Abstract

A brief description and appraisal are given of the techniques that have been developed for stimulating and recording the visual responses of the human eye and brain.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway, 2nd ed. (Arnold, London, 1970).
  2. M. V. Dobson, Spectral sensitivity of the two-month infant as measured by the visually evoked cortical potential, Doctoral dissertation (Brown University, 1975) (unpublished).
  3. J. Erlanger and H. S. Gasser, Electrical signs of nervous activity (Oxford U. P., London, 1937).
  4. H. K. Hartline, “The electrical response to illumination of the eye in intact animals, including the human subject; and in decerebrate preparations,” Am. J. Physiol. 73600–611 (1925).
  5. R. A. Holub, “An examination of the effects of adaptation state upon temporal integration in retinal and psychophysical responses,” M. Sc. Thesis, Brown University (1973).
  6. B. H. C. Matthews, Electricity in our bodies (Allan and Unwin, London, 1931).
  7. M. Millodot and L. A. Riggs, “Refraction determined electrophysiologically,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 84, 272–278 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. L. A. Riggs, “Dark adaptation in the frog eye as determined by the electrical response of the retina,” J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 9, 419–510 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, “Electrical responses of the human eye to moving stimulus patterns,” Science 144, 567 (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. A. Riggs, “Electrical evidence on the trichromatic theory,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 6, 6–17 (1967).
    [PubMed]
  11. L. A. Riggs, “Progress in the recording of human retinal and occipital potentials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1558–1566 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, “Electrical measures and psychophysical data on human vision,” Chap. 27 in part 4, Vol. 7, of Handbook of Sensory Physiology (Springer, Berlin, 1972).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. Sundmark, “The contact glass in human electroretinography,” Acta Opthalmol. Suppl. 52, 1–40 (1959).
  14. G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 653–658 (1945).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. I. C. Whitfield, Manual of Experimental Electrophysiology (Macmillan, New York, 1964).

1970 (1)

M. Millodot and L. A. Riggs, “Refraction determined electrophysiologically,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 84, 272–278 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

1967 (1)

L. A. Riggs, “Electrical evidence on the trichromatic theory,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 6, 6–17 (1967).
[PubMed]

1964 (1)

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, “Electrical responses of the human eye to moving stimulus patterns,” Science 144, 567 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

E. Sundmark, “The contact glass in human electroretinography,” Acta Opthalmol. Suppl. 52, 1–40 (1959).

1945 (1)

G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 653–658 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1937 (1)

L. A. Riggs, “Dark adaptation in the frog eye as determined by the electrical response of the retina,” J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 9, 419–510 (1937).
[Crossref]

1925 (1)

H. K. Hartline, “The electrical response to illumination of the eye in intact animals, including the human subject; and in decerebrate preparations,” Am. J. Physiol. 73600–611 (1925).

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway, 2nd ed. (Arnold, London, 1970).

Dobson, M. V.

M. V. Dobson, Spectral sensitivity of the two-month infant as measured by the visually evoked cortical potential, Doctoral dissertation (Brown University, 1975) (unpublished).

Erlanger, J.

J. Erlanger and H. S. Gasser, Electrical signs of nervous activity (Oxford U. P., London, 1937).

Gasser, H. S.

J. Erlanger and H. S. Gasser, Electrical signs of nervous activity (Oxford U. P., London, 1937).

Hartline, H. K.

H. K. Hartline, “The electrical response to illumination of the eye in intact animals, including the human subject; and in decerebrate preparations,” Am. J. Physiol. 73600–611 (1925).

Holub, R. A.

R. A. Holub, “An examination of the effects of adaptation state upon temporal integration in retinal and psychophysical responses,” M. Sc. Thesis, Brown University (1973).

Johnson, E. P.

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, “Electrical responses of the human eye to moving stimulus patterns,” Science 144, 567 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matthews, B. H. C.

B. H. C. Matthews, Electricity in our bodies (Allan and Unwin, London, 1931).

Millodot, M.

M. Millodot and L. A. Riggs, “Refraction determined electrophysiologically,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 84, 272–278 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riggs, L. A.

M. Millodot and L. A. Riggs, “Refraction determined electrophysiologically,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 84, 272–278 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Riggs, “Progress in the recording of human retinal and occipital potentials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1558–1566 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Riggs, “Electrical evidence on the trichromatic theory,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 6, 6–17 (1967).
[PubMed]

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, “Electrical responses of the human eye to moving stimulus patterns,” Science 144, 567 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Riggs, “Dark adaptation in the frog eye as determined by the electrical response of the retina,” J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 9, 419–510 (1937).
[Crossref]

L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, “Electrical measures and psychophysical data on human vision,” Chap. 27 in part 4, Vol. 7, of Handbook of Sensory Physiology (Springer, Berlin, 1972).
[Crossref]

Schick, A. M. L.

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, “Electrical responses of the human eye to moving stimulus patterns,” Science 144, 567 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sundmark, E.

E. Sundmark, “The contact glass in human electroretinography,” Acta Opthalmol. Suppl. 52, 1–40 (1959).

Wald, G.

G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 653–658 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whitfield, I. C.

I. C. Whitfield, Manual of Experimental Electrophysiology (Macmillan, New York, 1964).

Wooten, B. R.

L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, “Electrical measures and psychophysical data on human vision,” Chap. 27 in part 4, Vol. 7, of Handbook of Sensory Physiology (Springer, Berlin, 1972).
[Crossref]

Acta Opthalmol. Suppl. (1)

E. Sundmark, “The contact glass in human electroretinography,” Acta Opthalmol. Suppl. 52, 1–40 (1959).

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

H. K. Hartline, “The electrical response to illumination of the eye in intact animals, including the human subject; and in decerebrate preparations,” Am. J. Physiol. 73600–611 (1925).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Millodot and L. A. Riggs, “Refraction determined electrophysiologically,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 84, 272–278 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

L. A. Riggs, “Electrical evidence on the trichromatic theory,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 6, 6–17 (1967).
[PubMed]

J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. (1)

L. A. Riggs, “Dark adaptation in the frog eye as determined by the electrical response of the retina,” J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 9, 419–510 (1937).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Science (2)

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, “Electrical responses of the human eye to moving stimulus patterns,” Science 144, 567 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 653–658 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (7)

I. C. Whitfield, Manual of Experimental Electrophysiology (Macmillan, New York, 1964).

L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, “Electrical measures and psychophysical data on human vision,” Chap. 27 in part 4, Vol. 7, of Handbook of Sensory Physiology (Springer, Berlin, 1972).
[Crossref]

R. A. Holub, “An examination of the effects of adaptation state upon temporal integration in retinal and psychophysical responses,” M. Sc. Thesis, Brown University (1973).

B. H. C. Matthews, Electricity in our bodies (Allan and Unwin, London, 1931).

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway, 2nd ed. (Arnold, London, 1970).

M. V. Dobson, Spectral sensitivity of the two-month infant as measured by the visually evoked cortical potential, Doctoral dissertation (Brown University, 1975) (unpublished).

J. Erlanger and H. S. Gasser, Electrical signs of nervous activity (Oxford U. P., London, 1937).

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Figures (19)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Recording from electrodes on the human occiput, A, B, C and eye, E (Riggs and Wooten, Ref. 12).

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Einthoven string galvanometer (Matthews, Ref. 6).

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Capillary electrometer of Lippmann (Matthews, Ref. 6)

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Matthews’s moving-iron mirror galvanometer (see Ref. 6).

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

String galvanometer records of frog ERG (ABC decreasing flash intensities; 1–5, increasing dark adaptation) (Riggs, Ref. 8).

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Erlanger and Gasser CRO, amplifier, stimulator, and nerve (see Ref. 3).

FIG. 7
FIG. 7

Erlanger and Gasser action potential records of frog nerve (see Ref. 3).

FIG. 8
FIG. 8

Sensitivity gain by the averaging of 1, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256 sweeps of CAT computer (see Riggs, Ref. 11).

FIG. 9
FIG. 9

Unpublished data of Holub (Ref. 5) on A- and B-wave amplitudes of the human ERG in response to 10. 6 and 146. 5 ms flashes in full dark adaptation. Note that A waves of measurable amplitude are recorded at flash intensities near threshold.

FIG. 10
FIG. 10

Saline-soaked wick electrode such as Adrian used as a corneal lead for the human ERG (see Whitfield, Ref. 15).

FIG. 11
FIG. 11

Records of the human eye made by use of a wick electrode (1–6) and by a method of saline-filled goggles (7) by Hartline, Ref. 4. String galvanometer, no amplification.

FIG. 12
FIG. 12

Early types of contact lens electrode (see Sundmark Ref. 13).

FIG. 13
FIG. 13

Subject wearing contact lens electrode (see Riggs, Ref. 10).

FIG. 14
FIG. 14

Alternating stripe pattern developed by Riggs et al. (Ref. 9) for ERG recording. The stimulus is the periodic exchange of stripes a for stripes b.

FIG. 15
FIG. 15

Alternating checkerboard pattern used by Millodot and Riggs, Ref. 7.

FIG. 16
FIG. 16

VECP and ERG amplitudes with blurring of checkerboard field by minus and plus spherical lenses (Millodot and Riggs, Ref. 13).

FIG. 17
FIG. 17

Infant in position for stimulation by light and recording of VECP with scalp electrodes (see Dobson, Ref. 2).

FIG. 18
FIG. 18

VECP records from an infant in response to progressively weaker flashes of monochromatic light. At left of each record is indicated the attenuation of the flash (on a log scale) and at the right is a 1 μV calibration (see Dobson, Ref. 2).

FIG. 19
FIG. 19

Spectral sensitivity curve for the infant, based on records such as those in Fig. 18. Solid curve is adult parafoveal function of Wald, (Ref. 14) and dotted curve is the foveal function (see Dobson, Ref. 2).