Abstract

Variations in increment thresholds as a function of background intensity and/or brightness were found to depend upon the size of the incremental flash and the magnitude of blur at the edges of the conditioning field. These findings suggest that there may be more than one visual mechanism responsible for processing intensity information.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. A. Burkhardt, “Brightness and the increment threshold,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 979–981 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. M. Sparrock, “Stabilized images: Increment thresholds and subjective brightness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 872–874 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. N. Cornsweet and D. Y. Teller, “Relation of increment thresholds to brightness and luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1303–1308 (1965).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S. L. Guth, “On neural inhibition, contrast effects and visual sensitivity,” Vision Res. 13, 937–957 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. W. Onley and R. M. Boynton, “Visual responses to equally bright stimuli of unequal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 934–940 (1962).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. T. N. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, New York, 1970).
  7. J. P. Thomas and C. W. Kovar, “The effect of contour sharpness on perceived brightness,” Vision Res. 5, 559–564 (1965).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Davidson and J. A. Whiteside, “Human brightness perception near sharp contours,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 530–536 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, “Edge detectors in human vision,” J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).
  10. D. C. Hood and J. A. Whiteside, “Brightness of ramp stimuli as a function of plateau and gradient widths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1310–1311 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. R. Shapley, “Gaussian bars and rectangular bars: The influence of width and gradient on visibility,” Vision Res. 14, 1457–1462 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. G. W. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 190, 139–154 (1967).
  13. It should be noted that when expressed in intensity units, both the absolute and increment thresholds for the large test flash were lower than those for the small test flash.We interpret the greater increase in increment thresholds for the 1° test flash, with respect to its absolute threshold, as being due to the greater influence of lateral inhibition in the light adapted, than dark adapted eye [H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and W. S. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat’s retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 137, 338–354 (1957)].
  14. C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 203, 237–260 (1969).
  15. M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, “Spatial frequency channels in human vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. N. Weisstein, G. Ozog, and R. Szoc, “A comparison and elaboration of two models of metacontrast,” Psychol. Rev. 82, 325–343 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, “Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing,” Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. Kahneman, “Method, findings and theory in studies of visual masking,” Psychol. Bull. 70, 404–425 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, “Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing,” Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

N. Weisstein, G. Ozog, and R. Szoc, “A comparison and elaboration of two models of metacontrast,” Psychol. Rev. 82, 325–343 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

R. Shapley, “Gaussian bars and rectangular bars: The influence of width and gradient on visibility,” Vision Res. 14, 1457–1462 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (2)

S. L. Guth, “On neural inhibition, contrast effects and visual sensitivity,” Vision Res. 13, 937–957 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, “Edge detectors in human vision,” J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).

1971 (2)

1969 (2)

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 203, 237–260 (1969).

J. M. Sparrock, “Stabilized images: Increment thresholds and subjective brightness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 872–874 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1968 (2)

1967 (1)

G. W. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 190, 139–154 (1967).

1966 (1)

1965 (2)

J. P. Thomas and C. W. Kovar, “The effect of contour sharpness on perceived brightness,” Vision Res. 5, 559–564 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. N. Cornsweet and D. Y. Teller, “Relation of increment thresholds to brightness and luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1303–1308 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

1957 (1)

It should be noted that when expressed in intensity units, both the absolute and increment thresholds for the large test flash were lower than those for the small test flash.We interpret the greater increase in increment thresholds for the 1° test flash, with respect to its absolute threshold, as being due to the greater influence of lateral inhibition in the light adapted, than dark adapted eye [H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and W. S. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat’s retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 137, 338–354 (1957)].

Barlow, H. B.

It should be noted that when expressed in intensity units, both the absolute and increment thresholds for the large test flash were lower than those for the small test flash.We interpret the greater increase in increment thresholds for the 1° test flash, with respect to its absolute threshold, as being due to the greater influence of lateral inhibition in the light adapted, than dark adapted eye [H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and W. S. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat’s retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 137, 338–354 (1957)].

Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 203, 237–260 (1969).

Boynton, R. M.

Breitmeyer, B. G.

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, “Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing,” Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burkhardt, D. A.

Campbell, F. W.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 203, 237–260 (1969).

Cornsweet, T. N.

Davidson, M.

FitzHugh, R.

It should be noted that when expressed in intensity units, both the absolute and increment thresholds for the large test flash were lower than those for the small test flash.We interpret the greater increase in increment thresholds for the 1° test flash, with respect to its absolute threshold, as being due to the greater influence of lateral inhibition in the light adapted, than dark adapted eye [H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and W. S. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat’s retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 137, 338–354 (1957)].

Ganz, L.

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, “Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing,” Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth, “On neural inhibition, contrast effects and visual sensitivity,” Vision Res. 13, 937–957 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hood, D. C.

Kahneman, D.

D. Kahneman, “Method, findings and theory in studies of visual masking,” Psychol. Bull. 70, 404–425 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kovar, C. W.

J. P. Thomas and C. W. Kovar, “The effect of contour sharpness on perceived brightness,” Vision Res. 5, 559–564 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuffler, W. S.

It should be noted that when expressed in intensity units, both the absolute and increment thresholds for the large test flash were lower than those for the small test flash.We interpret the greater increase in increment thresholds for the 1° test flash, with respect to its absolute threshold, as being due to the greater influence of lateral inhibition in the light adapted, than dark adapted eye [H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and W. S. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat’s retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 137, 338–354 (1957)].

Nachmias, J.

Onley, J. W.

Ozog, G.

N. Weisstein, G. Ozog, and R. Szoc, “A comparison and elaboration of two models of metacontrast,” Psychol. Rev. 82, 325–343 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robson, J. G.

Sachs, M. B.

Shapley, R.

R. Shapley, “Gaussian bars and rectangular bars: The influence of width and gradient on visibility,” Vision Res. 14, 1457–1462 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapley, R. M.

R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, “Edge detectors in human vision,” J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).

Sparrock, J. M.

Szoc, R.

N. Weisstein, G. Ozog, and R. Szoc, “A comparison and elaboration of two models of metacontrast,” Psychol. Rev. 82, 325–343 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teller, D. Y.

Thomas, J. P.

J. P. Thomas and C. W. Kovar, “The effect of contour sharpness on perceived brightness,” Vision Res. 5, 559–564 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tolhurst, D. J.

R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, “Edge detectors in human vision,” J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).

Weisstein, N.

N. Weisstein, G. Ozog, and R. Szoc, “A comparison and elaboration of two models of metacontrast,” Psychol. Rev. 82, 325–343 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Westheimer, G. W.

G. W. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 190, 139–154 (1967).

Whiteside, J. A.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

J. Physiol. (1)

R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, “Edge detectors in human vision,” J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).

J. Physiol. (Lond.) (3)

G. W. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 190, 139–154 (1967).

It should be noted that when expressed in intensity units, both the absolute and increment thresholds for the large test flash were lower than those for the small test flash.We interpret the greater increase in increment thresholds for the 1° test flash, with respect to its absolute threshold, as being due to the greater influence of lateral inhibition in the light adapted, than dark adapted eye [H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and W. S. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat’s retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 137, 338–354 (1957)].

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 203, 237–260 (1969).

Psychol. Bull. (1)

D. Kahneman, “Method, findings and theory in studies of visual masking,” Psychol. Bull. 70, 404–425 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Psychol. Rev. (2)

N. Weisstein, G. Ozog, and R. Szoc, “A comparison and elaboration of two models of metacontrast,” Psychol. Rev. 82, 325–343 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, “Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing,” Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (3)

J. P. Thomas and C. W. Kovar, “The effect of contour sharpness on perceived brightness,” Vision Res. 5, 559–564 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shapley, “Gaussian bars and rectangular bars: The influence of width and gradient on visibility,” Vision Res. 14, 1457–1462 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Guth, “On neural inhibition, contrast effects and visual sensitivity,” Vision Res. 13, 937–957 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. N. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, New York, 1970).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Relative brightness relations (expressed with respect to the 6. 24° diam stimulus that was 4. 02 log trolands) among the sharp (solid circles) and blurred (open circles) disks as a function of disk intensity. The disk intensities were measured in the presence of the annuli and thus reflect light scatter within the apparatus as well as light scatter that was inherent to the photometric procedures that were used. The data are from observer S.S.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Increment thresholds assessed with the 0. 25° test flash as a function of disk intensity for the disks surrounded by annuli (open circles) and when presented against an unilluminated background (solid circles). Representative luminance distributions (not drawn to scale) are indicated next to each function. The “×” in each graph represents the disk whose intensity was the same as that of its annulus. In order to approximately equate the intensities of all annuli and achieve a reasonable spacing among the disk intensities, the transparencies were individually filtered. The mean annulus intensity is represented by the A on each abscissa. Disk intensities were measured either in the presence or absence of their annuli, depending upon the experimental condition. Thus, the disk intensities take into account an influence of light scatter. All bars represent 95% confidence intervals. The data are from observers J.A. and S.S.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Increment thresholds assessed with the 1° test flash as a function of disk intensity. See caption to Fig. 2 for details.