaptation. (From Armington, Ref. 15.)

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

An experimental comparison of psychophysical and electroretinal data with widely published psychophysical functions. The various symbols mark data points obtained from several subjects. The smooth and dashed lines identify standard sensitivity curves. See text for additional explanation. (From Riggs et al., Ref. 13.)

FIG. 7
FIG. 7

Spectral sensitivity of the B wave when the eye is adapted to blue (a) and to red (b) light. (From Armington and Thiede, Ref. 14.)

FIG. 8
FIG. 8

Spectral sensitivity for the B wave (filled circles) and the A wave (open circles) measured under three conditions of color adaptation (blue, purple, and red). (From Armington, Ref. 15.)

FIG. 9
FIG. 9

Spectral sensitivity of the B wave in response to alter nating stimuli. Data points marked with different symbols are from different subjects. The smooth curve is Wald’s curve for the extrafoveal cones. (From Johnson et al., Ref. 18.)

FIG. 10
FIG. 10

Electroretinograms and visually evoked cortical potentials produced by spontaneous saccadic eye movements of several different amplitudes. Response to left and right eye movements are shown. (From Armington and Bloom, Ref. 24.)

FIG. 11
FIG. 11

The relation between B wave amplitude and the spatial frequency of the stimulus pattern scanned by a saccade of fixed amplitude. (From Armington and Bloom, Ref. 24.)