Abstract

An intense spectrum of Ci in the wavelength region from 1100 to 2000 Å has been recorded by the Naval Research Laboratory normal incidence spectrograph flown on Skylab. The source of the spectrum was a large solar flare. The spectral resolution was about 20000 at 1200 Å. We have identified 69 new lines of Ci, and determined 63 new energy levels. The new lines arise from transitions from upper levels of high principal quantum number n where n ≳ 6. A list of 193 Ci lines observed in the spectrum between 1140 and 1931 Å is presented, as well as calculated wavelengths for an additional 109 transitions between the new levels and the 2s2 2p2 3P0,1,2 levels. The calculated lines fall between 1102 and 1140 Å and were not observed in the solar flare spectrum due to low instrumental efficiency at these wavelengths. The relative wavelength accuracy of most of the observed and calculated lines is about ±0.004 Å. The intensities of the C i lines are qualitatively compared with corresponding intensities in the laboratory spectrum.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Johansson, “Spectrum and Term System of the Neutral Carbon Atom,” Ark. Fys. 31, 20–235 (1965).
  2. F. Paschen and P. G. Kruger, “Das Bogen Spektrum des Kohlenstoffes C i,” Ann. der Phys. 7, 1–8 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. Edlén, “Wellenlagen der Vakuumfunken spectren von Kohlenstoff, Stickstoff und Sauerstoff im extremen Ultraviolet,” Z. Phys. 85, 85–106 (1933); also, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Ups. 9, 104 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. C. Boyce and C. A. Rieke, “Provisional Wavelength Standards for the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. 47, 653–667 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. R. More and C. A. Rieke, “Wavelength Standards in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. 50, 1054–1056 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. G. Shenstone, “The 5S State of Carbon,” Phys. Rev. 72, 411–414 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. G. Wilkinson, “Provisional Wavelength Standards in the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 862–867 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Herzberg, “Ionization Potentials and Lamb Shifts of the Ground States of 4He and 3He,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 248, 309–332 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. G. Wilkinson and K. L. Andrew, “Proposed Standard Wavelengths in the Vacuum Ultraviolet. Spectra of Ge, Ne, C, Hg, and N,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 710–717 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Junkes, E. W. Salpeter, and G. Milazzo, “Atomic Spectra in the Vacuum Ultraviolet, Part One,” Specola Vaticana, pp. C1–C7 (1965).
  11. C. E. Moore, “Selected Tables of Atomic Spectra C i, C ii, C iii, C v, C vi,” Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., Nat. Bur. Stand. 3, A 6 I-1–B6 I-13 (1970).
  12. P. C. Keenan and J. L. Greenstein, “The Line Spectrum of R Coronae Borealis, λλ 3700–8600 Å,” Contrib. Perkins Obs. Ser. 2,  13, 199–231 (1963).
  13. J.-D. F. Bartoe, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, and R. Tousey, “The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 44, 153–158 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. G. Widing and C. C. Cheng, “On the Fe xxiv Emission in the Solar Flare of 1973 June 15,” Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 194, L111–L113 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Tousey, “The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Sun,” Space Sci. Rev. 2, 3–69 (1963). (See, especially, p. 47.)
    [Crossref]
  16. C. M. Brown, S. G. Tilford, R. Tousey, and M. L. Ginter, “Absorption Spectrum of Si i Between 1500 and 1900 Å,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1665–1682 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, “Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms,” (1973).
  18. K. T. Lu, “Spectroscopy and Collision Theory. The Xe Absorption Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  19. U. Fano, “Unified Treatment of Perturbed Series, Continuous Spectra, and Collisions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 979–987 (1975), and references therein.
    [Crossref]
  20. C. M. Brown, S. G. Tilford, and M. L. Ginter, “Extended Identifications of Odd Energy Levels of Si i: Lu–Fano Graphical Analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 385–388 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  21. U. Fano, “Quantum Defect Theory of l Uncoupling in H2 as an Example of Channel-Interaction Treatment,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 353–365 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. M. Brown, S. G. Tilford, and M. L. Ginter, (to be published, 1976).

1975 (2)

1974 (3)

J.-D. F. Bartoe, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, and R. Tousey, “The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 44, 153–158 (1974).
[Crossref]

K. G. Widing and C. C. Cheng, “On the Fe xxiv Emission in the Solar Flare of 1973 June 15,” Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 194, L111–L113 (1974).
[Crossref]

C. M. Brown, S. G. Tilford, R. Tousey, and M. L. Ginter, “Absorption Spectrum of Si i Between 1500 and 1900 Å,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1665–1682 (1974).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

K. T. Lu, “Spectroscopy and Collision Theory. The Xe Absorption Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (2)

U. Fano, “Quantum Defect Theory of l Uncoupling in H2 as an Example of Channel-Interaction Treatment,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 353–365 (1970).
[Crossref]

C. E. Moore, “Selected Tables of Atomic Spectra C i, C ii, C iii, C v, C vi,” Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., Nat. Bur. Stand. 3, A 6 I-1–B6 I-13 (1970).

1965 (2)

L. Johansson, “Spectrum and Term System of the Neutral Carbon Atom,” Ark. Fys. 31, 20–235 (1965).

J. Junkes, E. W. Salpeter, and G. Milazzo, “Atomic Spectra in the Vacuum Ultraviolet, Part One,” Specola Vaticana, pp. C1–C7 (1965).

1963 (3)

R. Tousey, “The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Sun,” Space Sci. Rev. 2, 3–69 (1963). (See, especially, p. 47.)
[Crossref]

P. C. Keenan and J. L. Greenstein, “The Line Spectrum of R Coronae Borealis, λλ 3700–8600 Å,” Contrib. Perkins Obs. Ser. 2,  13, 199–231 (1963).

P. G. Wilkinson and K. L. Andrew, “Proposed Standard Wavelengths in the Vacuum Ultraviolet. Spectra of Ge, Ne, C, Hg, and N,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 710–717 (1963).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

G. Herzberg, “Ionization Potentials and Lamb Shifts of the Ground States of 4He and 3He,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 248, 309–332 (1958).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

1947 (1)

A. G. Shenstone, “The 5S State of Carbon,” Phys. Rev. 72, 411–414 (1947).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

K. R. More and C. A. Rieke, “Wavelength Standards in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. 50, 1054–1056 (1936).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

J. C. Boyce and C. A. Rieke, “Provisional Wavelength Standards for the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. 47, 653–667 (1935).
[Crossref]

1933 (1)

B. Edlén, “Wellenlagen der Vakuumfunken spectren von Kohlenstoff, Stickstoff und Sauerstoff im extremen Ultraviolet,” Z. Phys. 85, 85–106 (1933); also, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Ups. 9, 104 (1934).
[Crossref]

1930 (1)

F. Paschen and P. G. Kruger, “Das Bogen Spektrum des Kohlenstoffes C i,” Ann. der Phys. 7, 1–8 (1930).
[Crossref]

Andrew, K. L.

Bartoe, J.-D. F.

J.-D. F. Bartoe, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, and R. Tousey, “The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 44, 153–158 (1974).
[Crossref]

Boyce, J. C.

J. C. Boyce and C. A. Rieke, “Provisional Wavelength Standards for the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. 47, 653–667 (1935).
[Crossref]

Brown, C. M.

Brueckner, G. E.

J.-D. F. Bartoe, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, and R. Tousey, “The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 44, 153–158 (1974).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. C.

K. G. Widing and C. C. Cheng, “On the Fe xxiv Emission in the Solar Flare of 1973 June 15,” Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 194, L111–L113 (1974).
[Crossref]

Edlén, B.

B. Edlén, “Wellenlagen der Vakuumfunken spectren von Kohlenstoff, Stickstoff und Sauerstoff im extremen Ultraviolet,” Z. Phys. 85, 85–106 (1933); also, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Ups. 9, 104 (1934).
[Crossref]

Fano, U.

U. Fano, “Unified Treatment of Perturbed Series, Continuous Spectra, and Collisions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 979–987 (1975), and references therein.
[Crossref]

U. Fano, “Quantum Defect Theory of l Uncoupling in H2 as an Example of Channel-Interaction Treatment,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 353–365 (1970).
[Crossref]

Ginter, M. L.

Greenstein, J. L.

P. C. Keenan and J. L. Greenstein, “The Line Spectrum of R Coronae Borealis, λλ 3700–8600 Å,” Contrib. Perkins Obs. Ser. 2,  13, 199–231 (1963).

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, “Ionization Potentials and Lamb Shifts of the Ground States of 4He and 3He,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 248, 309–332 (1958).
[Crossref]

Johansson, L.

L. Johansson, “Spectrum and Term System of the Neutral Carbon Atom,” Ark. Fys. 31, 20–235 (1965).

Junkes, J.

J. Junkes, E. W. Salpeter, and G. Milazzo, “Atomic Spectra in the Vacuum Ultraviolet, Part One,” Specola Vaticana, pp. C1–C7 (1965).

Keenan, P. C.

P. C. Keenan and J. L. Greenstein, “The Line Spectrum of R Coronae Borealis, λλ 3700–8600 Å,” Contrib. Perkins Obs. Ser. 2,  13, 199–231 (1963).

Kelly, R. L.

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, “Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms,” (1973).

Kruger, P. G.

F. Paschen and P. G. Kruger, “Das Bogen Spektrum des Kohlenstoffes C i,” Ann. der Phys. 7, 1–8 (1930).
[Crossref]

Lu, K. T.

K. T. Lu, “Spectroscopy and Collision Theory. The Xe Absorption Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).
[Crossref]

Milazzo, G.

J. Junkes, E. W. Salpeter, and G. Milazzo, “Atomic Spectra in the Vacuum Ultraviolet, Part One,” Specola Vaticana, pp. C1–C7 (1965).

Moore, C. E.

C. E. Moore, “Selected Tables of Atomic Spectra C i, C ii, C iii, C v, C vi,” Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., Nat. Bur. Stand. 3, A 6 I-1–B6 I-13 (1970).

More, K. R.

K. R. More and C. A. Rieke, “Wavelength Standards in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. 50, 1054–1056 (1936).
[Crossref]

Palumbo, L. J.

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, “Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms,” (1973).

Paschen, F.

F. Paschen and P. G. Kruger, “Das Bogen Spektrum des Kohlenstoffes C i,” Ann. der Phys. 7, 1–8 (1930).
[Crossref]

Purcell, J. D.

J.-D. F. Bartoe, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, and R. Tousey, “The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 44, 153–158 (1974).
[Crossref]

Rieke, C. A.

K. R. More and C. A. Rieke, “Wavelength Standards in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. 50, 1054–1056 (1936).
[Crossref]

J. C. Boyce and C. A. Rieke, “Provisional Wavelength Standards for the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. 47, 653–667 (1935).
[Crossref]

Salpeter, E. W.

J. Junkes, E. W. Salpeter, and G. Milazzo, “Atomic Spectra in the Vacuum Ultraviolet, Part One,” Specola Vaticana, pp. C1–C7 (1965).

Shenstone, A. G.

A. G. Shenstone, “The 5S State of Carbon,” Phys. Rev. 72, 411–414 (1947).
[Crossref]

Tilford, S. G.

Tousey, R.

C. M. Brown, S. G. Tilford, R. Tousey, and M. L. Ginter, “Absorption Spectrum of Si i Between 1500 and 1900 Å,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1665–1682 (1974).
[Crossref]

J.-D. F. Bartoe, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, and R. Tousey, “The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 44, 153–158 (1974).
[Crossref]

R. Tousey, “The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Sun,” Space Sci. Rev. 2, 3–69 (1963). (See, especially, p. 47.)
[Crossref]

Widing, K. G.

K. G. Widing and C. C. Cheng, “On the Fe xxiv Emission in the Solar Flare of 1973 June 15,” Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 194, L111–L113 (1974).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, P. G.

Ann. der Phys. (1)

F. Paschen and P. G. Kruger, “Das Bogen Spektrum des Kohlenstoffes C i,” Ann. der Phys. 7, 1–8 (1930).
[Crossref]

Ark. Fys. (1)

L. Johansson, “Spectrum and Term System of the Neutral Carbon Atom,” Ark. Fys. 31, 20–235 (1965).

Astrophys. J. (Lett.) (1)

K. G. Widing and C. C. Cheng, “On the Fe xxiv Emission in the Solar Flare of 1973 June 15,” Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 194, L111–L113 (1974).
[Crossref]

Contrib. Perkins Obs. Ser. 2 (1)

P. C. Keenan and J. L. Greenstein, “The Line Spectrum of R Coronae Borealis, λλ 3700–8600 Å,” Contrib. Perkins Obs. Ser. 2,  13, 199–231 (1963).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., Nat. Bur. Stand. (1)

C. E. Moore, “Selected Tables of Atomic Spectra C i, C ii, C iii, C v, C vi,” Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., Nat. Bur. Stand. 3, A 6 I-1–B6 I-13 (1970).

Phys. Rev. (3)

J. C. Boyce and C. A. Rieke, “Provisional Wavelength Standards for the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. 47, 653–667 (1935).
[Crossref]

K. R. More and C. A. Rieke, “Wavelength Standards in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. 50, 1054–1056 (1936).
[Crossref]

A. G. Shenstone, “The 5S State of Carbon,” Phys. Rev. 72, 411–414 (1947).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

U. Fano, “Quantum Defect Theory of l Uncoupling in H2 as an Example of Channel-Interaction Treatment,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 353–365 (1970).
[Crossref]

K. T. Lu, “Spectroscopy and Collision Theory. The Xe Absorption Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

G. Herzberg, “Ionization Potentials and Lamb Shifts of the Ground States of 4He and 3He,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 248, 309–332 (1958).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J.-D. F. Bartoe, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, and R. Tousey, “The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 44, 153–158 (1974).
[Crossref]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

R. Tousey, “The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Sun,” Space Sci. Rev. 2, 3–69 (1963). (See, especially, p. 47.)
[Crossref]

Specola Vaticana (1)

J. Junkes, E. W. Salpeter, and G. Milazzo, “Atomic Spectra in the Vacuum Ultraviolet, Part One,” Specola Vaticana, pp. C1–C7 (1965).

Z. Phys. (1)

B. Edlén, “Wellenlagen der Vakuumfunken spectren von Kohlenstoff, Stickstoff und Sauerstoff im extremen Ultraviolet,” Z. Phys. 85, 85–106 (1933); also, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Ups. 9, 104 (1934).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, “Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms,” (1973).

C. M. Brown, S. G. Tilford, and M. L. Ginter, (to be published, 1976).

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Figures (4)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Densitometer trace of solar flare spectrum near 1250 Å, showing C i series. The arrows indicate the positions of the 2P1/2 and 2P3/2 ionization limits. An obvious continuum extends beyond the series limits. The 2 p 2 D 1 2 - 15 d F 1 3 ° and 2 p 2 D 1 2 - 2 p 16 d F 3 3 ° are seen to coincide, as do 2 p 2 D 1 2 - 2 p 18 d F 1 3 ° and 2 p 2 D 1 2 - 2 p 20 d F 3 3 °. The enhanced intensity of the high n Rydberg transitions is striking when compared to that of the 2p2 3P–2p3d3P° multiplet near 1261 Å.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Lu-Fano plot for the odd parity J = 1 levels of C i. The rectangles indicate previously known levels from Ref. 1; the open circles indicate new levels determined in this work; the triangles indicate levels from the 2s2p3 configuration. The light diagonal lines are the n 1 * = G ( n 2 * ) of Eq. 2 plotted modulo 1. The number on the line is the integer part of n 1 * (i.e. the curve numbered 1 corresponds to 1 n 1 * 2). The short diagonal lines are portions of G ( n 2 * ) with n 1 * > 15. The intersections of G ( n 2 * ) with f ( n 2 * ) (the dashed curves) predict the n*-values of energy levels.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Lu-Fano plot for odd parity J = 2 levels of C i. (see caption to Fig. 2).

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Lu-Fano plot for odd parity J = 3 levels of C i (see caption to Fig. 2).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

TABLE I C i Wavelengths measured from a solar flare spectrum. (All transitions involve the ground configuration unless otherwise specified.)

Tables Icon

TABLE II New energy levels of C i and effective quantum numbers.

Tables Icon

TABLE III Calculated wavelengths of C i Lines combining with 2p2 3P.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( J , L , S ) = - R [ 1 / ( n - δ ) ] 2 ,
n 1 * = G ( n 2 * ) = n 2 * [ 1 - Δ ( n 2 * ) 2 ] - 1 / 2 .