Abstract

We have measured 6096 Np wavelengths with the 9 m Paschen-Runge spectrograph at Argonne and the Fourier transform facilities at Aime Cotton, of which 40% have been classified as transitions between 130 even levels and 329 odd levels. Most of the even levels and half of the odd levels have been identified by hyperfine structure and Zeeman data. The ground configuration is 5ƒ<sup>4</sup>6<i>d</i>7<i>S</i><sup>2</sup>; the next configuration, 5ƒ<sup>5</sup>7<i>s</i><sup>2</sup>, starts at 2831 cm<sup>-1</sup>. The low levels of 5ƒ<sup>4</sup>6<i>d</i><sup>2</sup>7<i>s</i>, 5ƒ<sup>3</sup>6<i>d</i><sup>2</sup>7<i>s</i><sup>2</sup> , and 5ƒ<sup>4</sup>6<i>d</i>7<i>s</i>7<i>p</i> have been identified, and parameter fits made for 5ƒ<sup>4</sup> 6<i>d</i>7<i>s</i><sup>2</sup> and 5ƒ<sup>4</sup>7<i>s</i><sup>2</sup>7<i>p</i>.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, "The spectra of the heavy elements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 357–363 (1949).
  2. F. S. Tomkins, "Hyperfine structure in the spectrum of 237Np," Phys. Rev. 73, 1214–1215 (1948).
  3. F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, "Electrodeless discharge tubes containing rare-earth and heavy element halides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 1087–1091 (1957).
  4. G. Smith, "Analysis of Zeeman patterns distorted by hyperfine structure," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 937–939 (1965).
  5. M. Fred and F. S. Tomkins, "Preliminary term analysis of the NpI spectrum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 506 (1963); Abstract, 1963 Spring Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper MA13.
  6. J. Blaise, J. Verges, J. F. Wyart, H. Delouis, M. Fred, and F. S. Tomkins, "Preliminary Term Analysis of the Arc Spectrum of Neptunium," Fourth Annual Conference, European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, European Physical Society, Amsterdam, July 11–14, 1972, Paper 10.
  7. M. Fred, W. J. Childs, and F. S. Tomkins, "Nuclear moments of 237Np," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1343–1344 (1972); Abstract, 1972 Annual Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper WG15.
  8. M. Fred, W. J. Childs, J. E. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Hyperfine Structure, Nuclear Moments, andConfigurationInteraction in Neutral 237Np, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1188 (1975); Abstract, 1975 Annual Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper WF14.
  9. L. Bovey and E. B. M. Steers, "The optical spectra of some rare earth and transuranic elements in the 1–3 micron region. Part IV: The spectrum of neptunium," (Report AERE-R3118, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Berkshire, U. K., 1959).
  10. J. Haaland, "Wavelength and intensity measurements in the spark-excited spectrum of neptunium, " (Report KR-1, Kjeller Research Establishment, Norway, 1959).
  11. K. Krebs and R. Winkler, "Zur fein- und hyperfeinstruktur des americium-I," Z. Phys. 162, 235–244 (1961).
  12. B. R. Judd, "Low-lying levels in certain actinide atoms," Phys. Rev. 125, 613–625 (1962).
  13. L. Brewer, "Energies of the electron configurations of the lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1101–1111 (1971).
  14. R. D. Cowan, "Theoretical calculation of atomic spectra using digital computers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 808–818 (1968).
  15. B. R. Judd, "Three-particle operators for equivalent electrons," Phys. Rev. 141, 4–14 (1966).
  16. B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and Hannah Crosswhite, "Intra-atomic magnetic interactions for f electrons," Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).
  17. H. M. Crosswhite, "Effective electrostatic operators for two inequivalent electrons," Phys. Rev. A 4, 485–489 (1971).
  18. P. G. H. Sandars and J. Beck, "Relativistic effects in many electron hyperfine structure," Proc. R. Soc. London. A289, 97–107 (1965).
  19. W. J. Childs, "Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of Tb159 and the Tb159 nuclear electric-quadrupole moment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970); and private communication.
  20. L. S. Goodman (private communication).
  21. Burton Lewis (private communication).
  22. W. T. Carnall, H. M. Crosswhite, R. G. Pappalardo, D. Cohen, S. Fried, P. Lucas, and F. Wagner, Jr., "Absorption spectra of NpCl3 and NpBr3," J. Chem. Phys. 61, 4992–5008 (1974).
  23. B. G. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths (Interscience, New York, 1965), p. 122.
  24. H. M. Crosswhite (private communication).
  25. Hannah Crosswhite (private communication).

1971 (2)

H. M. Crosswhite, "Effective electrostatic operators for two inequivalent electrons," Phys. Rev. A 4, 485–489 (1971).

L. Brewer, "Energies of the electron configurations of the lanthanide and actinide neutral atoms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1101–1111 (1971).

1968 (2)

R. D. Cowan, "Theoretical calculation of atomic spectra using digital computers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 808–818 (1968).

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and Hannah Crosswhite, "Intra-atomic magnetic interactions for f electrons," Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).

1966 (1)

B. R. Judd, "Three-particle operators for equivalent electrons," Phys. Rev. 141, 4–14 (1966).

1965 (2)

G. Smith, "Analysis of Zeeman patterns distorted by hyperfine structure," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 937–939 (1965).

P. G. H. Sandars and J. Beck, "Relativistic effects in many electron hyperfine structure," Proc. R. Soc. London. A289, 97–107 (1965).

1962 (1)

B. R. Judd, "Low-lying levels in certain actinide atoms," Phys. Rev. 125, 613–625 (1962).

1961 (1)

K. Krebs and R. Winkler, "Zur fein- und hyperfeinstruktur des americium-I," Z. Phys. 162, 235–244 (1961).

1957 (1)

1949 (1)

1948 (1)

F. S. Tomkins, "Hyperfine structure in the spectrum of 237Np," Phys. Rev. 73, 1214–1215 (1948).

Beck, J.

P. G. H. Sandars and J. Beck, "Relativistic effects in many electron hyperfine structure," Proc. R. Soc. London. A289, 97–107 (1965).

Blaise, J.

J. Blaise, J. Verges, J. F. Wyart, H. Delouis, M. Fred, and F. S. Tomkins, "Preliminary Term Analysis of the Arc Spectrum of Neptunium," Fourth Annual Conference, European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, European Physical Society, Amsterdam, July 11–14, 1972, Paper 10.

Blaise, J. E.

M. Fred, W. J. Childs, J. E. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Hyperfine Structure, Nuclear Moments, andConfigurationInteraction in Neutral 237Np, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1188 (1975); Abstract, 1975 Annual Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper WF14.

Bovey, L.

L. Bovey and E. B. M. Steers, "The optical spectra of some rare earth and transuranic elements in the 1–3 micron region. Part IV: The spectrum of neptunium," (Report AERE-R3118, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Berkshire, U. K., 1959).

Brewer, L.

Camus, P.

M. Fred, W. J. Childs, J. E. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Hyperfine Structure, Nuclear Moments, andConfigurationInteraction in Neutral 237Np, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1188 (1975); Abstract, 1975 Annual Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper WF14.

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, H. M. Crosswhite, R. G. Pappalardo, D. Cohen, S. Fried, P. Lucas, and F. Wagner, Jr., "Absorption spectra of NpCl3 and NpBr3," J. Chem. Phys. 61, 4992–5008 (1974).

Childs, W. J.

M. Fred, W. J. Childs, and F. S. Tomkins, "Nuclear moments of 237Np," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1343–1344 (1972); Abstract, 1972 Annual Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper WG15.

M. Fred, W. J. Childs, J. E. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Hyperfine Structure, Nuclear Moments, andConfigurationInteraction in Neutral 237Np, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1188 (1975); Abstract, 1975 Annual Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper WF14.

W. J. Childs, "Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of Tb159 and the Tb159 nuclear electric-quadrupole moment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970); and private communication.

Cohen, D.

W. T. Carnall, H. M. Crosswhite, R. G. Pappalardo, D. Cohen, S. Fried, P. Lucas, and F. Wagner, Jr., "Absorption spectra of NpCl3 and NpBr3," J. Chem. Phys. 61, 4992–5008 (1974).

Cowan, R. D.

Crosswhite, H. M.

H. M. Crosswhite, "Effective electrostatic operators for two inequivalent electrons," Phys. Rev. A 4, 485–489 (1971).

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and Hannah Crosswhite, "Intra-atomic magnetic interactions for f electrons," Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).

W. T. Carnall, H. M. Crosswhite, R. G. Pappalardo, D. Cohen, S. Fried, P. Lucas, and F. Wagner, Jr., "Absorption spectra of NpCl3 and NpBr3," J. Chem. Phys. 61, 4992–5008 (1974).

H. M. Crosswhite (private communication).

Crosswhite, Hannah

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and Hannah Crosswhite, "Intra-atomic magnetic interactions for f electrons," Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).

Hannah Crosswhite (private communication).

Delouis, H.

J. Blaise, J. Verges, J. F. Wyart, H. Delouis, M. Fred, and F. S. Tomkins, "Preliminary Term Analysis of the Arc Spectrum of Neptunium," Fourth Annual Conference, European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, European Physical Society, Amsterdam, July 11–14, 1972, Paper 10.

Fred, M.

F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, "Electrodeless discharge tubes containing rare-earth and heavy element halides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 1087–1091 (1957).

F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, "The spectra of the heavy elements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 357–363 (1949).

M. Fred and F. S. Tomkins, "Preliminary term analysis of the NpI spectrum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 506 (1963); Abstract, 1963 Spring Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper MA13.

J. Blaise, J. Verges, J. F. Wyart, H. Delouis, M. Fred, and F. S. Tomkins, "Preliminary Term Analysis of the Arc Spectrum of Neptunium," Fourth Annual Conference, European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, European Physical Society, Amsterdam, July 11–14, 1972, Paper 10.

M. Fred, W. J. Childs, J. E. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Hyperfine Structure, Nuclear Moments, andConfigurationInteraction in Neutral 237Np, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1188 (1975); Abstract, 1975 Annual Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper WF14.

M. Fred, W. J. Childs, and F. S. Tomkins, "Nuclear moments of 237Np," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1343–1344 (1972); Abstract, 1972 Annual Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper WG15.

Fried, S.

W. T. Carnall, H. M. Crosswhite, R. G. Pappalardo, D. Cohen, S. Fried, P. Lucas, and F. Wagner, Jr., "Absorption spectra of NpCl3 and NpBr3," J. Chem. Phys. 61, 4992–5008 (1974).

Goodman, L. S.

L. S. Goodman (private communication).

Haaland, J.

J. Haaland, "Wavelength and intensity measurements in the spark-excited spectrum of neptunium, " (Report KR-1, Kjeller Research Establishment, Norway, 1959).

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and Hannah Crosswhite, "Intra-atomic magnetic interactions for f electrons," Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).

B. R. Judd, "Three-particle operators for equivalent electrons," Phys. Rev. 141, 4–14 (1966).

B. R. Judd, "Low-lying levels in certain actinide atoms," Phys. Rev. 125, 613–625 (1962).

Krebs, K.

K. Krebs and R. Winkler, "Zur fein- und hyperfeinstruktur des americium-I," Z. Phys. 162, 235–244 (1961).

Lewis, Burton

Burton Lewis (private communication).

Lucas, P.

W. T. Carnall, H. M. Crosswhite, R. G. Pappalardo, D. Cohen, S. Fried, P. Lucas, and F. Wagner, Jr., "Absorption spectra of NpCl3 and NpBr3," J. Chem. Phys. 61, 4992–5008 (1974).

Pappalardo, R. G.

W. T. Carnall, H. M. Crosswhite, R. G. Pappalardo, D. Cohen, S. Fried, P. Lucas, and F. Wagner, Jr., "Absorption spectra of NpCl3 and NpBr3," J. Chem. Phys. 61, 4992–5008 (1974).

Sandars, P. G. H.

P. G. H. Sandars and J. Beck, "Relativistic effects in many electron hyperfine structure," Proc. R. Soc. London. A289, 97–107 (1965).

Smith, G.

Steers, E. B. M.

L. Bovey and E. B. M. Steers, "The optical spectra of some rare earth and transuranic elements in the 1–3 micron region. Part IV: The spectrum of neptunium," (Report AERE-R3118, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Berkshire, U. K., 1959).

Tomkins, F. S.

F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, "Electrodeless discharge tubes containing rare-earth and heavy element halides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 1087–1091 (1957).

F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, "The spectra of the heavy elements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 357–363 (1949).

F. S. Tomkins, "Hyperfine structure in the spectrum of 237Np," Phys. Rev. 73, 1214–1215 (1948).

M. Fred and F. S. Tomkins, "Preliminary term analysis of the NpI spectrum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 506 (1963); Abstract, 1963 Spring Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper MA13.

J. Blaise, J. Verges, J. F. Wyart, H. Delouis, M. Fred, and F. S. Tomkins, "Preliminary Term Analysis of the Arc Spectrum of Neptunium," Fourth Annual Conference, European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, European Physical Society, Amsterdam, July 11–14, 1972, Paper 10.

M. Fred, W. J. Childs, and F. S. Tomkins, "Nuclear moments of 237Np," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1343–1344 (1972); Abstract, 1972 Annual Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper WG15.

Verges, J.

J. Blaise, J. Verges, J. F. Wyart, H. Delouis, M. Fred, and F. S. Tomkins, "Preliminary Term Analysis of the Arc Spectrum of Neptunium," Fourth Annual Conference, European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, European Physical Society, Amsterdam, July 11–14, 1972, Paper 10.

Wagner, Jr., F.

W. T. Carnall, H. M. Crosswhite, R. G. Pappalardo, D. Cohen, S. Fried, P. Lucas, and F. Wagner, Jr., "Absorption spectra of NpCl3 and NpBr3," J. Chem. Phys. 61, 4992–5008 (1974).

Winkler, R.

K. Krebs and R. Winkler, "Zur fein- und hyperfeinstruktur des americium-I," Z. Phys. 162, 235–244 (1961).

Wyart, J. F.

J. Blaise, J. Verges, J. F. Wyart, H. Delouis, M. Fred, and F. S. Tomkins, "Preliminary Term Analysis of the Arc Spectrum of Neptunium," Fourth Annual Conference, European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, European Physical Society, Amsterdam, July 11–14, 1972, Paper 10.

Wybourne, B. G.

B. G. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths (Interscience, New York, 1965), p. 122.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Phys. Rev. (4)

B. R. Judd, "Low-lying levels in certain actinide atoms," Phys. Rev. 125, 613–625 (1962).

B. R. Judd, "Three-particle operators for equivalent electrons," Phys. Rev. 141, 4–14 (1966).

B. R. Judd, H. M. Crosswhite, and Hannah Crosswhite, "Intra-atomic magnetic interactions for f electrons," Phys. Rev. 169, 130–138 (1968).

F. S. Tomkins, "Hyperfine structure in the spectrum of 237Np," Phys. Rev. 73, 1214–1215 (1948).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. M. Crosswhite, "Effective electrostatic operators for two inequivalent electrons," Phys. Rev. A 4, 485–489 (1971).

Z. Phys. (1)

K. Krebs and R. Winkler, "Zur fein- und hyperfeinstruktur des americium-I," Z. Phys. 162, 235–244 (1961).

Other (14)

P. G. H. Sandars and J. Beck, "Relativistic effects in many electron hyperfine structure," Proc. R. Soc. London. A289, 97–107 (1965).

W. J. Childs, "Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of Tb159 and the Tb159 nuclear electric-quadrupole moment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970); and private communication.

L. S. Goodman (private communication).

Burton Lewis (private communication).

W. T. Carnall, H. M. Crosswhite, R. G. Pappalardo, D. Cohen, S. Fried, P. Lucas, and F. Wagner, Jr., "Absorption spectra of NpCl3 and NpBr3," J. Chem. Phys. 61, 4992–5008 (1974).

B. G. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths (Interscience, New York, 1965), p. 122.

H. M. Crosswhite (private communication).

Hannah Crosswhite (private communication).

M. Fred and F. S. Tomkins, "Preliminary term analysis of the NpI spectrum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 506 (1963); Abstract, 1963 Spring Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper MA13.

J. Blaise, J. Verges, J. F. Wyart, H. Delouis, M. Fred, and F. S. Tomkins, "Preliminary Term Analysis of the Arc Spectrum of Neptunium," Fourth Annual Conference, European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy, European Physical Society, Amsterdam, July 11–14, 1972, Paper 10.

M. Fred, W. J. Childs, and F. S. Tomkins, "Nuclear moments of 237Np," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1343–1344 (1972); Abstract, 1972 Annual Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper WG15.

M. Fred, W. J. Childs, J. E. Blaise, and P. Camus, "Hyperfine Structure, Nuclear Moments, andConfigurationInteraction in Neutral 237Np, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1188 (1975); Abstract, 1975 Annual Meeting, Optical Society of America, Paper WF14.

L. Bovey and E. B. M. Steers, "The optical spectra of some rare earth and transuranic elements in the 1–3 micron region. Part IV: The spectrum of neptunium," (Report AERE-R3118, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Berkshire, U. K., 1959).

J. Haaland, "Wavelength and intensity measurements in the spark-excited spectrum of neptunium, " (Report KR-1, Kjeller Research Establishment, Norway, 1959).

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