Abstract

Variations in increment thresholds as a function of background intensity and/or brightness were found to depend upon the size of the incremental flash and the magnitude of blur at the edges of the conditioning field. These findings suggest that there may be more than one visual mechanism responsible for processing intensity information.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. Burkhardt, "Brightness and the increment threshold," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 979–981 (1966).
  2. J. M. Sparrock, "Stabilized images: Increment thresholds and subjective brightness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 872–874 (1969).
  3. T. N. Cornsweet and D. Y. Teller, "Relation of increment thresholds to brightness and luminance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1303–1308 (1965).
  4. S. L. Guth, "On neural inhibition, contrast effects and visual sensitivity," Vision Res. 13, 937–957 (1973).
  5. J. W. Onley and R. M. Boynton, "Visual responses to equally bright stimuli of unequal luminance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 934–940 (1962).
  6. T. N. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, New York, 1970).
  7. J. P. Thomas and C. W. Kovar, "The effect of contour sharpness on perceived brightness, "Vision Res. 5, 559–564 (1965).
  8. M. Davidson and J. A. Whiteside, "Human brightness perception near sharp contours," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 530–536 (1971).
  9. R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, "Edge detectors in human vision, "J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).
  10. D. C. Hood and J. A. Whiteside, "Brightness of ramp stimuli as a function of plateau and gradient widths, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1310–1311 (1968).
  11. R. Shapley, "Gaussian bars and rectangular bars: The influence of width and gradient on visibility, "Vision Res. 14, 1457–1462 (1974).
  12. G. W. Westheimer, "Spatial interaction in human cone vision, "J. Physiol. (Lond.) 190, 139–154 (1967).
  13. It should be noted that when expressed in intensity units, both the absolute and increment thresholds for the large test flash were lower than those for the small test flash. We interpret the greater increase in increment thresholds for the 1° test flash, with respect to its absolute threshold, as being due to the greater influence of lateral inhibition in the light adapted, than dark adapted eye [H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and W. S. Kuffler, "Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat's retina during dark adaptation, "J. Physiol. (Lond.) 137, 338–354 (1957)].
  14. C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images, "J. Physiol. (Lond.) 203, 237–260 (1969).
  15. M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, "Spatial frequency channels in human vision, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).
  16. N. Weisstein, G. Ozog, and R. Szoc, "A comparison and elaboration of two models of metacontrast, "Psychol. Rev. 82, 325–343 (1975).
  17. B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, "Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing, "Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).
  18. D. Kahneman, "Method, findings and theory in studies of visual masking, "Psychol. Bull. 70, 404–425 (1968).

1976

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, "Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing, "Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).

1975

N. Weisstein, G. Ozog, and R. Szoc, "A comparison and elaboration of two models of metacontrast, "Psychol. Rev. 82, 325–343 (1975).

1974

R. Shapley, "Gaussian bars and rectangular bars: The influence of width and gradient on visibility, "Vision Res. 14, 1457–1462 (1974).

1973

S. L. Guth, "On neural inhibition, contrast effects and visual sensitivity," Vision Res. 13, 937–957 (1973).

R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, "Edge detectors in human vision, "J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).

1971

1969

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images, "J. Physiol. (Lond.) 203, 237–260 (1969).

J. M. Sparrock, "Stabilized images: Increment thresholds and subjective brightness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 872–874 (1969).

1968

D. C. Hood and J. A. Whiteside, "Brightness of ramp stimuli as a function of plateau and gradient widths, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1310–1311 (1968).

D. Kahneman, "Method, findings and theory in studies of visual masking, "Psychol. Bull. 70, 404–425 (1968).

1967

G. W. Westheimer, "Spatial interaction in human cone vision, "J. Physiol. (Lond.) 190, 139–154 (1967).

1966

1965

J. P. Thomas and C. W. Kovar, "The effect of contour sharpness on perceived brightness, "Vision Res. 5, 559–564 (1965).

T. N. Cornsweet and D. Y. Teller, "Relation of increment thresholds to brightness and luminance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1303–1308 (1965).

1962

1957

It should be noted that when expressed in intensity units, both the absolute and increment thresholds for the large test flash were lower than those for the small test flash. We interpret the greater increase in increment thresholds for the 1° test flash, with respect to its absolute threshold, as being due to the greater influence of lateral inhibition in the light adapted, than dark adapted eye [H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and W. S. Kuffler, "Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat's retina during dark adaptation, "J. Physiol. (Lond.) 137, 338–354 (1957)].

Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images, "J. Physiol. (Lond.) 203, 237–260 (1969).

Boynton, R. M.

Breitmeyer, B. G.

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, "Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing, "Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).

Burkhardt, D. A.

Campbell, F. W.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images, "J. Physiol. (Lond.) 203, 237–260 (1969).

Cornsweet, T. N.

Davidson, M.

Ganz, L.

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, "Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing, "Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth, "On neural inhibition, contrast effects and visual sensitivity," Vision Res. 13, 937–957 (1973).

Hood, D. C.

Kahneman, D.

D. Kahneman, "Method, findings and theory in studies of visual masking, "Psychol. Bull. 70, 404–425 (1968).

Kovar, C. W.

J. P. Thomas and C. W. Kovar, "The effect of contour sharpness on perceived brightness, "Vision Res. 5, 559–564 (1965).

Nachmias, J.

Onley, J. W.

Ozog, G.

N. Weisstein, G. Ozog, and R. Szoc, "A comparison and elaboration of two models of metacontrast, "Psychol. Rev. 82, 325–343 (1975).

Robson, J. G.

Sachs, M. B.

Shapley, R.

R. Shapley, "Gaussian bars and rectangular bars: The influence of width and gradient on visibility, "Vision Res. 14, 1457–1462 (1974).

Shapley, R. M.

R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, "Edge detectors in human vision, "J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).

Sparrock, J. M.

Szoc, R.

N. Weisstein, G. Ozog, and R. Szoc, "A comparison and elaboration of two models of metacontrast, "Psychol. Rev. 82, 325–343 (1975).

Teller, D. Y.

Thomas, J. P.

J. P. Thomas and C. W. Kovar, "The effect of contour sharpness on perceived brightness, "Vision Res. 5, 559–564 (1965).

Tolhurst, D. J.

R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, "Edge detectors in human vision, "J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).

Weisstein, N.

N. Weisstein, G. Ozog, and R. Szoc, "A comparison and elaboration of two models of metacontrast, "Psychol. Rev. 82, 325–343 (1975).

Westheimer, G. W.

G. W. Westheimer, "Spatial interaction in human cone vision, "J. Physiol. (Lond.) 190, 139–154 (1967).

Whiteside, J. A.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Physiol.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images, "J. Physiol. (Lond.) 203, 237–260 (1969).

G. W. Westheimer, "Spatial interaction in human cone vision, "J. Physiol. (Lond.) 190, 139–154 (1967).

R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, "Edge detectors in human vision, "J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).

Psychol. Bull.

D. Kahneman, "Method, findings and theory in studies of visual masking, "Psychol. Bull. 70, 404–425 (1968).

Psychol. Rev.

N. Weisstein, G. Ozog, and R. Szoc, "A comparison and elaboration of two models of metacontrast, "Psychol. Rev. 82, 325–343 (1975).

B. G. Breitmeyer and L. Ganz, "Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing, "Psychol. Rev. 83, 1–36 (1976).

Vision Res.

J. P. Thomas and C. W. Kovar, "The effect of contour sharpness on perceived brightness, "Vision Res. 5, 559–564 (1965).

R. Shapley, "Gaussian bars and rectangular bars: The influence of width and gradient on visibility, "Vision Res. 14, 1457–1462 (1974).

S. L. Guth, "On neural inhibition, contrast effects and visual sensitivity," Vision Res. 13, 937–957 (1973).

Other

T. N. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, New York, 1970).

It should be noted that when expressed in intensity units, both the absolute and increment thresholds for the large test flash were lower than those for the small test flash. We interpret the greater increase in increment thresholds for the 1° test flash, with respect to its absolute threshold, as being due to the greater influence of lateral inhibition in the light adapted, than dark adapted eye [H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and W. S. Kuffler, "Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat's retina during dark adaptation, "J. Physiol. (Lond.) 137, 338–354 (1957)].

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