Abstract

An intense spectrum of C I in the wavelength region from 1100 to 2000 Å has been recorded by the Naval Research Laboratory normal incidence spectrograph flown on Skylab. The source of the spectrum was a large solar flare. The spectral resolution was about 20000 at 1200 Å. We have identified 69 new lines of CI, and determined 63 new energy levels. The new lines arise from transitions from upper levels of high principal quantum number n where n ≳ 6. A list of 193 CI lines observed in the spectrum between 1140 and 1931 Å is presented, as well as calculated wavelengths for an additional 109 transitions between the new levels and the 2<i>s</i>2. 2<i>p</i>2. 3. <i>P</i><sub>0, 1, 2</sub> levels. The calculated lines fall between 1102 and 1140 Å and were not observed in the solar flare spectrum due to low instrumental efficiency at these wavelengths. The relative wavelength accuracy of most of the observed and calculated lines is about ±0.004 Å. The intensities of the C I lines are qualitatively compared with corresponding intensities in the laboratory spectrum.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Johansson, "Spectrum and Term System of the Neutral Carbon Atom," Ark. Fys. 31, 201–235 (1965).
  2. F. Paschen, and P. G. Kruger, "Das Bogen Spektrum des Kohlenstoffes C I," Ann. der Phys. 7, 1–8 (1930).
  3. B. Edlén, "Wellenlagen der Vakuumfunken spectren von Kohlenstoff, Stickstoff und Sauerstoff im extremen Ultraviolet," Z. Phys. 85, 85–106 (1933); also, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Ups. 9, 104 (1934).
  4. J. C. Boyce, and C. A. Rieke, "Provisional Wavelength Standards for the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. 47, 653–667 (1935).
  5. K. R. More, and C. A. Rieke, "Wavelength Standards in the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. 50, 1054–1056 (1936).
  6. A. G. Shenstone, "The 5S State of Carbon," Phys. Rev. 72, 411–414 (1947).
  7. P. G. Wilkinson, "Provisional Wavelength Standards in the Vacuum Ultraviolet," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 862–867 (1955).
  8. G. Herzberg, "Ionization Potentials and Lamb Shifts of the Ground States of 4He and 3He, " Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 248, 309–332 (1958).
  9. P. G. Wilkinson, and K. L. Andrew, "Proposed Standard Wavelengths in the Vacuum Ultraviolet. Spectra of Ge, Ne, C, Hg, and N,"J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 710–717 (1963).
  10. J. Junkes, E. W. Salpeter, and G. Milazzo, "Atomic Spectra in the Vacuum Ultraviolet, Part One," Specola Vaticana, PP. C1–C7 (1965).
  11. C. E. Moore, "Selected Tables of Atomic Spectra CI, CII, CIII, C V, C VI," Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., Nat. Bur. Stand. 3, A 6 I-1–B6 I-13 (1970).
  12. P. C. Keenan, and J. L. Greenstein, "The Line Spectrum of R Coronae Borealis, λλ 3700–8600 Å," Contrib. Perkins Obs. Ser. 2, 13, 199–231 (1963).
  13. J. -D. F. Bartoe, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, and R. Tousey, "The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 44, 153–158 (1974).
  14. K. G. Widing, and C. C. Cheng, "On the Fe XXIV Emission in the Solar Flare of 1973 June 15," Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 194, L111–L113 (1974).
  15. R. Tousey, "The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Sun," Space Sci. Rev. 2, 3–69 (1963). (See, especially, p. 47.)
  16. C. M. Brown, S. G. Tilford, R. Tousey, and M. L. Ginter, "Absorption Spectrum of Si I Between 1500 and 1900 Å," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1665–1682 (1974).
  17. R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, "Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms," NRL Report 7599 (1973).
  18. K. T. Lu, "Spectroscopy and Collision Theory. The Xe Absorption Spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).
  19. U. Fano, "Unified Treatment of Perturbed Series, Continuous Spectra, and Collisions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 979–987 (1975), and references therein.
  20. C. M. Brown, S. G. Tilford, and M. L. Ginter, "Extended Identifications of Odd Energy Levels of Si I: Lu-Fano Graphical Analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 385–388 (1975).
  21. U. Fano, "Quantum Defect Theory of l Uncoupling in H2 as an Example of Channel-Interaction Treatment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 353–365 (1970).
  22. C. M. Brown, S. G. Tilford, and M. L. Ginter, (to be published, 1976).

1975 (2)

1974 (2)

C. M. Brown, S. G. Tilford, R. Tousey, and M. L. Ginter, "Absorption Spectrum of Si I Between 1500 and 1900 Å," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1665–1682 (1974).

K. G. Widing, and C. C. Cheng, "On the Fe XXIV Emission in the Solar Flare of 1973 June 15," Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 194, L111–L113 (1974).

1971 (1)

K. T. Lu, "Spectroscopy and Collision Theory. The Xe Absorption Spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).

1970 (2)

U. Fano, "Quantum Defect Theory of l Uncoupling in H2 as an Example of Channel-Interaction Treatment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 353–365 (1970).

C. E. Moore, "Selected Tables of Atomic Spectra CI, CII, CIII, C V, C VI," Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., Nat. Bur. Stand. 3, A 6 I-1–B6 I-13 (1970).

1965 (1)

L. Johansson, "Spectrum and Term System of the Neutral Carbon Atom," Ark. Fys. 31, 201–235 (1965).

1963 (3)

P. C. Keenan, and J. L. Greenstein, "The Line Spectrum of R Coronae Borealis, λλ 3700–8600 Å," Contrib. Perkins Obs. Ser. 2, 13, 199–231 (1963).

R. Tousey, "The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Sun," Space Sci. Rev. 2, 3–69 (1963). (See, especially, p. 47.)

P. G. Wilkinson, and K. L. Andrew, "Proposed Standard Wavelengths in the Vacuum Ultraviolet. Spectra of Ge, Ne, C, Hg, and N,"J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 710–717 (1963).

1958 (1)

G. Herzberg, "Ionization Potentials and Lamb Shifts of the Ground States of 4He and 3He, " Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 248, 309–332 (1958).

1955 (1)

1947 (1)

A. G. Shenstone, "The 5S State of Carbon," Phys. Rev. 72, 411–414 (1947).

1936 (1)

K. R. More, and C. A. Rieke, "Wavelength Standards in the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. 50, 1054–1056 (1936).

1935 (1)

J. C. Boyce, and C. A. Rieke, "Provisional Wavelength Standards for the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. 47, 653–667 (1935).

1930 (1)

F. Paschen, and P. G. Kruger, "Das Bogen Spektrum des Kohlenstoffes C I," Ann. der Phys. 7, 1–8 (1930).

Andrew, K. L.

Bartoe, J. -D. F.

J. -D. F. Bartoe, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, and R. Tousey, "The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 44, 153–158 (1974).

Boyce, J. C.

J. C. Boyce, and C. A. Rieke, "Provisional Wavelength Standards for the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. 47, 653–667 (1935).

Brown, C. M.

Brueckner, G. E.

J. -D. F. Bartoe, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, and R. Tousey, "The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 44, 153–158 (1974).

Cheng, C. C.

K. G. Widing, and C. C. Cheng, "On the Fe XXIV Emission in the Solar Flare of 1973 June 15," Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 194, L111–L113 (1974).

Edlén, B.

B. Edlén, "Wellenlagen der Vakuumfunken spectren von Kohlenstoff, Stickstoff und Sauerstoff im extremen Ultraviolet," Z. Phys. 85, 85–106 (1933); also, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Ups. 9, 104 (1934).

Fano, U.

U. Fano, "Unified Treatment of Perturbed Series, Continuous Spectra, and Collisions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 979–987 (1975), and references therein.

U. Fano, "Quantum Defect Theory of l Uncoupling in H2 as an Example of Channel-Interaction Treatment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 353–365 (1970).

Ginter, M. L.

Greenstein, J. L.

P. C. Keenan, and J. L. Greenstein, "The Line Spectrum of R Coronae Borealis, λλ 3700–8600 Å," Contrib. Perkins Obs. Ser. 2, 13, 199–231 (1963).

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, "Ionization Potentials and Lamb Shifts of the Ground States of 4He and 3He, " Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 248, 309–332 (1958).

Johansson, L.

L. Johansson, "Spectrum and Term System of the Neutral Carbon Atom," Ark. Fys. 31, 201–235 (1965).

Junkes, J.

J. Junkes, E. W. Salpeter, and G. Milazzo, "Atomic Spectra in the Vacuum Ultraviolet, Part One," Specola Vaticana, PP. C1–C7 (1965).

Keenan, P. C.

P. C. Keenan, and J. L. Greenstein, "The Line Spectrum of R Coronae Borealis, λλ 3700–8600 Å," Contrib. Perkins Obs. Ser. 2, 13, 199–231 (1963).

Kelly, R. L.

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, "Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms," NRL Report 7599 (1973).

Kruger, P. G.

F. Paschen, and P. G. Kruger, "Das Bogen Spektrum des Kohlenstoffes C I," Ann. der Phys. 7, 1–8 (1930).

Lu, K. T.

K. T. Lu, "Spectroscopy and Collision Theory. The Xe Absorption Spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).

Milazzo, G.

J. Junkes, E. W. Salpeter, and G. Milazzo, "Atomic Spectra in the Vacuum Ultraviolet, Part One," Specola Vaticana, PP. C1–C7 (1965).

Moore, C. E.

C. E. Moore, "Selected Tables of Atomic Spectra CI, CII, CIII, C V, C VI," Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., Nat. Bur. Stand. 3, A 6 I-1–B6 I-13 (1970).

More, K. R.

K. R. More, and C. A. Rieke, "Wavelength Standards in the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. 50, 1054–1056 (1936).

Palumbo, L. J.

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, "Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms," NRL Report 7599 (1973).

Paschen, F.

F. Paschen, and P. G. Kruger, "Das Bogen Spektrum des Kohlenstoffes C I," Ann. der Phys. 7, 1–8 (1930).

Purcell, J. D.

J. -D. F. Bartoe, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, and R. Tousey, "The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 44, 153–158 (1974).

Rieke, C. A.

K. R. More, and C. A. Rieke, "Wavelength Standards in the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. 50, 1054–1056 (1936).

J. C. Boyce, and C. A. Rieke, "Provisional Wavelength Standards for the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. 47, 653–667 (1935).

Salpeter, E. W.

J. Junkes, E. W. Salpeter, and G. Milazzo, "Atomic Spectra in the Vacuum Ultraviolet, Part One," Specola Vaticana, PP. C1–C7 (1965).

Shenstone, A. G.

A. G. Shenstone, "The 5S State of Carbon," Phys. Rev. 72, 411–414 (1947).

Tilford, S. G.

Tousey, R.

C. M. Brown, S. G. Tilford, R. Tousey, and M. L. Ginter, "Absorption Spectrum of Si I Between 1500 and 1900 Å," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1665–1682 (1974).

R. Tousey, "The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Sun," Space Sci. Rev. 2, 3–69 (1963). (See, especially, p. 47.)

J. -D. F. Bartoe, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, and R. Tousey, "The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 44, 153–158 (1974).

Widing, K. G.

K. G. Widing, and C. C. Cheng, "On the Fe XXIV Emission in the Solar Flare of 1973 June 15," Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 194, L111–L113 (1974).

Wilkinson, P. G.

Ann. der Phys. (1)

F. Paschen, and P. G. Kruger, "Das Bogen Spektrum des Kohlenstoffes C I," Ann. der Phys. 7, 1–8 (1930).

Ark. Fys. (1)

L. Johansson, "Spectrum and Term System of the Neutral Carbon Atom," Ark. Fys. 31, 201–235 (1965).

Astrophys. J. (Lett.) (1)

K. G. Widing, and C. C. Cheng, "On the Fe XXIV Emission in the Solar Flare of 1973 June 15," Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 194, L111–L113 (1974).

Contrib. Perkins Obs. Ser. (1)

P. C. Keenan, and J. L. Greenstein, "The Line Spectrum of R Coronae Borealis, λλ 3700–8600 Å," Contrib. Perkins Obs. Ser. 2, 13, 199–231 (1963).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., Nat. Bur. Stand. (1)

C. E. Moore, "Selected Tables of Atomic Spectra CI, CII, CIII, C V, C VI," Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., Nat. Bur. Stand. 3, A 6 I-1–B6 I-13 (1970).

Phys. Rev. (5)

J. C. Boyce, and C. A. Rieke, "Provisional Wavelength Standards for the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. 47, 653–667 (1935).

K. R. More, and C. A. Rieke, "Wavelength Standards in the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. 50, 1054–1056 (1936).

A. G. Shenstone, "The 5S State of Carbon," Phys. Rev. 72, 411–414 (1947).

K. T. Lu, "Spectroscopy and Collision Theory. The Xe Absorption Spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).

U. Fano, "Quantum Defect Theory of l Uncoupling in H2 as an Example of Channel-Interaction Treatment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 353–365 (1970).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. (1)

G. Herzberg, "Ionization Potentials and Lamb Shifts of the Ground States of 4He and 3He, " Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 248, 309–332 (1958).

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

R. Tousey, "The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Sun," Space Sci. Rev. 2, 3–69 (1963). (See, especially, p. 47.)

Other (5)

J. -D. F. Bartoe, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, and R. Tousey, "The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 44, 153–158 (1974).

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, "Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms," NRL Report 7599 (1973).

C. M. Brown, S. G. Tilford, and M. L. Ginter, (to be published, 1976).

J. Junkes, E. W. Salpeter, and G. Milazzo, "Atomic Spectra in the Vacuum Ultraviolet, Part One," Specola Vaticana, PP. C1–C7 (1965).

B. Edlén, "Wellenlagen der Vakuumfunken spectren von Kohlenstoff, Stickstoff und Sauerstoff im extremen Ultraviolet," Z. Phys. 85, 85–106 (1933); also, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Ups. 9, 104 (1934).

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