Abstract

The rotating-compensator/analyzer fixed-analyzer ellipsometer configuration proposed and discussed here combines the advantages of unambiguous polarization-state determination and insensitivity to detector polarization response shown by rotating-compensator (rotating-analyzer) fixed-analyzer instruments, with the self-calibration features of rotating-compensator rotating-analyzer configurations. Because such generality is not necessary for all ellipsometric applications, we compare this system to other automatic ellipsometers and suggest preferred configurations for several representative uses.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. K. T. Conn and G. K. Eaton, "On the use of a rotating polarizer to measure optical constants in the infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 484 (1954); B. D. Cahan and R. F. Spanier, "A high speed automatic ellipsometer," Surface Sci. 16, 166 (1969); R. Greef, "An automatic ellipsometer for use in electrochemical investigations," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 532 (1970).
  2. P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, "Design and operation of ETA, an automated ellipsometer," IBM J. Res. Dev. 17, 472 (1973).
  3. D. E. Aspnes, "Fourier transform detection system for rotating-analyzer ellipsometers," Opt. Commun. 8, 222 (1973); D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, "High precision scanning ellipsometer," Appl. Opt. 14, 220 (1975).
  4. R. W. Stobie, B. Rao, and M. J. Dignam, "Analysis of a novel ellipsometric technique with special advantages for infrared spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 25 (1975); "Automatic ellipsometer with high sensitivity and special advantages for infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed species," Appl. Opt. 14, 999 (1975).
  5. P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, "A rotating-compensator Fourier ellipsometer," Opt. Commun. 14, 431 (1975); P. S. Hauge, "Generalized rotating-compensator ellipsometry," Surface Sci. 56, 148 (1976).
  6. D. E. Aspnes, "Photometric ellipsometer for measuring partially polarized light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1274 (1975).
  7. D. E. Aspnes, "A photometric ellipsometer for measuring flux in a general state of polarization," Surface Sci. 56, 161 (1976).
  8. D. E. Aspnes, "Optimizing precision of rotating-analyzer ellipsometers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 639 (1974).
  9. To describe the different configurations, we use in this paper the nomenclature RXYFZE, meaning Rotating elements X and Y (in correct sequence from source), Fixed element Z Ellipsometer, where X, Y, Z =A, C refer to analyzer or compensator, respectively.
  10. D. Clarke and J. F. Grainger, Polarized Light and Optical Measurement (Pergamon, New York, 1971), Chap. 4.
  11. R. H. Muller, "Definitions and conventions in ellipsometry," Surface Sci. 16, 14 (1969).
  12. D. E. Aspnes, "Measurement and correction of first-order errors in ellipsometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1077 (1971); "Effects of component optical activity in data reduction and calibration of rotating-analyzer ellipsometers," ibid. 64, 812 (1974); R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, "Unified analysis of ellipsometry errors due to imperfect components cell-window birefringence, and incorrect azimuth angles," ibid. 61, 600 (1971); "General treatment of the effect of cell windows in ellipsometry," ibid. 61, 773 (1971); "Calibration of ellipsometer divided circles," ibid. 61, 1118 (1971); "Specimen coherent scattering and compensator defects in ellipsometry," ibid. 61, 1236 (1971); "Ellipsometry with imperfect components including incoherent effects," ibid. 61, 1380 (1971); "Analysis of systematic errors in rotating-analyzer ellipsometers," ibid. 64, 1459 (1974); R. C. O'Handley, "Modified Jones calculus for the analysis of errors in polarization-modulation ellipsometry," ibid. 63, 523 (1973).
  13. Y. J. van der Meulen and N. C. Hien, "Design and operation of an automated, high-temperature ellipsometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 804 (1974).
  14. D. E. Aspnes, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of solids," in Optical Properties of Solids: New Developments, edited by B. O. Seraphin (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976), p. 799.
  15. R. H. Muller, "Present status of automatic ellipsometers," Surface Sci. 56, 19 (1976).
  16. H. G. Jerrard, "A high precision photoelectric ellipsometer," Surface Sci. 16, 137 (1969); H. P. Layer, "Circuit design for an electronic self-nulling ellipsometer," ibid. 16, 177 (1969); R. J. King and M. J. Downs, "Ellipsometry applied to films on dielectric substrates," ibid. 16, 288 (1969); H. J. Mathieu, D. E. McClure, and R. H. Muller, "Fast self-compensating ellipsometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 798 (1974).
  17. D. E. Aspnes, "Precision bounds to ellipsometer systems," Appl. Opt. 14, 1131 (1975).
  18. B. D. Cahan, J. Horkans, and E. Yeager, "Modulation ellipsometry and its application to the study of the electron-electrolyte interface," Surface Sci. 37, 559 (1973).
  19. P. S. Hauge, "Automated Mueller matrix ellipsometry," Opt. Commun. 17, 74 (1976).
  20. S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, "An improved method for high reflectivity ellipsometry based on a new polarization modulation technique," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969); S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, and R. C. O'Handley, "A modulated ellipsometer for studying thin film optical properties and surface dynamics," Surface Sci. 37, 548 (1973); J. I. Treu, A. B. Callendar, and S. E. Schnatterly, "Use of a stable polarization modulator in a scanning spectrophotometer and ellipsometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 793 (1973).
  21. H. Takasaki, "Photoelectric measurement of polarized light by means of an ADP polarization modulator. II. Photoelectric ellipsometric polarimeter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 463 (1961); "An automatic ellipsometer employing modulation techniques," ibid. 56, 557 (1966); "Automatic ellipsometer. Automatic polarimetry by means of an ADP polarization modulator III," Appl. Opt. 5, 759 (1966).

1976 (3)

D. E. Aspnes, "A photometric ellipsometer for measuring flux in a general state of polarization," Surface Sci. 56, 161 (1976).

R. H. Muller, "Present status of automatic ellipsometers," Surface Sci. 56, 19 (1976).

P. S. Hauge, "Automated Mueller matrix ellipsometry," Opt. Commun. 17, 74 (1976).

1975 (4)

1974 (2)

1973 (3)

B. D. Cahan, J. Horkans, and E. Yeager, "Modulation ellipsometry and its application to the study of the electron-electrolyte interface," Surface Sci. 37, 559 (1973).

P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, "Design and operation of ETA, an automated ellipsometer," IBM J. Res. Dev. 17, 472 (1973).

D. E. Aspnes, "Fourier transform detection system for rotating-analyzer ellipsometers," Opt. Commun. 8, 222 (1973); D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, "High precision scanning ellipsometer," Appl. Opt. 14, 220 (1975).

1971 (1)

1969 (3)

R. H. Muller, "Definitions and conventions in ellipsometry," Surface Sci. 16, 14 (1969).

H. G. Jerrard, "A high precision photoelectric ellipsometer," Surface Sci. 16, 137 (1969); H. P. Layer, "Circuit design for an electronic self-nulling ellipsometer," ibid. 16, 177 (1969); R. J. King and M. J. Downs, "Ellipsometry applied to films on dielectric substrates," ibid. 16, 288 (1969); H. J. Mathieu, D. E. McClure, and R. H. Muller, "Fast self-compensating ellipsometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 798 (1974).

S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, "An improved method for high reflectivity ellipsometry based on a new polarization modulation technique," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969); S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, and R. C. O'Handley, "A modulated ellipsometer for studying thin film optical properties and surface dynamics," Surface Sci. 37, 548 (1973); J. I. Treu, A. B. Callendar, and S. E. Schnatterly, "Use of a stable polarization modulator in a scanning spectrophotometer and ellipsometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 793 (1973).

1961 (1)

1954 (1)

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, "A photometric ellipsometer for measuring flux in a general state of polarization," Surface Sci. 56, 161 (1976).

D. E. Aspnes, "Precision bounds to ellipsometer systems," Appl. Opt. 14, 1131 (1975).

D. E. Aspnes, "Photometric ellipsometer for measuring partially polarized light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1274 (1975).

D. E. Aspnes, "Optimizing precision of rotating-analyzer ellipsometers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 639 (1974).

D. E. Aspnes, "Fourier transform detection system for rotating-analyzer ellipsometers," Opt. Commun. 8, 222 (1973); D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, "High precision scanning ellipsometer," Appl. Opt. 14, 220 (1975).

D. E. Aspnes, "Measurement and correction of first-order errors in ellipsometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1077 (1971); "Effects of component optical activity in data reduction and calibration of rotating-analyzer ellipsometers," ibid. 64, 812 (1974); R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, "Unified analysis of ellipsometry errors due to imperfect components cell-window birefringence, and incorrect azimuth angles," ibid. 61, 600 (1971); "General treatment of the effect of cell windows in ellipsometry," ibid. 61, 773 (1971); "Calibration of ellipsometer divided circles," ibid. 61, 1118 (1971); "Specimen coherent scattering and compensator defects in ellipsometry," ibid. 61, 1236 (1971); "Ellipsometry with imperfect components including incoherent effects," ibid. 61, 1380 (1971); "Analysis of systematic errors in rotating-analyzer ellipsometers," ibid. 64, 1459 (1974); R. C. O'Handley, "Modified Jones calculus for the analysis of errors in polarization-modulation ellipsometry," ibid. 63, 523 (1973).

D. E. Aspnes, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of solids," in Optical Properties of Solids: New Developments, edited by B. O. Seraphin (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976), p. 799.

Cahan, B. D.

B. D. Cahan, J. Horkans, and E. Yeager, "Modulation ellipsometry and its application to the study of the electron-electrolyte interface," Surface Sci. 37, 559 (1973).

Clarke, D.

D. Clarke and J. F. Grainger, Polarized Light and Optical Measurement (Pergamon, New York, 1971), Chap. 4.

Conn, G. K. T.

Dignam, M. J.

Dill, F. H.

P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, "A rotating-compensator Fourier ellipsometer," Opt. Commun. 14, 431 (1975); P. S. Hauge, "Generalized rotating-compensator ellipsometry," Surface Sci. 56, 148 (1976).

P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, "Design and operation of ETA, an automated ellipsometer," IBM J. Res. Dev. 17, 472 (1973).

Eaton, G. K.

Grainger, J. F.

D. Clarke and J. F. Grainger, Polarized Light and Optical Measurement (Pergamon, New York, 1971), Chap. 4.

Hauge, P. S.

P. S. Hauge, "Automated Mueller matrix ellipsometry," Opt. Commun. 17, 74 (1976).

P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, "A rotating-compensator Fourier ellipsometer," Opt. Commun. 14, 431 (1975); P. S. Hauge, "Generalized rotating-compensator ellipsometry," Surface Sci. 56, 148 (1976).

P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, "Design and operation of ETA, an automated ellipsometer," IBM J. Res. Dev. 17, 472 (1973).

Hien, N. C.

Horkans, J.

B. D. Cahan, J. Horkans, and E. Yeager, "Modulation ellipsometry and its application to the study of the electron-electrolyte interface," Surface Sci. 37, 559 (1973).

Jasperson, S. N.

S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, "An improved method for high reflectivity ellipsometry based on a new polarization modulation technique," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969); S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, and R. C. O'Handley, "A modulated ellipsometer for studying thin film optical properties and surface dynamics," Surface Sci. 37, 548 (1973); J. I. Treu, A. B. Callendar, and S. E. Schnatterly, "Use of a stable polarization modulator in a scanning spectrophotometer and ellipsometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 793 (1973).

Jerrard, H. G.

H. G. Jerrard, "A high precision photoelectric ellipsometer," Surface Sci. 16, 137 (1969); H. P. Layer, "Circuit design for an electronic self-nulling ellipsometer," ibid. 16, 177 (1969); R. J. King and M. J. Downs, "Ellipsometry applied to films on dielectric substrates," ibid. 16, 288 (1969); H. J. Mathieu, D. E. McClure, and R. H. Muller, "Fast self-compensating ellipsometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 798 (1974).

Muller, R. H.

R. H. Muller, "Present status of automatic ellipsometers," Surface Sci. 56, 19 (1976).

R. H. Muller, "Definitions and conventions in ellipsometry," Surface Sci. 16, 14 (1969).

Rao, B.

Schnatterly, S. E.

S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, "An improved method for high reflectivity ellipsometry based on a new polarization modulation technique," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969); S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, and R. C. O'Handley, "A modulated ellipsometer for studying thin film optical properties and surface dynamics," Surface Sci. 37, 548 (1973); J. I. Treu, A. B. Callendar, and S. E. Schnatterly, "Use of a stable polarization modulator in a scanning spectrophotometer and ellipsometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 793 (1973).

Stobie, R. W.

Takasaki, H.

van der Meulen, Y. J.

Yeager, E.

B. D. Cahan, J. Horkans, and E. Yeager, "Modulation ellipsometry and its application to the study of the electron-electrolyte interface," Surface Sci. 37, 559 (1973).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, "Design and operation of ETA, an automated ellipsometer," IBM J. Res. Dev. 17, 472 (1973).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

R. W. Stobie, B. Rao, and M. J. Dignam, "Analysis of a novel ellipsometric technique with special advantages for infrared spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 25 (1975); "Automatic ellipsometer with high sensitivity and special advantages for infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed species," Appl. Opt. 14, 999 (1975).

D. E. Aspnes, "Photometric ellipsometer for measuring partially polarized light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1274 (1975).

D. E. Aspnes, "Optimizing precision of rotating-analyzer ellipsometers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 639 (1974).

G. K. T. Conn and G. K. Eaton, "On the use of a rotating polarizer to measure optical constants in the infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 484 (1954); B. D. Cahan and R. F. Spanier, "A high speed automatic ellipsometer," Surface Sci. 16, 166 (1969); R. Greef, "An automatic ellipsometer for use in electrochemical investigations," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 532 (1970).

D. E. Aspnes, "Measurement and correction of first-order errors in ellipsometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1077 (1971); "Effects of component optical activity in data reduction and calibration of rotating-analyzer ellipsometers," ibid. 64, 812 (1974); R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, "Unified analysis of ellipsometry errors due to imperfect components cell-window birefringence, and incorrect azimuth angles," ibid. 61, 600 (1971); "General treatment of the effect of cell windows in ellipsometry," ibid. 61, 773 (1971); "Calibration of ellipsometer divided circles," ibid. 61, 1118 (1971); "Specimen coherent scattering and compensator defects in ellipsometry," ibid. 61, 1236 (1971); "Ellipsometry with imperfect components including incoherent effects," ibid. 61, 1380 (1971); "Analysis of systematic errors in rotating-analyzer ellipsometers," ibid. 64, 1459 (1974); R. C. O'Handley, "Modified Jones calculus for the analysis of errors in polarization-modulation ellipsometry," ibid. 63, 523 (1973).

Y. J. van der Meulen and N. C. Hien, "Design and operation of an automated, high-temperature ellipsometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 804 (1974).

H. Takasaki, "Photoelectric measurement of polarized light by means of an ADP polarization modulator. II. Photoelectric ellipsometric polarimeter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 463 (1961); "An automatic ellipsometer employing modulation techniques," ibid. 56, 557 (1966); "Automatic ellipsometer. Automatic polarimetry by means of an ADP polarization modulator III," Appl. Opt. 5, 759 (1966).

Opt. Commun. (3)

P. S. Hauge, "Automated Mueller matrix ellipsometry," Opt. Commun. 17, 74 (1976).

P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, "A rotating-compensator Fourier ellipsometer," Opt. Commun. 14, 431 (1975); P. S. Hauge, "Generalized rotating-compensator ellipsometry," Surface Sci. 56, 148 (1976).

D. E. Aspnes, "Fourier transform detection system for rotating-analyzer ellipsometers," Opt. Commun. 8, 222 (1973); D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, "High precision scanning ellipsometer," Appl. Opt. 14, 220 (1975).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, "An improved method for high reflectivity ellipsometry based on a new polarization modulation technique," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969); S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, and R. C. O'Handley, "A modulated ellipsometer for studying thin film optical properties and surface dynamics," Surface Sci. 37, 548 (1973); J. I. Treu, A. B. Callendar, and S. E. Schnatterly, "Use of a stable polarization modulator in a scanning spectrophotometer and ellipsometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 793 (1973).

Surface Sci. (5)

D. E. Aspnes, "A photometric ellipsometer for measuring flux in a general state of polarization," Surface Sci. 56, 161 (1976).

R. H. Muller, "Definitions and conventions in ellipsometry," Surface Sci. 16, 14 (1969).

B. D. Cahan, J. Horkans, and E. Yeager, "Modulation ellipsometry and its application to the study of the electron-electrolyte interface," Surface Sci. 37, 559 (1973).

R. H. Muller, "Present status of automatic ellipsometers," Surface Sci. 56, 19 (1976).

H. G. Jerrard, "A high precision photoelectric ellipsometer," Surface Sci. 16, 137 (1969); H. P. Layer, "Circuit design for an electronic self-nulling ellipsometer," ibid. 16, 177 (1969); R. J. King and M. J. Downs, "Ellipsometry applied to films on dielectric substrates," ibid. 16, 288 (1969); H. J. Mathieu, D. E. McClure, and R. H. Muller, "Fast self-compensating ellipsometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 798 (1974).

Other (3)

D. E. Aspnes, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of solids," in Optical Properties of Solids: New Developments, edited by B. O. Seraphin (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976), p. 799.

To describe the different configurations, we use in this paper the nomenclature RXYFZE, meaning Rotating elements X and Y (in correct sequence from source), Fixed element Z Ellipsometer, where X, Y, Z =A, C refer to analyzer or compensator, respectively.

D. Clarke and J. F. Grainger, Polarized Light and Optical Measurement (Pergamon, New York, 1971), Chap. 4.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.